Rudbeckia is a bright representative of the Astrovye family. The birthplace of the flower is North America. Plants of the genus are different decorative, long flowering and resistance to the scorching sun. Rudbecks are well combined with most garden crops, so they are widely used in landscape design.
The scientific name of the genus was given by the Swedish naturalist Karl Linnaeus - the creator of the unified classification system of the plant world. Linnae wanted to perpetuate the name of his teacher Olof Rudbek and named beautiful flowers in his honor.
Varieties of plants are grown as annuals, biennials and perennial crops. Different species differ in height, shape of leaves and size of inflorescences. Distinctive feature - a convex receptacle, often colored dark and resembling a cone.
The genus consists of about 40 species. Plants are used to decorate parks and gardens from the 17th century. Produced many beautiful hybrid varieties.
Popular species for cultivation and breeding:
- Hairy Rudbeckia
- Grasping rudbeckia
- Bicolor Rudbeckia
- Brilliant Rudbeckia
- Dissected Rudbeckia
- West Rudbeckia
- Giant rudbeckia
- Glossy Rudbeckia
- Hybrid rudbeckia
Hairy rudbeckia (hirt): varieties
Rudbeckia hirt cultivated since the end of the XVII century. On its basis, many ornamental plants have been bred, including two-color orebeckia, which is now considered a separate species.
Plants of the species have erect, pubescent stems, branched or simple. The leaves are hairy and dentate, basal - ovate. Inflorescences - medium and large single baskets.
- Indian summer ("Indian Summer" or "Indian Summer") - annual plants up to 45 cm in height. Golden-yellow petals at the edges, and closer to the center of the inflorescence have a thick red-brown color. The central part is brown with a purple tinge.
- Marmalade. One of the few species of hairy orebecky, which is cultivated in perennial culture. Short, up to 40 cm plant, like a chamomile. Ligulate petals are colored in golden and yellow-orange tones. The middle of the flower is dark brown. The inflorescences are large, reach 14 cm in diameter. Rudbeckia "Marmalade" blooms from mid-June until the most frost.
- Goldflamme. A miniature variety about 25 cm high. Compact bush, Simple, medium-sized inflorescences - 10–12 cm. The middle of a flower is brown-red, of a beautiful shade.
- Goldstrum. High annual (50–70 cm) with dark green, hard leaves. Large inflorescences (14–15 cm in diameter), petals of bright yellow color, center dark. Blooms continuously and abundantly.
- Sonora. Annual plant that forms a dense bush with a height of 30–40 cm. The inflorescences are large. Ligulate petals bright, golden-yellow with a limb and burgundy border. The disc flowers in the center are dark brown, forming a convex middle.
Annual plant with pubescent leaves and stems. Inflorescence medium size (8 cm), marginal petals bright yellow or orange. Tubular petals form a high - up to 2 cm, convex core of the flower.
Popular variety - Autumn Forest (Herbstwald). Plant up to 70 cm tall, bushy, lush. Single or double-row tongue petals, motley, bright orange or yellow, sometimes darker - red-brown shade. The tubular petals are dark, brown or black-brown. Inflorescences are small - only 6–7 cm in diameter.
Brilliant rudbeckia: varieties
Rudbeckia radiant or shiny (Rudbeckia fulgida) - A perennial plant that tolerates wintering well. Blossoms from July to August. The diameter of the inflorescence is 8–12 cm, the flowers are yellow or yellow-orange with a dark purple center.
Variety - Rudbeckia fulgida var. Variabilis. High - up to 75 cm, perennial plant. Orange baskets are medium in size (9–10 cm). It blooms from July to August for about 40 days.
Goldsturm - "Golden fever". High perennial - up to 75 cm, with orange buds.
Goldstar - "Golden Star", a plant up to 60 cm tall. The flowers are golden yellow, 11–12 cm, with a convex center of brown. It blooms for 40–45 days, begins to bloom in late July.
