Deciding to do poultry, it is better to stop the choice on the breeding of chickens. This is the most unpretentious birds. In addition, the cost of their content is small in comparison with other species of birds. There are many types of chickens today. Broiler chickens received special demand. They grow and develop much faster, grow large. Their meat is very tasty and dietary, but this bird must be properly treated. Feeding and feeding for broiler chickens is very important. Their productivity and health depend on it. On how to properly feed broiler chickens, you can learn from the article.
Broiler chicks should eat well. To give food you need often in a small amount. It is desirable that there would always be food in the feeders. The first few days of life is recommended to give a mixture made from wheat, corn, bran and barley. Not bad also add boiled, carefully ground eggs. Curd is also useful. When babies are 3 days old, you should include green foods in the diet. For example, young nettles, carrots, cabbage leaves, beet tops. All these products are needed for the formation of strong immunity. Knowing how to feed broilers at home and how to feed them, young animals will receive all the minerals and vitamins necessary for health. So, grow quickly and gain good weight. You can find out more about how to feed broilers here.
Choosing feed, it is necessary to ensure that in its composition must be present coccidiostatic. After all, coccidia is the scourge of hens and broilers, which are kept on the floor. Infection causes bleeding in the intestines. The result is a case, which is almost impossible to stop. And coccidostatics are the prevention of this disease.
It is advisable to give preference to granulated German pre-starter feed. Such kits are balanced in composition of amino acids. Typically, the composition includes soybean meal, which gives excellent growth stimulation. Using ready-made mixtures, there is no need to give vitamins, since all the necessary nutrients in the feed are already contained.
There are different schemes for feeding chickens. The most common scheme for feeding broiler chickens from day one is as follows: first, babies are watered with glucose and vitamins, and from day 8 to day 11 they are given a course of antibiotics.
It is believed that giving antibiotics to newly hatched chicks is fraught with consequences. After all, babies are born with a sterile internal environment. They still lack microflora. At the initial stage, it is the right diet and vitamins that will contribute to the formation of an internal non-pathogenic environment and the development of good immunity. And if pathogens do appear, antibiotics quickly neutralize them. This scheme of feeding broiler chickens is the most common among poultry farmers.
There is another scheme of broilers chickens feeding, which involves the use of antibiotics from the first days of chick life. According to her, Enroxil or Baytril is given from 1 to 5 days to prevent the development of a bacterial infection. Drugs are diluted in water in a certain ratio and perform the drinking. The course is recommended to repeat from 18 to 22 days of life.
From 6 to 11 days for the prevention of avitaminosis, broilers are provided with special vitamin complexes. Well proven drug Nutril. From 15 to 17 days the course is repeated. From 12 to 14 days it is important to prevent coccidosis. For this give coccidiostatics. For example, Baykoks. More information about vitamins for broiler chickens can be found in the article: Vitamins for broiler chickens in the prevention of various diseases.
When broiler chickens are fed, all the water should contain a preparation selected according to the scheme. It is better that the water was raw, but separated.
There is also a broiler feeding scheme whereby antibiotics are given to chickens from the first days of life. In daily specimens, immunity is weakened and they are susceptible to various diseases. In order to prevent mass death, it is recommended to drink the babies with antibiotics and vitamins. Especially it concerns the weakened individuals. They immediately stand out among all the lethargy, poor appetite.
The mortality often happens from 10 to 14 days of life of broilers.
During this period, the course of antibiotics is important. Also add a couple of drops of iodine to the water. Next, make a short break and go to the course of vitamins. In order to avoid vitamin deficiency, it is necessary to give vitamins A, D, E, B. Vitamin D is especially useful, since its deficiency leads to rickets.
Preparations for propoyka
Many novice poultry farmers have a question about how to reap broilers in the early days in order to strengthen their immunity and give impetus to proper growth and development. After all, manufacturers offer a wide range of different medicines.
These are the preparations with which to broiler chickens are preferable:
- Farmazin. It is a powder that dissolves well in water. The composition contains the antibiotic tylosin. For 1 g of the mixture is enough 1 liter of water. Dilute the product in this way: pour Farmazin with a small amount of water and mix thoroughly. After adjusting the water to the desired volume. It is important to avoid direct rays of the sun when nippelnom watering this solution.
