Fragrant lilac bushes adorn many suburban areas. The aroma of lilac like many and resembles the smell from childhood. How to plant a lilac on your site to form a beautiful bush, pleasing its appearance and aroma? Depending on the selected variety can grow shrubs of various heights and shapes. The most common varieties of common lilac, once brought from the Balkan Peninsula. These varieties are unpretentious in the care and well going through the harsh Russian winters. However, for landscape design, you can choose specially bred terry varieties. Lilac varietal differs in the shape of inflorescences, the height of the bush and the density of the crown.
Where to plant a lilac?
Before you plant a lilac, you need to think carefully about its location. Experienced gardeners plant a lilac along the hedge, thereby closing the area from prying eyes. Picturesquely look bushes at a reservoir, being reflected in water and creating a double effect. For the lush blooming lush sunny land. In the penumbra, as in the sun, the number of inflorescences decreases sharply. The soil is suitable neutral or slightly alkaline, but not acidic. Drainage is very important, therefore a broken brick is laid at the bottom of a dug hole (size 40x40 cm), a mixture of humus or compost with sand is poured on top, a handful of superphosphate is added, a bucket of ash. On depleted soils, the width of the fossa should be 100x100 cm, and the entire soil is completely replaced by fertile.
How to plant a lilac in the prepared soil?
Despite the fact that this type of shrub is not demanding to grow and care, planting should still be done in cloudy, cool weather. The best time for transplanting is autumn, before the onset of the first frost. It is impossible to plant young saplings in the overwetted soil or dirt. The following steps describe how to plant a lilac:
- before planting the lilac, the hole is filled with drainage and filled with the prepared soil to the middle,
- the roots are lowered into the fossa, gently straighten and pour out the remaining soil, the plant should not be too deep, shallow planting is also contraindicated, since the upper roots can be drained,
- the soil needs to be slightly compacted, the edges of the hole should be raised by 20 cm,
- pour 4-5 buckets of water into the well, wait until it is absorbed,
- grind the soil under a bush with peat, mown hay or sawdust.
It is worth noting that the autumn planting in the ground is preferable to spring, because in autumn the bush will have time to take root, and after wintering, it will delight in flowering in the very first summer.
As mentioned above, soil acidity is important for lilac. Many gardeners have noticed that over time, the inflorescences change color, shrink. This means that the soil does not fit the shrub. On acidic soil, lilac can completely wither. You need to take care of making deoxidizers or wood ash.
In addition, the lilac needs watering and dressing, at least during flowering and before winter. Under the bushes brought rotted manure or humus.
You need to water the plant as the soil dries at the rate of 2 buckets per bush. If the summer was dry, in the fall produce water-charging irrigation.
Clean loose soil without weeds, always moist or mulched is the key to successful growth and beautiful lilac bloom!
Where to plant a lilac
The best conditions for lilacs are as follows: flat place, the soil is wetted, with good drainage and acidity, close to neutral, the passage of groundwater at least one and a half meters from the surface, sun illumination most of the day, shelter from drafts. Lilac does not grow in swampy or frequently flooded areas. In these cases, if there is no other possibility, it is planted on hills piled up following the example of an alpine slide.Sour soil before planting must be treated with lime or dolomite flour. Lilac tolerates partial shade, and in the shade it weakens, slows growth and development, blooms poorly and not abundantly. But on the illuminated place - it is a bright shrub with lush greens, strong shoots and many inflorescences.
In areas open to wind, especially in the cold season, lilac buds freeze, which affects flowering. Pick up for planting a warm sunny place, sheltered from the wind, for example, among perennial tall plants.
How to choose planting material
The solution to the question: how to dissolve the lilac on the plot, begins with the selection of a seedling A lilac sapling should have green leaves, well-branched root system with densely growing thin roots.The best age for a sapling is 2-3 years, the plant can be grafted and own-rooted, and the growth of a sapling is from 50 to 70 cm, the diameter of the root lobe is about 30 cm. Such plants tolerate transplant more easily and root more easily, their root system is less traumatized. Consider this for the future, when you dig up your own seedlings: the roots cannot be damaged, the seedling is dug with a clod of earth.
Lilac planting pattern
When planting, for a start, deal with the pit for the seedling: in fertile soil, the depth of the pit is equal to the length of the roots (up to 30 cm), on poor soils, the pit has a size of meter per meter. Lay drainage at the bottom of the pit (fragments of brick, large pebbles), fertilize with soil mixed with humus (15 kg), wood ash (200 g), superphosphate (30 g).
Further, the distance between the bushes depends on the form of landing. If you are planning a single landing, make a distance of 2 m, for a group - one and a half, and for a hedge a distance of one meter is permissible.Plant the bush, straighten the roots, leave the root neck at ground level, if you do not want a lot of root growth to develop, 2 cm above the ground level. If you plan to propagate overgrown - on the contrary, deepen the root neck. Powder the seedling with soil, compact around the trunk and pour. After the soil absorbs water, mulch with peat or other material.