Rudbeckia dissected - golden balls
Rudbeckia dissected (Rudbeckia laciniata) is a perennial plant that grows up to 2.2 m. Forms an branched shrub with a powerful root system. The flowers are double or semi-double, medium size (9-14 cm). It is frost-resistant, winters without shelter.
Goldball - perennial tall plant. Forms lush bushes with numerous terry inflorescences of bright yellow color. Yellow-green tubular flowers are few or absent. The diameter of the inflorescences is 9–10 cm. Popular variety. Needs a prop. Flowering begins in early July.
Goldkwelle - perennial 100–120 cm high. The leaves are shiny, dense, dark shade of green color. Terry inflorescences, large (12–14 cm), golden yellow in color. It blooms continuously from June to October.
Rudbeckia glossy: popular varieties
Rudbeckia nitida - a powerful perennial plant with strong shoots and roots. Does not need a support, although it can reach a height of 2.3–2.5 m. The leaves are oblong, shiny, inflorescences with a diameter of 9–12 cm.
The most famous varieties:
Golden Shield (Goldschirm) - Branched perennial plant. Very high (up to 2.5 m). Lanceolate, brilliant leaves of light green color. The baskets of the inflorescences reach 12 cm in diameter. The marginal petals are bright yellow, and the tubular ones are light green. Blossoms 50-60 days.
“Autumn Sun” (Herbstsonne) is a perennial up to two meters high. The marginal flowers are simple, yellow, they are strongly bent downwards and give the inflorescence a roundness.
A large number of hybrids obtained on the basis of hairy, glossy and dissected orebeckia. The varieties obtained on the basis of all three species are divided into a separate subspecies: “Rudbeckia hybrid” (Rudbeckia hybrida). All hybrid varieties are unpretentious, grow on soils of any type and tolerate high temperatures and bright sun.
- Rudbeckia Mokka is a tetraploid variety. Large inflorescences reach 20 cm in diameter. Petals with bright, wide strokes on a yellow background. It blooms for a long time and very abundantly. Grade "Mocha" is often used in landscape design when you make flower gardens and flowerpots.
- Gloriosa Daisy (Gloriosa Desy) - tetraploid perennial variety. The plant is up to 110–120 cm high. Flower baskets are located on long peduncles, reach a size of 15–17 cm. Petals are located in 2–3 rows and have curved pointed edges. The color range is from yellow to red-brown. Propagated by seeds. For flowering in the first year should be planted seedlings.
- Cherry Brandy. Hybrid hairy orebeckia is grown in both annual and perennial culture. When late sowing seeds bloom in the second year, successfully overwintering. For early and bright flowering cultivated as a biennial. The variety has a very impressive color - bright cherry edge petals and a dark core. Inflorescence of medium size. "Cherry Brandy" blooms from July until frost. In the biennial culture begins to bloom at the very beginning of June.
- Toto varieties are a hybrid series of hairy rudbeckia, miniature annual plants with rather large flowers. The height of the stem does not exceed 25–35 cm. The inflorescences are bright, yellow and orange-yellow. Disc flowers of rich chocolate color. Single large baskets on high peduncles. Blossoms until frost.
- Variety "Moroccan Sun" (Maroccan Sun) - terry hybrid with flowers of different sunny shades. Compact shrub up to 45 cm. Petals of flowers elongated, inflorescences resemble chrysanthemum flowers.
- The variety "Maya" (Maya) is a hybrid annual plant of hairy rudbeckia. Branched stem of medium height. Baskets are single, terry, golden yellow. The conical disk is small, almost imperceptible. Inflorescences are lush and large.
Rudbeks do not lose their decorativeness and attractiveness even in late autumn. The leaves retain a bright color after the first frost, and tall stems with bulging receptacles give a unique charm to the autumn garden.
Perennial rudbeckia is a very unpretentious bush. At the same time it has a great color. The plant belongs to the aster family. His homeland is considered North and South America. It got its name thanks to the Swedish botanist Olof Rudbek, who discovered the plant.