- Enroflon This is an antibacterial drug. It is characterized by a wide spectrum of action. Enough effective. If broiler is being fed with this substance, all infectious agents are killed. Diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 2.
- Vetom. It is an immunomodulator. It is characterized by high antiviral activity. It is diluted at the rate of 1 teaspoon to 3 liters of pure water.
The above additives are effective in the treatment of respiratory diseases and for the prevention of salmonellosis. Thinking about what to feed broilers, you can stop on such antibiotics as tetracycline and levomycetin. They are more affordable. Sold in any pharmacy and their price is much lower, for example, Farmazina. The solution is made very simple: the tablet is dissolved in a liter of water. For more information about the diseases of broiler chickens can be found here.
The effect of broiler feeding at home on the condition of birds is as follows:
- Metabolism is normalized.
- Individuals grow more intensively, develop correctly.
- Stress resistance increases.
- Average daily growth increases.
- The bird becomes energetic. Increased appetite.
It is important to know how to feed the broilers so as not to harm them. So, antibiotics give for at least 3-5 days. It all depends on the condition of the bird. Every day you need to prepare a new solution. In addition to water with an additive, nothing more is needed.
Also twice a week chickens should be soldered with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. This tool is an excellent prevention of gastric disorders. Repeat the procedure every month. Feeding troughs and drinkers once a week should be treated with formalin solution. It is important to monitor the purity of the water.
Especially if the chickens look healthy. Vitamins - this is what watering broilers in this case will be much more useful.
The scheme can be made independently. For example, feeding broiler chickens from the first day might look like this:
- Day 1: vitamins (about 2 g) with water and 20 g of sugar.
- Day 2: tetracycline (0.5 g) with water.
- Day 3 and 4: tetracycline (0.5 g) and levomycetin (0.5 g), diluted in water.
- Starting from the 5th to the 8th day: water with vitamins is nutril, trivi or chictonic. This will enhance immunity and normal functioning of the liver.
- Day 14 and 15: water with the drug Baykoks or Amprolium. Necessary for the prevention of candidiasis.
Knowing how to feed broilers with antibiotics correctly, it is possible to achieve a high safety of livestock, as well as significantly increase the survival rate of chickens. Without medications from the total number of purchased individuals, no more than 60% survive.
Do not forget about the vaccination of broilers. To do this, use maternal antibodies. They will protect the bird throughout life. Carry out the procedure early in the morning. This will reduce the stress of chickens. The vaccine is diluted and given to babies. The tool is suitable for 2 hours after preparation.
It is impossible to apply for cultivation water with a high content of magnesium and iron. If the water does not comply with these requirements, it is recommended to purchase clean water designed specifically for birds.
Thus, broilers are fairly unpretentious birds with good health, but they are born very vulnerable. Therefore, it is important to know what to feed broilers in the first days of life in order to strengthen the immune system and stimulate development. There are various schemes according to which watering is carried out. The scheme is selected individually. It is advisable to clarify with the purchase of livestock, what and how they feed chickens on the chicken farm.
What to drink chickens in the early days
Small chickens must give vitamin-mineral supplements with water. Chickens, which are fed with vitamins, quickly turn into strong and muscular broilers.
Chickens at the drinker in the early days
It is important to give any preparations to birds according to premeditated schemes, which we will discuss next.
Care for daily chickens
Newborn broilers should be kept in a clean, bright place at a temperature of about 30 ° C before moving into the house. A box made of corrugated cardboard with an incandescent lamp, suspended 50–60 cm above bird's heads, is quite suitable for this.
Chickens that look sick should not be planted in a common box. They may be infected and will infect others.
About 40% of the purchased individuals can die if they are not drunk in time with medicines.
Newborn broilers are fed like regular chicken. To feed fit:
- boiled eggs
- wheat shredder,
Feeding day-old chickens with yolk
On the third day, crushed greens, rich in vitamins, are added to the chickens feed mixture (mash).
Features of chickens feeding
The scheme of broiler chickens feeding depends on many factors:
- did the chickens get any medicine earlier
- what were the substances
- on what basis they were given,
- what diseases are common among parent chickens,
- whether vaccination was carried out.
Accurate and complete information can be given only by the seller (breeder) of birds, from which you acquired the young.