When lilac pruning is neededThe optimal time - the period before the beginning of the movement of juices along the branches - is early spring. In the summer, only damaged or useless shoots are removed. When to prune the lilac, tell the calendar: in the summer, pruning results can be used as cuttings or grafts. After the flowering period, dry buds are carefully removed, try not to damage the leaves. Broken and dried branches can be removed from the bush during the entire period of development - flowering. Grafted plants are cleaned, mainly from abundant wild growth.
How to trim correctly
Forming a bush "under the natural" will look good against a background of rustic style in the garden. To form such a crown, create a base. The bush is formed from 3 - 4 stem branches, removing in the first year all crookedly growing and directed inward branches. If 2 approximately the same development branches are formed, which grow crosswise, one of them, the weaker one, is removed. The branches of the base are shortened by half the length, leaving buds oriented towards the growth direction of future branches.In the second year, all the branches that have grown inside the bush are pruned, annual shoots are cut to the buds, from which the shoots forming the shape will grow. The main task this year is to evenly grow a crown, without voids and chaotic directions. Once this is done, trimming is stopped. Next, you need to maintain shape, sometimes removing damaged or growing inside the branches, unnecessary shoots.
If there are many bushes, shaping can be made easier. The first couple of years to give the bush to grow freely, and then cut off all the weak, interfering with each other shoots, leaving strong. After flowering, you can neatly shorten the branches so that everyone looks the same.
To form a lilac in the form of a tree — a trunk — an annual bush is shortened at a height of a trunk, leaving 3-4 buds. Shoots that grow from these buds form just like a bush, laying the foundation of the crown. Next you need to cut off all the shoots in the area of the trunk and thin out the crown.
There are several ways to propagate lilac. Having understood them, each gardener will choose for himself more suitable.Seed collection occurs at the end of autumn in wet weather, so that the seeds do not accidentally wake up. The seed pods are dried for several days, shake the seeds out of them, removing the garbage.
Seeds need to be stratified:pour in wet sand, fall asleep in a container with holes at the bottom and send for 2 months to a room with a temperature of 0 to 5 degrees Celsius. In March, they are sown in a box with steamed soil (for the prevention of diseases). Depending on the variety, shoots appear after 10 days or 2-3 months.
When the second pair of leaves is formed, the sprouts swoop into the seedling boxes at a distance of 3 cm. They are planted in open ground in the month of May. You can sow under the winter snowy crust. Seeds are buried 1.5 cm in the ground, and in the spring they swoop into boxes and grow.
Lilac cuttings with lignified shoots does not produce results, it is rather an exception to the rules. Consider breeding green shoots. Harvest cuttings at the beginning of flowering. The stalk should have 1 internodes and 2 buds. The lower cut is done, departing 1 cm from the bud, the leaves are removed. For better rooting before planting, treat with a growth stimulator. Plant to a depth of 1 cm.Reproduction of lilac cuttings in the spring is also possible at home: rooting can be carried out in a container with a transparent lid. To do this, prepare a nutritious soil and coarse sand. The temperature should be maintained within 25-28 degrees of heat. Daily spray the sprouts from the sprayer with water. A month later, the roots are formed, and in the fall you can land on the ground in the ground, protecting from freezing.
The first seedlings are separated at the beginning of June before the shoot sprouting. Before separating, the soil around the donor bush should be moistened. Since the roots are still weak, conduct the procedure on an overcast day so that they do not dry out. The length of the roots should be 3-5 cm. At the bottom of the picking box, put wet sand or peat, plant seedlings there and sprinkle with water. Then land in a cold greenhouse at a distance of 5 cm.
The first 7 days the plants are under the film and sprayed twice a day. Then the film is removed, and watering occurs as needed. The optimal growing period is two growing periods. Then the bushes are planted in a permanent place. Care is to maintain the soil moisture and thin out if necessary. Soil pristvolnyh circles mulch.
Mass flowering of such bushes begins at 5-7 years of age. Despite the late flowering, this method of reproduction gives the bush longevity.
There are several methods of vaccination, let's talk about the most common of them.
Copulation - this is the method when the graft tissue and the rootstock most closely match. Stocks and scion shoots should be of the same thickness. Copulation is carried out at the root collar in the stem at the selected height and in the crown. Each branch of the skeleton is grafted separately. With proper performance of actions in 2.5 months the scion grows together.Copulation is simple, or oblique cut. held before the onset of sap flow. The cutting is cut at an angle of 45 degrees to 2 cm in length, a cut of the stock also. Graft pressed to the rootstock and tightly tied.