Rudbeckia was brought to Europe by immigrants. She immediately earned great popularity among gardeners. She began to grow everywhere. And this is not surprising. After all, the plant is perfectly combined with group plantings. It harmoniously looks in a single version. Today, the bush is often used to design the background of flower beds. With the help of tall varieties, designers equip sites of fences, fences, buildings.
Rudbeckia has strong stems and begins to bloom in mid-July. It pleases with its beautiful view before the onset of the first frosts. The inflorescences of the plant resemble chamomile. However, from the usual flower Rudbeckia differs in size and color. Basket-inflorescences can vary in diameter within 9-17 cm. It depends on the type of plant.
Rudbeckia is characterized by bright, saturated tones:
The height of the bush depends on the variety of the plant. Some varieties reach 50 cm. Others can stretch up to 250 cm. They are quite diverse in plants and leaves.
Depending on the type of rudbeckia, they can be:
- narrow lanceolate,
- pinnately dissected
Today, more than 300 varieties of rudbeckia are known. They are all widely used in ornamental gardening. At the same time there are annual and perennial plants. These species differ among themselves in the size of the inflorescences, the shape and height of the bush.
Consider the most common types of perennial rudbeckia. They are most often used by gardeners.
These flowers will “warm” with their golden yellow radiance. They have a brown heart. A distinctive feature of this variety is the unusual placement of petals. They are arranged in several rows. It provides inflorescence pomp. Their diameter is approximately 10 cm.
This group includes the most tall plants. Rudbeckia perennial can reach 2.5 meters.
These plants bloom in July. But at the same time with its beautiful views will delight to deep frosts.
The most famous and common variety is the Golden Ball.
These varieties have amazing colors that contain long yellow petals. The core is green. Inflorescences reach a diameter of 12 cm.
These are tall varieties of Rudbeckia. The stem can grow up to 2 meters. Up such a bush forks.
These varieties, like all other species, bloom in July. They retain their beautiful view through September.
A distinctive feature of these varieties of rudbeckia are dissected, light green and at the same time shiny leaves.
The following varieties are popular:
Rudbeckia perennial completely unpretentious. It can even grow in uncultivated or clayey earth. But, unfortunately, to get beautiful bushes with many flowers, in this case will not work. Therefore, it is recommended to prepare a more fertile and loose soil. Every year, the soil must be fertilized with humus or organic compounds.
For planting plants, it is better to choose lighted, windless areas. Although the bush can grow in partial shade. Rudbeckia normally tolerates heat. It recovers quickly after a short-term drought.
But the plant loves water. Therefore, it is recommended to provide abundant and regular watering. If the drought is frequent, the bushes will grow, but they will not become lush. And the flowers are significantly reduced in size. The plant feels best if the ground is always wet.
Feeding of rudbeckia is done at the beginning of its development. It is recommended to use complex mineral fertilizer. This composition is diluted in the following proportions: 1 bucket of water - 1 tbsp. l mixes. At 1 square meter will need 3 liters of the prepared solution.
Rudbeckia brilliant (radiant)
Frost-resistant perennial plant with straight stems, elongated, narrowed leaves, flowers up to 9 cm in diameter, which are created from red and orange flowers and collected in star-shaped inflorescences.
Brilliant rudbeckia – the plant is miniature, its height is only 60 cm. One of the varieties of rudbeckia is brilliant - rudbeckia variabilis, whose flowers are yellow-orange and bright, and in the middle - scarlet. Goldstar and Goldsturm varieties are also widespread with golden flowers and a pronounced brown center.
Flowering lasts from June to October. He likes sunny places, grows well on nutrient drained soils, and tolerates drought poorly. Also, Rudbeckia needs mineral fertilizer, regular disposal of weeds, removal of dried leaves and dried flowers, and pruning for the winter to the ground. Propagated by division or seed.