Each farmer has his own technology of broiler feeding. Some poultry farmers give antibacterial drugs daily chickens. Other bird breeders consider antibiotics dangerous for babies and replace them with water-soluble vitamins. Still others trust the fragile chicken health only pure water.
Scheme 1 (the most common)
Suitable for those who agree with the opinion that it is harmful for barely hatched broilers to give antibiotics - the microflora is still missing in their stomach and intestines. First of all, for the formation of a non-pathogenic internal environment and strengthening the immune system, a full-fledged diet, rich in amino acids, minerals and vitamins, is important. In case the chickens pick up the infection or the parasites, they will be helped by emergency fasting with fast-acting antibiotics.
Young broilers at the drinkers
For seven days after hatching, the chick receives nutrients and energy from the residual yolk in the yolk sac at the bottom of the abdomen.
On the first day of the life of a little broiler (and as soon as it was transferred from the incubator to the “nursery”), you need to help dissolve the residual yolk in it.
To do this, add glucose or sugar to the drinker (a teaspoon per 0.5 l of boiled water). Sweetened water will also help relieve stress in babies.
If this simple procedure does not hold - part of the young will inevitably die.
Chickens need to be fed with vitamin complexes. "Chiktonik" or "Nutril" will do.
Chiktonik and Nutril
In order not to get a surplus of vitamins in the body, and also not to immediately load the chickens with other complexes, a three-day pause is taken in the medication intake.
At this time, the peak age is when the broilers begin to die. During this period, it is important to maintain the immunity of birds with antibacterial drugs.
Antibiotics selected for broiler chickens should not contribute to their rapid adaptation, otherwise preventive measures will be ineffective.
Fluorquinolone preparations (specifically enrofloxacins: enroflox, baytril, ernosteen) have proven themselves well for meat chickens. In private farmsteads, where birds are settled in the same places from year to year, intra-farm addiction occurs on average over 3 years. Even with regular disinfection of premises, the bacteria settle in the soil and gradually develop immunity to reusable antibiotics.
Important! Human antibiotics should not be used, not all of them affect birds. It is better to buy medicine at a veterinary pharmacy. For example, you can purchase an inexpensive and effective drug Farmazin (the active substance is tylosin tartrate).
Weekly break after a course of antibiotics.
Break after vitamins.
Break after antibiotics.
Then continue to alternate periods of vitamins and antibiotics. As the birds grow older, increase the interval between courses from one week to two (that is, broilers should receive vitamins every 14 days).
Usually, broilers are slaughtered on the 42–45th day with a weight of 2–2.5 kg. It is unprofitable to keep meat chickens longer: for every kilogram of the next weight gain, the bird begins to eat more feed.
Suitable for those who immediately after hatching chicks relies on antibiotics.
Grown chickens near the nipple drinker
In order to avoid an epidemic of bacterial infection, feed the broilers with “Baytril” or “Enroxil” diluted with water in a certain proportion.
Prevent avitaminosis with balanced vitamin complexes. To do this, you can pour a water solution of "Nutril" into the drinking trough of broilers.
Use for the prevention of coccidosis special drugs - coccidiostatics. The most popular among them - "Baykoks".
Repeat the course "Nutril".
Repeat the course "Baytril" or "Enroxil".
Interesting! Most chickens came to the unanimous opinion that excessive consumption of antibiotics harms broilers. Especially if they do not have external deviations in development. It is much more useful to feed farm birds with vitamins.
Vitamin A for chickens from the first days of life
If you wish, you can make your schedule for the feeding of chickens, but in this case you should follow the scheme:
- 1st day: water with 2 g of vitamins and 20 g of glucose,
- 2nd day: water with 0.5 g of tetracycline,
- 3-4th day: water with 0.5 g of tetracycline and 0.5 g of chloramphenicol,
- Day 5–8: water with vitamins useful for the liver and immunity (the most common “Chiktonik” or “Nutril”),
- Day 14–15: water with a drug against a fungal infection - candidiasis (“Baycox” will do).
Adult broilers near the nipple drinker
Tip number 1
If you started to feed broiler chickens with an antibiotic, do not stop doing it after the first day. Continue to give the drug according to the scheme prescribed in the instructions for the medicine or determined by the veterinarian (2-3 days). Suddenly interrupted, but often repeated, courses are addictive, and the antibacterial agent stops working.