English copulation. The sections are made at an angle of 45 degrees to the longitudinal axis of the branches. To increase the area of contact and to connect the scion and stock more closely and firmly, longitudinal cuts are made in both sections.
Successful vaccination depends on weather conditions. In hot summer with a minimum amount of precipitation the rootstocks are watered a few days before the inoculation. Planted and grafted plants require frequent loosening and watering, mulching. Graft bushes, reaching the growth, it is desirable to tie up to the pegs. Proper planting and attentive care of lilacs will fill your site with delicate fragrance and lush purple or white.
Sections and views
The most famous, beloved and common - common lilac. In culture, this species shows significant variability, and it is to him that most varieties belong. The differences between them are primarily in the color, structure and size of flowers and inflorescences. There are some differences in the timing of flowering and aroma, in the height and shape of the bush, as well as in other signs that are not essential for the choice of variety. From the point of view of winter hardiness and requirements for growing conditions, they have almost no differences.
Common lilac is drought-resistant, frost-resistant and light-requiring. Both she and her varieties need drained soils with a neutral or slightly alkaline soil solution and cannot stand the close standing of groundwater at all.
Varietal variety of common lilac allows to satisfy the most demanding taste. The flowers of its varieties are much larger than the main species. They are both simple and terry with different number and relative position of the petals. Flowers are painted in different shades of mauve, are dark purple and white. There are varieties with a unique color - yellow, cream and even bordering. The inflorescences of lilac varieties are also much larger and varied in shape.
There are other species close to common lilac, but less known. Most like her lilac hyacinthsvet (S. × hyacinthiflora), which is a hybrid of broadleaf and common lilacs. Its varieties are almost indistinguishable from the common lilac varieties and are very close to them in terms of requirements for growing conditions, although they are slightly less winter-hardy. Many of them are distinguished by early flowering and purple autumn foliage coloring.
Early flowering broadleaf lilac (S. oblata), as well as lilacs Chinese (S. × chinensis) and Persian (S. × persica) are very decorative, but more demanding of growing conditions and less stable in the midland.
Hungarian Lilac - the most popular after common lilac and is grown almost everywhere. "Hungarian" refers to the section of the so-called Hairy lilac, in appearance it is noticeably different from the ordinary, but also quite beautiful and, most importantly, extremely stable. It is able to tolerate not only drought, but also the shedding, as well as the shading and gas pollution of the air, is very hardy.
Hairy lilacs resemble each other, and the most interesting among them are hybrid species - lilac preston (S. reflexa × S. villosa), josiflex (S. josikaea × S. reflexa) and varieties obtained from them. They are not as diverse as common lilac varieties, and are noticeably different only in the shape of the inflorescences and the color of the flowers, but then they bloom a couple of weeks later, they bloom richly and abundantly.
In places protected from cold winds, it is possible to grow rare lilacs with an unusual original look from the Peristolist section. This is a hybrid view. Lilac (S. × diversifolia) and its cultivar ‘William H. Judd’ with dissected leaves and white flowers.
All representatives of the section Fluffy lilacs differ quite compact in comparison with other lilacs, the size of the bushes (1.5–2 m), flowers and leaves. Their inflorescences are pretty and very fragrant, especially in lilacs. velvety (S. velutina, or patula) and Julia (S. julianae). Lilac small-leaved (S. microphylla) and Meier (S. meyeri) can be grown in miniature areas and in containers. For reliable wintering in the middle lane, it is desirable to cover them, especially Meyer’s lilac.
Tree lilacs, which are called Ligustrins, or Trescunas (Ligustrina), used to be distinguished into a separate genus. These lilacs are very large, 8 m or more in height and up to 5 m in width. They bloom very late, in July, with small creamy-white flowers with protruding yellow stamens, gathered in large and very decorative inflorescences with honey aroma. These lilacs are Amur (S. amurensis), mesh, or Japanese (S. reticulata, or japonica), and Beijing (S. pekinensis) - sufficiently resistant to frost, air pollution and excessive soil moisture, but drought is worse.
If the environmental requirements of lilac are taken into account, it will develop perfectly and bloom with little or no care. Failures in the cultivation of lilac are associated, first of all, with gross violations when choosing a landing site.
The ideal conditions for common lilac and its varieties can be described as follows:
● plot on a flat or gentle slope with good drainage,
● the occurrence of groundwater is not closer than 1.5 m from the surface,
● the soil is moderately wet and fertile,
● soil acidity close to neutral (pH 6.6–7.5),
● solar lighting most of the day,
● protection from prevailing cold winds.
In marshy or temporarily flooded low-lying areas, common lilac will not grow. In such cases, it is not planted in pits, but on bulk hills, arranged according to the Alpine slide principle.
On very heavy unstructured soils, lilac cannot develop normally, as, indeed, on too light sandy ones. Acidic soils need liming.