Important!Low-growing varieties of rudbeckia can be grown in tubs on balconies and terraces, then flowering will last the whole summer and end in mid-September.
The distribution area is North America. Large architectural perennial with bluish-green leaves, covered with a wax coating, bright yellow reed flowers, with dark tubular petals that form the original oblong cones. The height of giant rudbeckia is 120-150 cm.
Blooms in late July, blooms until early September. The plant is frost-resistant and rather drought-resistant, the best place for giant rudbeckia - with direct sunlight or partial shade. After flowering, flower stalks should be trimmed to give the plant a neater look. The advantage is that the plant is well worth the cut. Also giant rudbeckia looks great in the garden.
Perennial drought-resistant herb, reaching a height of 1.5 m. In its inflorescences there are no reed flowers, orebeckia flowers are cone-shaped or cone-shaped, surrounded by green leaves, bracts.
This species was introduced into culture in 2002. In the garden market you can find only two varieties - this is the Green Wizard (Green Wizard) and Black Beauty (Black Beauty). The flowering period of western Rudbeckia is from mid-June to September.
This variety is suitable for creating single and group plantings on the lawn, decorating fences, porches, gazebos and other garden and architectural structures. Also, the plant can be used to compose live bouquets.
Western Rudbeckia is light-requiring, it should be grown in sunny areas closed from cold winds, the best soils are fertilized, moderately moist loams, but can grow and develop on sandy and acid-rich soils, preliminarily lime.
Propagation of Western Rudbeckia occurs by seed or seedling. Seed collection takes place in the fall, they are dried, packed in paper bags and stored in a dry warm place. Planting seedlings on a permanent place takes place in early June.
Western Rudbeckia needs rare irrigation with settled water, regular weeding, loosening the soil, feeding with complex fertilizers. Extension of flowering inflorescences will help to prolong flowering.
Rudbeckia beautiful is often used by gardeners, the birthplace of the species is North America. Herbaceous perennial 60 cm tall, with strong stems and oblong or rounded leaves, inflorescences-baskets in diameter up to 10 cm, which consist of black-brown tubular and yellow-orange reed flowers. Feature reed flowers - three cloves, located at the tips of the limb.
The flowering of beautiful rudbeckia lasts from the first decade of July to the beginning of September. It is characterized by winter hardiness, endurance to pests and diseases, rarely affects nematodes, because of which flowers fade.
Popularly, this variety is called the "golden umbrella". It is better to choose for fertilizer beautiful fertilized, unsalted, loose soil, and a sunny location or partial shade. It is worthwhile to carry out timely morning or evening watering, divide every 3-4 years, feed with sodium and magnesium every three weeks, get rid of weeds and loosen the soil.
Breeding Rudbeckia beautiful seeds and dividing the bush. Seeds are sown in open soil in early March.
Annual, reaching a height of 80 cm. Stems pubescent and dense. The leaves of Rudbeckia embracing are placed opposite, bare, sessile, oval or elongated, with a pointed apex and thin denticles along the edge.
The inflorescences are collected in baskets, reed flowers of a bright yellow shade, tubular - dark brown flowers, on a receptacle towering 3 cm. Often used in landscape design when creating mixborders.
Herbaceous annual, height varies from 60 cm to 1.5 m. Numerous stems branch strongly at the base, strong and hairy, leaves 12 cm long, oblong or ovate, tapering to the base into a winged petiole, bright green, slightly pubescent or bare .
Множественные корзинки в диаметре 3-4 см, язычковые цветки – желтые либо оранжевые, эллиптические и блестящие, в длину 2 см, трубчатые имеют черно-алую окраску. Цветение позднее – с августа по октябрь. It has good frost resistance, can withstand up to -29 ° C. He entered the culture in 1699.
Growing orebecky will not cause much trouble and will not require special financial costs from gardeners. Suzanne's beautiful black eyes will delight and touch the owners with their flowering.