Board number 2
When you give the birds a course of water-soluble drugs, make sure that the drugs selected according to the scheme are in all the drinking bowls of the chicken coop.
Tip number 3
Use only distilled water for boiling (boiled or raw).
Tip number 4
In the water should not be an increased concentration of magnesium and iron. If the water in your area does not meet these requirements, then it is better to order imported clean water of appropriate quality especially for birds.
Tip number 5
Do not harvest medicinal solutions for the future. The healing properties of the drugs are stored in water for 24 hours after dilution.
If the chickens have not drunk the water with the dissolved medications to the end, then after a day it should be poured out, the troughs should be thoroughly rinsed and filled with freshly prepared elixir.
Tip number 6
If you notice that some chicken avoids a flock or looks sluggish and weak - it means that he is sick. To prevent an epidemic, broilers can be drunk with a solution of Tromexin (at the rate of 1 g per liter of liquid). The course of the drug - 5 days, upon its completion, be sure to give "Chectonic".
Tip number 7
At the first symptoms of morbidity, it is recommended to invite a veterinarian to the house. This will help the birds to make an accurate diagnosis and take action in a timely manner.
It should be remembered that some dangerous diseases are transmitted from birds to humans.
Veterinary measures for growing chickens
Diseases of large poultry farms are easier and cheaper to prevent than to cure. A number of preventive measures will help to avoid possible epidemics.
- Before settling the youngsters in the poultry houses, prepare yourself carefully: remove debris from the territory, clean the cages, wash the feeders and drinkers, disinfect the room with special smoke bombs, cover the walls of the chicken coop with lime)
- Grow birds of different breeds and ages in separate isolated areas,
- Check the condition of the litter daily (replace the soiled diaper with a clean one or sprinkle fresh sawdust),
- Constantly watch for drinkers and feeders (wash dishes at least twice a day, use only high-quality compound feed, add fresh drink),
- Regularly air the chicken coop, monitor the humidity and temperature in the room.
Broiler chicken feeding
Regarding the use of antibiotics, broiler owners are divided into two main groups: the first are convinced that it is unreasonable and even harmful to use antibiotic substances from the first days of chicken life. Others believe that prophylactic antibiotic therapy does not have negative consequences, and moreover, it is even necessary to protect livestock from infections and to form strong immunity.
Supporters of this approach argue their choice: at birth, babies have microflora in the digestive system sterile, and it is thanks to proper nutrition and intake of vitamins colonization of the intestine begins with beneficial microorganisms, which leads to the formation of strong immunity. This approach is the most popular among poultry farmers.
The scheme of drinking №1:
After a break, you need to alternately sap the young with vitamins and antibiotics until slaughter.
There are a huge number of drugs that can be used for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes, but not all of them are suitable for young animals, especially meat breeds. Below we consider the medicines that are most often given to broiler chickens.
Koktsidiostatic, can be used both for prevention and for medicinal purposes. It is taken orally: a solution is prepared (1 ml of the drug is 2.5% per 1 l of water) and is evaporated by the birds for 48 hours. The drug has no side effects, but it should take at least 8 days from the last use of the medicine to slaughter the birds. If the slaughter was committed before the deadline, the meat is forbidden to be eaten, it can only be used for the manufacture of meat and bone meal.
A broad-spectrum antibiotic drug from the group of fluoroquinolones. The active ingredient is enrofloxacin, because the drug is prescribed for all diseases whose pathogens are sensitive to this antibiotic:
- necrotic enteritis.
A complex antibiotic drug that contains sulfanilamide, tetracycline, trimethoprim, bromhexine. It is prescribed for the following ailments:
- 1 day: 1 g of the drug in 1 liter of water
- 2-3 days: 0.5 g per 1 liter of water.
Antibiotic medication with the active ingredient enrofloxacin, so the indications for use of this medication are similar to the drug "Baytril". For oral administration, a mixture is prepared (0.5 ml of a 10% solution per 1 l of water) and evaporated for 3 days (with salmonellosis, the rate increases to 5 days). Slaughter of birds is allowed after 8 days from the moment of the last reception. This medication does not cause side effects and overdose, while respecting the rules of admission. However, it cannot be used simultaneously with drugs of the tetracycline group, macrolide, and some other types of antibiotics. Therefore, before using, be sure to read the instructions.