In the shade the lilac is drawn out, its flowering is weakened, or even absent. On open, blown spaces in harsh winters, flower buds can freeze over, especially if preceded by a warm, prolonged autumn.
Там, где позволяют размеры участка, кусты сирени сажают на расстоянии 2–3 м друг от друга или даже больше. К сожалению, чаще места не хватает. And yet the distance between the lilac bushes should not be less than 1.5 m. For a hedge it is permissible to reduce the distance. Lilac can be planted in small groups of 3-5 pieces. with a distance between bushes of about 1 m, but between the groups themselves need to withstand a distance of about 2.5–3 m. Often, looking at young seedlings, it is difficult to overcome the temptation to plant as many plants as possible on the site. But lilac is a large shrub, and for normal development it needs space. By the way, if the seedlings are really small, it is advisable to grow them on a separate garden bed, and plant them in a permanent place already when they reach a height of about a meter.
The time chosen for planting affects both the survival rate and the development of lilac for the first time after planting. Especially it concerns saplings with open root system. And to transplant adults, already flowering bushes is permissible, but only in favorable terms. The optimal time for planting lilac - from mid-August to late September. At this time, no special events are required, one-time irrigation is enough for planting. If you did not have time to plant until late autumn, then it is better to plant the seedlings in a sheltered place until spring.
In spring, lilacs can be planted, in principle, but the sooner the better - before the awakening of the buds. Since the main obstacle to early planting is the impossibility of tillage, it is advisable to prepare the pit in advance in the fall. After spring planting, the “new” lilac should be watered, especially if the weather is dry. Flower buds, if any, should be removed. So lilac take root better. Modern drugs will help - “Kornevin”, “Zircon”, “Epin”, etc.
The worst thing to replant lilac during flowering. Even with regular watering and spraying with the use of stimulants, protection from the sun and wind, the survival rate of seedlings is greatly reduced, they are “sick” longer, resulting in a weak increase in shoots and inadequate flowering in the first years after planting.
On suitable cultivated soils, lilacs are simply planted in a hole corresponding to the size of the seedling's root system. The less fertile the soil is, the larger the hole is dug with respect to the size of the roots and soil additives are added to it - compost, sand, neutralized peat - depending on the initial qualities of the soil. It is useful to add ash and / or dolomite flour, which not only reduces the acidity of the soil, but also contains valuable nutrients. It is also good to add superphosphate or phosphate or bone meal. Additives are mixed with the top layer of soil from the pit and the lilac roots are poured with this mixture.
When refueling the landing pit, it is important to ensure that there is not a very big difference in the mechanical composition of the surrounding soil and the prepared substrate, otherwise rain and melt water will be collected in the pit.
Do not use fertilizers with a high nitrogen content, including bird droppings and fresh manure. Instead of wood ash, you can make potassium sulfate or complex fertilizer with an increased content of potassium and phosphorus.
Usually the lilac is planted to such a depth that the root neck is at ground level. Your own lilac, including tissue culture, can be planted a little deeper. This stimulates the development of additional roots.
So that the lilac grafted on a common lilac seedling has as little of the “wild” seedlings as possible, plant it in such a way that the root collar is at the level of the soil or 2–3 cm higher and the inoculation site is correspondingly higher.
Varieties of lilac ordinary, grafted on Hungarian lilacs or Turquoise, are short-lived, and they are recommended to be translated into "own roots". For this, the vaccination site during planting, on the contrary, is deepened (although this does not guarantee the rooting of the scion).
Top dressing and watering
With a good filling of the planting pit with nutritional supplements for 2-3 years, fertilizing is not required. In the future, to increase the growth of bushes annually in the spring nitrogen fertilizers are applied, and for better flowering - phosphate and potash fertilizers once every two or three years after their flowering. Nitrogen under the lilac can not be made in the second half of the growing season, as well as too high doses. This, firstly, provokes an excessive growth of lilac shoots, which do not have time to mature well and can freeze in winter. Secondly, with an excess of nitrogen lilac blooms worse. All of the above applies not only to mineral fertilizers, but also to manure, bird droppings and other organic sources of nitrogen.
Watering need lilacs only in the first year after planting - if it is hot, dry weather. An adult lilac that has already settled down in a permanent place is watered only in case of a strong drought.
Forming and trimming
Blooming lilac - a favorite of any garden. But after fading, though not completely, it still loses its appeal and looks like Cinderella to the very cold. The natural form of the lilac bushes is not too neat, they tend to thicken, from which eventually suffers and flowering. So that they are always beautiful and neat, you will need an initial shaping and regular supporting pruning.
It is best to cut the lilac in the spring before the start of sap flow, but you can also in the summer, cutting off or simply breaking out unnecessary shoots. During summer pruning, the removed shoots can be used as green cuttings for rooting or as a graft material for summer budding. At the end of flowering, it is useful to remove wilted inflorescences, but only very carefully, so as not to damage the shoots nearest to them with leaves, on which new flower buds should be laid. Broken and dried branches cut out throughout the year. In grafted plants throughout the season, it is necessary to remove the “wild” growth as it appears.
Autumn formation of lilac in the middle lane is undesirable, since the wood in the area of fresh cuts can freeze in the winter.
In landscaped and country-style gardens, it would be most appropriate to look like lilac, shaped like a natural shrub, that is, like a plant that simply corresponds in habitat to the characteristics of a particular variety, but devoid of defects arising from spontaneous development. This way of forming is convenient because the result makes a good impression, and it is easy to cut such a bush. Its meaning is to help branches evenly fill the space allotted to them by nature, preventing them from competing with each other.
For a start, create a strong symmetrical skeleton. A narrow vertical shrub is formed from 3-4 skeletal branches-trunks, wide sprawling - from 5-6. In the first year, all weak and curved, directed to the center of the crown and damaged branches are removed from the sapling. Of the two intersecting branches and competing branches (having approximately the same development and direction of growth), leave one. The main skeletal branches are shortened by 1 / 2–1 / 3 length so that their ends are approximately at the same level. At the same time, the buds over which the cut is made should be oriented to the place where the future shoots are supposed to be sent.
If the bush is weak and not very branchy, a short pruning can stimulate the development of strong growth, and the formation of the skeleton can be postponed for the next year. In grafted seedlings, a cut is made over the 3-4th pair of buds above the grafting site.
Own-rooted lilacs can be cut at any convenient height, even at ground level.
In the second year, the entire growth directed inside the crown is cut out, leaving only the strongest forks at the top of the skeletal branches. Annual growths are shortened to half the length of the buds, from which it is desirable to get shoots. The same is repeated in the third year. As soon as the goal — to uniformly fill the volume of the crown without voids and thickening — is reached, the shortening is stopped. Lilac flower buds are on the tops of the shoots of last year's growth, usually the strongest, located in the upper part of the crown, so they are not shortened in adult plants so as not to disrupt flowering.
In the future, it remains only to maintain its shape, not allowing the bush to thicken and age prematurely. If the crown is laid correctly, it will not make any problems. Annually remove all unwanted growths, based on the same principles as when forming.
If there are a lot of lilac bushes, they can be arranged in the form of a beautiful lilac thickets, resembling a natural one. Such a thicket can carry the function of a free-growing hedge or screen. For this planted lilac, the first few years let it grow freely. In the future, remove broken, drying, rubbing against each other branches. Emerging shoots are thinned out, leaving only the strongest and well-located.
Landings of lilac with the effect of "naturalness" do not require special care, they do not have to be cut off annually, only as needed. Aging plants of lilac begin to bloom worse and produce small shoots. They can be rejuvenated by removing the oldest trunks in turn. In own-rooted plants, they are cut at the base. In grafted lilacs, the trunks are only shortened to suitable branches, in order not to accidentally cut off the entire graft.
For use as a tapeworm, only a particularly well-formed shrub, or better, stem lilac, is suitable. Lilac, distinguished by its elegant form, decorative and after flowering, suitable even for planting in the ceremonial places of the garden.
To form a lilac in the form of a tree — on a trunk — a strong-growing one-year-old sapling is shortened at a height equal to the intended height of a trunk plus 3-4 pairs of well-developed buds. From the shoots produced by these buds, lay the crown, using the same techniques as for the formation of bushes. In the future, it is necessary to promptly remove all shoots appearing in the thorny zone, that is, below the skeletal branches of the crown. Krona, like the bushes, is thinned annually.
Diseases and pests
Natural lilac species are fairly resistant to diseases and pests. To a lesser extent, but also its varieties are quite stable. However, their sustainability may decrease if agronomic rules are not observed. For example, with deep planting on heavy soils, lilacs can suffer from fusarium and vascular wilt. Necrosis and leaf spots, root rot appear in case of malnutrition (lack of potassium). Excessive dryness favors the development of powdery mildew. On acidic and waterlogged soils, as well as with an excess of nitrogen and mechanical damage, stump and shoots rot can be observed.
Among infectious diseases, bacterial rot and phytopathogenic fungi are dangerous for lilacs. Against them use drugs containing copper, and various fungicides.
Bacterial wilt and viral diseases, such as mosaics, leaf curling, ring stains, cannot be treated. If the lilac bushes die off, starting from the tops, the leaves brighten and fall, twist and become brittle, or bright fuzzy or ring-shaped spots appear on them, then such plants are uprooted and burned. The soil after them must be disinfected or replaced, and the lilac is no longer planted there. Cuttings and seeds from plants infected with viruses and bacteria cannot be used.