Combined antibiotic medication based on enrofloxacin and colistin. The indications for Enrostin are similar to those of Enroxil and Baytril. The prepared solution is administered orally (0.5 ml per 1 l of water) for 3–5 days. Slaughter of birds is carried out after 11 days.
It is forbidden to simultaneously take the drug with many medicinal substances.
Another antibiotic medication based on enrofloxacin. Indications for admission are similar. The drug is produced in a concentration of 10%, a solution is prepared from it (0.5 ml per 1 liter of liquid) and sealed for 3–5 days. Slaughter is carried out after 11 days from the last application.
An antibiotic drug from the group of macrolides based on the substance tylosin. For the prevention and treatment of broilers, Farmazin-500 is used in the form of a water-soluble powder. The solution (1 g of powder per 1 liter of liquid) is fed to the chickens instead of water for 3 days. This medication is used primarily for the prevention and treatment of mycoplasmosis in birds. It can also be used for dysentery, pneumonia, and infectious sinusitis.
Antiparasitic drug with the same active ingredient. In broiler chickens used for the following parasitic diseases:
The drug dissolves in water (0.4 ml per 1 liter of liquid) and is soldered to feathery for two days. Slaughter can be made after 8 days from the last reception.
Antihelmintic powder drug based on flubendazole. For treatment, 3 g powder is mixed with 1 kg of feed, the course of treatment is 7 days. The drug is effective in ascariasis, histomonasis. Slaughter of poultry for meat is possible in 7 days from the moment of the last intake.
Feed additive to enrich the diet of birds with vitamins and amino acids. The preparation contains vitamins A, E, K, D, group B, as well as essential amino acids: lysine, arginine, alanine, glycine, etc. The use of the additive has such an effect on the body:
- normalizes metabolic processes,
- increases resistance to adverse environmental factors,
- improves immune defense
- increases the survival rate of young animals,
- fills the deficiency of nutrients.
Disease prevention in chickens and poultry: the basics of keeping
From an economic point of view, it is much more beneficial to prevent bird disease than to treat it. Significant funds are spent on drugs, and the sick animal will never give the same degree of productivity as a healthy one. All this applies equally to the cultivation of any bird, be it a duck, broiler, laying hen or turkey.
How to ensure minimal risk of infection for the herd raised? What are the basic rules that must be followed so that the bird does not suffer from infectious diseases?
Some people believe that vaccinating birds solves all problems. But the vaccine does not guarantee that the livestock will not get sick - it only reduces the possible risks.
In addition to vaccination, much attention should be paid to the proper organization of production for cultivation.
All measures are reduced to the following tasks:
- provide optimal conditions for housing and feeding for chickens,
- prevent contagion from entering your private household,
- comply with the principles of sanitation, preventing the accumulation of dangerous microorganisms within the economy.
Consider how to translate these principles into practice.
Purchase hatching eggs and chickens only from reputable manufacturers to ensure their health. It is best to do this in industrial incubators and in large poultry farms.
When buying, each batch of chickens must be accompanied by a veterinary certificate, which will indicate which infectious diseases the bird was vaccinated against. This information will help you navigate the issue of specific prevention (vaccination).
The ideal way to prevent diseases in chickens and other birds is to complete all the livestock at the same time with individuals of the same age from the same source. Unfortunately, in the rural farmstead such an approach is often inconvenient or unprofitable.
Often there is an option when the farmer gradually brings a new bird to replace the retired one.
In this case, the way to reduce the risk of bringing the infection to a minimum is to buy chickens from trusted suppliers and quarantine newly arrived livestock.
Quarantine for beginners
It also happens that a newly purchased bird is constantly injected into the main herd, throughout the year, as old women are slaughtered or slaughtered by grown broilers.
In this case, you need to enter a procedure such as quarantine of newly arrived chickens. Settle acquired livestock separately from the main herd and keep it under control for 10-14 days.
Usually this time is enough to show any hidden infection.
For the entire period of quarantine for chickens, treat them as if they were exactly sick with a contagious disease.
Inspect the chicks daily - check the appearance, activity, condition of the pen, droppings, pay attention to the outflow from the eyes and nose. If at the end of the quarantine period the bird doesn’t get sick, feel free to move it to the rest of the population.
In the photo - an example of a quarantine pen for a small number of chickens, ducks, turkeys (quails will not work because of the size of the grid cell). This aviary is located in the place furthest from the main bird.
Another example, more compact. Please note that in both cases chickens have the opportunity to shelter under shelter from the weather.
Contact with the outside world
Do not allow unwanted visits to the farm by unauthorized people, entering the territory of the house, change your shoes in galoshes and wear special clothes or a bathrobe. Protect chickens from contact with stray animals and, if possible, with a wild bird.
Great trouble in home poultry farming brings chicken mite, which is quite difficult to fight. It is easy to find it on chickens: under the wings, near the tail, on the neck, black dots of sucking ticks are clearly visible.
The peculiarity of the tick's life is that after the tick gets drunk with blood, it hides in the cracks of the walls, ceiling, perches, etc. Small ticks, hatching from eggs, fall on chickens through roost.
Practice shows that it is possible to deal with a tick by spraying the premises, treated with diesel oil, transformer, cotton or engine oil, diesel fuel (1-3 times per summer).
Good results are obtained when using together with litter material feathers of garlic, horseradish leaves, mint, wormwood, onions, parsley, celery and other odorous plants. The floor of the house can be covered with tops of potatoes and tomatoes, branches of bird cherry trees, flowers and leaves of nasturtium and marigolds. In winter, a small amount of minced garlic or onion is introduced into the diet of chickens.
To prevent infectious diseases, poultry should be purchased in farms where there are no infections, periodically thoroughly wash and disinfect the premises and equipment. Perform a complete disinfection after changing the poultry population. If it was not possible to identify the cause of the disease or death of the bird, it is necessary to call a veterinary specialist.
Preventing the spread of contagious diseases contributes to the disinfection of premises and equipment in combination with a high-grade feeding and high-quality sanitary and hygienic conditions of detention.
The health of the bird can be judged by the state of the litter. In healthy it is dark in color, with a grayish-white bloom of urine.
Brownish or yellowish feces indicates a surplus in the rations of carbohydrates, dark-colored, watery with mucous reddish stripes indicate an excess of animal protein.
Greenish and liquid droppings indicate diarrhea, and the plumage around the cloaca is always contaminated with feces.
The litter in the house should always be dry, the room must be systematically aired. Periodically carry out disinfection of floors, walls, perches, feeders, drinkers and other equipment.
The following substances and means are used as disinfectants: sunlight, high temperature fresh-quenched lime, potassium permanganate, and others.
sunlight It has a detrimental effect on many pathogenic microorganisms, on eggs and larvae of worms that are on the surface of equipment and inventory. Therefore, in warm sunny weather, all free equipment and inventory is carried out into the air. The longer it is exposed to the sun, the greater the effect of disinfection.
Heat is the main disinfectant in the treatment of inventory with boiling water.
Freshly Lime. For slaking take 1 liter of water for 1 kg of lime. From the obtained fresh-lime powder, 10–20% milk of lime is prepared, for which 2 liters of powder are diluted in 9 or 4 liters of water, respectively. 2-3 times the walls, wooden equipment and inventory are whitened with lime milk.
Manganese Acid Potassium. The solution is prepared from the calculation of 0.5 g per 10 l of water. It can be periodically given to chickens and adult chickens instead of drinking water to prevent gastrointestinal diseases.
Formalin used for wet disinfection of various items and incubators by evaporation. For wet processing prepare 2-3% solution.
For processing the incubator, 35 ml of 40% formalin are taken per 1 m3 of the chamber and 17.5 ml of water are added, the solution is placed in the chamber and 25 g of manganese-acid potassium is poured into it. In this case, vapors of formaldehyde are rapidly being released.
After disinfection (30-40 minutes), caustic vapors of formaldehyde are neutralized by spraying ammonia (aqueous ammonia solution) around the chamber.
Creolin (3-5% solution) is used to disinfect premises, equipment and inventory.
Golden sand baths apply to fight with peropuhoid. Mixed equal parts of sifted ash and dry fine sand not less than 20 cm thick are poured into the box. The bath is installed on a walking ground or indoors, but must always be dry.