Of the pests are more common lilac motley moth, lilac kidney mite and apple treeworm shchitovki, although they can harm other butterflies, scale insects and mites. To combat them, insecticides and acaricides are allowed for use in personal farms.
Selection of seedlings and planting dates
When purchasing seedlings, be sure to ask what kind of lilac, rooted own or grafted, is for sale. The advantage of the latter in the imminent flowering after planting, after 1-2 years, you can admire the beautiful flowering bushes under the window. Lack of grafted lilac is manifested in the possibility of vaccination damage (frost, rodents), then the plant may die completely.
Own-rooted seedlings are most suitable for growing at the dacha, garden plots, such a lilac has no flaws. The only difficulty in growing, the formation of crown and a longer wait for flowering. Long life expectancy and the ability to restore a variety of shoots are an indisputable advantage of own-rooted plants.
The question of when it is better to plant lilacs is firmly answered by specialists, from the third week of August until the end of September. In the southern regions of the country (Astrakhan, Volgograd regions, in the Kuban), the time of planting seedlings shifts closer to October, November. In the central regions (Bryansk, Vladimir, Moscow, Ivanovo, Ryazan, Tula regions), landing is carried out in September and October.
It is necessary to focus on the climatic conditions of the planting zone and the state of the plants. You must wait until the end of the growing season, but planting is not allowed after dropping the leaves. Shrub, in a state of rest, well tolerate planting, rooted before the arrival of winter days. The exception is large-sized bushes, which can be transplanted in winter under certain conditions.
Lilac - landing in the summer and in the fall
The right place for planting lilac will provide beautiful flowering, healthy growth and plant vitality for many years. A bright sunny plot without the close location of groundwater is perfect for young saplings and adult lilac trees. The shrub grows well on soils with a neutral, slightly acid reaction, acidic soil is detrimental to the root system.
The lilac pit is an important component for normal development in the early years, it is advisable to make it steep, the approximate dimensions are 50 ∗ 50 ∗ 50 centimeters. The determining factor when digging is the root system of plants, under which the dimensions of the pit are selected. Depleted, poor in trace elements of the soil, require digging a larger pit than the size of the lilac roots, to be able to make a good nourishing soil.
Heavy clay soils require additional laying of drainage to the bottom of the pit, use broken bricks, small pebbles, large river sand. The next layer is filled with the prepared soil mixture consisting of fertile soil, compost, and complex mineral fertilizers. Sandy light soil diluted with clay or fertile humus soil. The mechanical composition of the prepared soil should not differ much from the adjacent soil; the landing pit risks turning into a bog for collecting water.
Depth of planting is selected depending on the planting material. Seedlings are planted at the level of the root collar with soil. Cultivated grafted lilac varieties are planted, leaving the cervix a couple centimeters higher, the need for such planting is determined by the goal to minimize wild growing seedlings.
Kornes own sunshine is planted flush with the ground or buried a few centimeters, the growth of additional roots is activated and there will be an opportunity to grow full-fledged planting material. Lilac grafted on Hungarian or Turquoise, short-lived, it is recommended to plant with the depth of the grafting site, but there is no guarantee of rooting of the scion.
At what distance to plant a lilac?
It is advisable to plant lilac at a distance of 1.5-2 meters. Growing shrubs form according to their own taste: to obtain a beautiful tree, all root growth and shoots growing on strong large branches are cut. To give a neat crown and stimulate flowering, weak, diseased, damaged branches are removed.
Depending on the design decisions and goals, for a hedge the distance is narrowed to 1 meter, 1.5-2 meters are left in the alleys, 2-3 meters are needed for free growth of the shrub on each side. When growing a hedge of lilac root leaves are left, young shoots eventually fill the voids between the trees.
It is possible to get a beautiful lilac hedge with constant and uniform pruning of the tops of trees growing side shoots. After a few years, you will get a beautiful green fence, minus the lilac hedge is a weak flowering due to the constant mowing of shoots and branches. It is possible to achieve lush flowering and thick green shoots, leaving uncut trees through 2-2.5 meters.
Description and variety
Amateur gardeners often wonder: lilac is a tree or shrub. It has a definite answer - lilac is deciduous shrub with many trunks, which grows from 2 to 8 meters in height with a trunk thickness of up to 20 cm, so many consider it a tree.
Lilac leaves are covered in early spring and they remain green until late autumn. In appearance, leaves of different varieties have an elongated oval, ovate, heart-shaped form with a sharp top of a light or dark green color.
It counts about 30 varieties of lilac, that grow in homesteads, in gardens, parks and just outside.
The most suitable for growing in the country is common lilac, which has been cultivated since 1583 and today is represented by four main varieties with the following description:
- "Red Moscow" - has purple-purple buds and blooming fragrant flowers of a dark purple shade, measuring about 2 centimeters,
- «Виолетта» — высаживается с 1916 года как сорт с бутонами темно-фиолетового оттенка и махровыми или полумахровыми светло-фиолетовыми цветами, размером до 3 см,
- «Примроуз» — сирень, которая имеет светло-желтые цветки и зеленовато-желтые бутоны,
- «Белисент» — вырастает в виде прямых и высоких кустов со слегка гофрированными листьями овальной формы и сильно пахнущими соцветиями кораллово-розового цвета, размером около 30 см.
- амурская - multi-trunk shrub, which is easy to take for a tree, as it grows in nature up to 20 m high, and in culture up to 10 meters. The leaves, in color, in the stage of blooming in spring are colored greenish-purple, and in summer, in a mature state, they are dark green above and light green below. By the fall are purple or yellow-orange. Flowers, smelling honey, white or cream-colored, are collected in large panicles up to 25 cm in size,
- Hungarian - a shrub that grows up to 7 meters, which has dark green shiny leaves with ciliated edges about 12 cm in size. The flowers are small, with a barely perceptible aroma, gathered in panicles with a division into tiers. The species is represented by two garden forms: red (red-purple flowers) and pale (soft purple flowers),
- Persian - A hybrid of Afghan and melkonadrezovannoy lilac. It grows up to 3 meters in height and has dense and thin leaves up to 7.5 cm long, green in color. The fragrant flowers of light purple color are collected in broad panicles. In culture, the species is represented by three forms: rassechennolistnaya, white, red,
- Chinese - A hybrid of ordinary and Persian lilac, which was bred in 1777 in France. It grows up to 5 meters in height. It has 10-centimeter leaves and 2-centimeter flowers with a pleasant aroma, which are gathered in panicles up to 10 cm in size pyramidal shape. The best-known forms are: double (purple color of flowers), pale purple, dark purple,
- hyacinth - The result of the crossing of common and broad-leaved lilac, which was conducted by Victor Lemoine in 1899. The leaves of the plant are a dark green heart or egg-shaped with a pointed top. In early autumn, they turn brown with a purple tinge. Flowers are ordinary, but grouped in small inflorescences. It is represented by the following forms: Esther Staley, Churchill, Young Glory.
When choosing a place to plant a lilac on your site The following parameters should be considered:
- the intensity and duration of natural light,
- soil type and composition
- the size of the designated area for growth, development and nutrition of the plant.
Lighting and location
Lilac is an unpretentious plant, and special conditions it is not required. The most suitable place for its landing will be the site located on a plain or a small slope with solar lighting throughout the day. Shrubs planted in the shade will not be lush, their development is slow, and flowering is very weak or absent altogether.
Soil for the bush
All are suitable for lilac cultivated garden soil. Where there are fruit trees, berry bushes, ornamental plants, lilac will feel good.
Don't fit her heavy unstructured and high acidity soils. Acidic soil is neutralized with lime, dolomite flour or ash, but this tool will have to be applied annually.
Temporarily flooded, marshy or lowland areas are not suitable for lilacs. In such landscapes, it is necessary to create a bulk hill for each bush, rather than a traditional pit, as in a normal planting.
Is problematic and clay soil. But planting is possible under the condition of loosening the seat with the help of sand, neutralized peat, leaf humus or other organic additives. But since the clay does not allow moisture to pass through, it should be ensured that rainwater does not accumulate in such a site in a pit prepared for growth. High humidity areas are detrimental to this plant.
When planting lilacs in open ground and further caring for it, it is important to consider not only the design ideas for decorating your plot, but also the actual needs of the plant itself.
For normal growth and development of the bush will need free space in the form of a circle with a diameter of at least 4 meters. But as in the summer cottage, as a rule, there is not very much space, it’s permissible minimum distance:
- when planting in groups - 2-2.5 m between the trunks,
- with row landing - 1.5-2 m,
- in the form of a hedge - 1 meter.
Selection of seedlings
Lilac saplings can be purchased in two varieties - own-rooted and grafted.
For novice gardeners, the first option is more appropriate. More often, it is presented in the form of cuttings or root offspring of own-lilac, sometimes - as rooted cuttings.
Varietal grafted seedlings receive from common lilac, Hungarian or privet. The first are considered the best, because they grow and bloom without problems for decades. Others may give an unexpected rejection of a grafted variety in a few years.
The most suitable time for the landing of lilac is cut from the second half of August to the end of September. During this period, the plant begins to prepare for the transition to winter dormancy, but for successful rooting, there are still enough warm days left before the onset of winter.
When planting lilacs in late autumn, a month before the first frost should take care of plant protection. To do this, immediately after the planting irrigation, it is necessary to fill the irrigation circle with a loose insulating material, such as dry leaves, sawdust, dried peat. The thickness of the layer must be impressive - 20 cm or more.
Spring planting should begin as early as possible and always before the appearance of deciduous buds on the branches. In this case, the pit for landing should be prepared in the autumn. Experts do not recommend planting lilac in the spring, as it will take much more effort on successful rooting than when planting in the fall.
Pits for planting seedlings prepared before planting for 2.5-3 weeks. For a two to four-year-old plant, a deepening in the soil with a diameter of 45-50 cm and a depth of 40-45 cm is sufficient.
The pit is filled with the usual soil, which is added to the humus, rotted manure or dry peat. Up to 20 kg of such organic fertilizers will be required for one pit. For sandy soils, dolomite flour is required, since it contains magnesium, which is usually absent in sandstones. A decrease in soil acidity is achieved by adding 2-2.5 kg of tuff lime.
Together with organic additives the following mineral fertilizers are applied:
- granular superphosphate - 0.7-0.9 kg,
- potassium sulfate - 150 g,
- phosphate or bone meal - 0.3 kg,
- wood ash - 700-900 g.
Fertilizers are mixed with the main soil in such a way that the main part of them is located in the lower layers of the filled pit.
Scheme and technology
Before planting, the roots should be inspected, and if they are damaged - trim them carefully. Before planting, the entire root system should be treated with a talker — clay based on water mixed with manure.
Before placing the plant in the pit, a conical hill is created in its center, reaching a height of almost to the general level of the surface. When the seedling is placed on it, the roots are evenly spread in all directions in a circle from the base.
With a natural subsidence of fresh soil bush dives into the soil, so its root neck after planting should go 4-6 cm from the soil.
Having filled up the ground to the desired level, it should be compacted, gently trampling with its feet from the edges to the trunk. Then a circle is formed of the earth in the form of a bulk roller with a height of 15 to 20 cm with the formation of a hole that will hold water during precipitation and watering.
Common lilacs require not only proper planting, but also further care, aimed at the dynamic development of the plant. The main actions are timely watering, regular feeding and pruning.
The first half of the summer watering should be abundant. (up to 30 liters per 1 sq. meter). This is especially true in arid hot weather. In the future, until the fall, watering is required only in the event of a steady drought. Excessive watering at this time leads to the emergence of new shoots that can freeze in winter.
The first year of watering is carried out only in the area of the landing pit. With the increase in the size of the bush, the irrigation zone is expanded.
Irrigation rates are determined by the location of the bushes. For example, a bush located in a sunny, well-blown place requires a greater volume of water, since intensive evaporation occurs under such conditions.
In spring and summer, the crown is washed with a spray jet of water under pressure from a hose to remove dust and dirt accumulated on the lower levels from the sheets.
To replenish the fertility of the soil on which the bushes grow, additional fertilizing is carried out annually.
The first feeding is done in early spring, when the first young shoots appear. It includes mineral fertilizers, the number of which is indicated for one bush:
- ammonium nitrate (20-30 g),
- superphosphate (30 g),
- potassium chloride (15-20 g).
The second feeding will be needed in the middle of summer in the form of mineral fertilizers dissolved in 10 liters of water:
- ammonium nitrate (10-15 g),
- superphosphate (40-50 g),
- potassium chloride (25-30 g).
If you do not deal with pruning, the height of common lilac can reach significant sizes: from 2 to 4 meters. At the dacha such bushes will take up a lot of space, so every year you should remove young shoots, cut out shoots that grow below the branches of the main crown, weak and dry branches - this is how the crown is formed. The height of the plant is regulated for several years, pruning in the spring before bud break, branches are directed along the growth vertically. Lilac normally tolerates such pruning, constantly releasing new shoots.
Possible diseases and pests
The main problems of lilac are lilac miner moth and bacterial necrosis.
Covering the leaves with brown spots with their further desiccation in the form of rolled tubes indicates that lilac is struck by a mining moth. The following year, sick bushes practically do not bloom. This threat comes with the arrival of summer, when butterflies fly out to lay their eggs on the lower sides of the leaves. A week later, caterpillars appear. By the middle of summer, they fall to the ground and begin to pupate in the upper layers of the soil.
A deep, up to 20 centimeters, digging in the spring and autumn, with the obligatory turning of deep earth layers helps to eliminate such a problem. If the damage to the leaves is small, they should be removed and burned.
Bacterial necrosis appears in early August. In this case, the leaves turn gray, and the shoots become brown in color. This disease can be transmitted by watering, from insects, along with seedlings, with injuries. The causative agent in the offseason is in diseased shoots and dry fallen leaves.
It will be possible to defeat this disease only in case of timely removal of the affected leaves, cutting of diseased shoots with their subsequent burning. Shrubs that are affected by more than 40% need to uproot and burn.