Fern is quite popular plant, and differs original decorative. Such plants are long-lived, and are also ideal for growing at home. Indoor fern has many varieties and names. This article describes which ferns are best grown at home.
Nephrolepis is a picky plant, does not require special conditions, so even beginning gardeners grow it. From a small rhizome of a bush many branches grow, they are collected in one magnificent bunch. The leaves of such a fern have a curved shape, and transverse incisions resembling a feather. An adult plant has the appearance of a large bundle of green feathers. Nephrolepis can reach half a meter, such a plant is not high.
This species of fern differs from others in that it does not have an allergenic effect. It is growing rapidly, with proper care, new branches appear. The plant must be provided with proper lighting, better if it is diffused light. In summer, the temperature is favorable at 21 degrees and in winter up to 18. Fern Nephrolepis does not tolerate drought, so it must be watered and sprinkled in a timely manner.
Such a bush has one peculiarity, it is not only beautiful in appearance, but also useful, it is able to clean the air in the room from harmful elements, including formaldehydes.
This type of fern is different root system. Shoots have a small height, reach 20 centimeters. The branches are sparse and have a bright green color. But this kind of different unusual roots, they grow, and stand over the pot, that is, envelop it. Rhizomes have a fluffy and hairy surface, they are thick. Roots can have light colors or silvery shades.
Davallia is a home species of fern, growing rapidly and developing. The fern is not picky in terms of conditions, and can live for many years. Davallia are planted in a pot with carefully prepared drainage system, and grown on a bright window sill, but with diffused light. Watering is carried out as the topsoil dries, but the water should not fall to the roots. Favorable temperature for growing this type of fern in the summer period is from 22 to 25 degrees, and in the winter - 20 degrees of heat.
As a fertilizer minerals are used in diluted form for indoor fern plants about once every two weeks. If water for irrigation is taken from the water supply, then it is first defended.
Asplenium fern species
This type of fern is long-lived, has small, and creeping roots. The bush reaches 50 centimeters, its leaves differ in an unusual form, and the surface, they are smooth, some have ribbing, exactly directed upwards.
The Asplenium fern grows as a bush, and has a dark green color. This type of plant is also suitable for growing at home, as it does not require special environmental conditions.
In order for the plant to develop well, it is necessary to observe the correct air temperature in the summer of 20 degrees, and in winter from 16. Favorable place for growing Asplenium is partial shade. Plants need to be moistened daily by spraying it. Fertilizers are introduced about once a month, as the bush can be overfed with frequent feeding.
Watering the roots during watering will cause the plant to die, so during the implementation of this procedure, it is necessary to carefully monitor this.
Such a plant has a distinct difference from its relatives. In nature, Platicerium grows on a tree trunk or on branches, and can be large. Very few gardeners are trying to grow this type of fern, usually people who plant exotic plants do this. For the cultivation of Platicerium use a piece of bark or hanging basket, the bush is characterized by wide and long leaves that grow from the bark, and have a height of up to one meter.
The leaves are shaped like deer horns, and are divided into two types of functionality, they perform a nourishing effect for the plant. This kind of leaves accumulates moisture in their axils, and insects that, when decomposed, feed the fern. The second type of leaves performs a decorative function, they are wide, and can reach more than one meter.
Platicerium is grown in the northeast window, and the light must be bright and diffused. Since the plant is located on the bark, instead of watering, it can be placed in water. Comfortable temperature for such a bush in the summer should be from 17 to 25 degrees, and in the winter to 15 degrees. Top-dressings are introduced with the onset of warming, and up to the deepest autumn, for this purpose, a half concentration of complex fertilizers for fern plants is used.
This type of fern has its own peculiarity, it is able to remove radioactive substances from the body.
This fern is very beautiful, it has a small but dense root system. The leaves have a curved appearance, rich green color, they are dense, bright, and glisten in the sun. The shoots are distinguished by original feathers, which are sharpened at the top. Such a plant can reach 70 centimeters in height, the shrub is very dense. This type of fern loves a moist environment, and in the wild it grows in coniferous forests or on the banks of reservoirs. But Mnogorykik can be grown at home.
The main feature in the care of this plant is the maintenance of moisture in the pot. This shrub should be well lit, but be away from direct sunlight. The temperature in the summer should be from 16 to 24 degrees. Pollinit is resistant to frost, during active development, it is necessary to provide him with abundant watering, and during the winter period they produce moisture as the land dries. Feed the fern once a week with the help of mineral fertilizers.
Pelley can be called a button fern, in the wild it grows almost throughout America. In the home growing such a plant can be found quite rarely because it is considered a fastidious plant, but it is in vain.
Branches of this type of fern have a sprawling appearance, and can reach a length of more than half a meter, and the height of the bush is never higher than 25 centimeters. The leaves are small, round shape, to the middle part are connected on a shaggy stem. Pelley is quite easy to grow, you can disprove all the myths, and with confidence to say that the plant is not fastidious.
This species of fern differs from others in that it can easily tolerate drought. Although Pelleya suffers drought, it should be periodically sprayed with water at room temperature. In the spring, and in the summer new leaves begin to appear, and the former ones dry up and die. To grow a plant at home, you need to choose the right place, it should be the eastern window, which will be diffused lighting. In the summer, the temperature is maintained up to 25 degrees Celsius, and in winter up to 15 degrees. Pelley is watered as the soil dries, without pouring the plant, in winter, during frosts, the procedure is carried out only once a week.
Top dressing is applied once a month, it is served by liquefied organic fertilizers. The peculiarities of this plant is that the leaves of a fern, and there is a branch with branches.
Variety fern Pteris
Pteris is also ideal for growing at home, and does not pose special difficulties in care. This type of fern is distributed throughout the world, and can occur in the wild.
Pteris has the appearance of a small bush, its leaves are small, and diverse, not having a certain shape. Leaf sizes may also vary; they are light green in color and have thin white veins. This type of fern is not demanding to care, this plant can decorate living rooms, halls or window sills of other rooms.
Pteris is resistant to slight changes in temperature or light. Comfortable temperature for this type of decorative flower in summer is up to 22 degrees Celsius, and in winter up to 13 degrees. During intense heat, it is necessary to water the bush every day, and with the onset of cold weather, this process is gradually reduced to two times a week.
For fertilizing apply complex fertilizer for fern plants, the procedure is performed once every two weeks. Also, the plant is afraid of drafts, from which he drops the leaves, this feature must be considered when choosing a place. Ferns such as moths are considered poisonous.
The fern Tsirtomium is considered a long-liver, its branches are pinnate, and can reach a length of 70 centimeters. The leaves have a thin, sharp, slightly curved form towards the end, their color is saturated green, and thanks to a small wax coating, their surface glitters when hit by the sun.
A young plant grows rather slowly, and when it becomes an adult, it can produce several new sheets annually. Such a fern is resistant to winter, and freely carries dry air in a residential environment. A suitable place for this type of fern is the northern side with light penumbra. Watering is carried out in the summer period about two times a week, and in winter it is enough once, as the top layer of the earth dries.
A favorable temperature for growing Tsirtomium in the summer period is up to 25 degrees, and in the cold season up to 18 degrees. If the air temperature is high, the plant must be constantly moistened by spraying. Fertilizers are applied not so often, only once in three months, for this purpose, diluted mineral or organic supplements are used.
Polypodium or Centipede
Polypodium is called a millipede by the people; this plant is not widely grown, since caring for it is a little more difficult than other species. This type of plant leaves have weak skin. The root has a thickened appearance, and leaves of light green color grow from it in rows, they differ in different shapes and sizes. Because of this type of plant is called a centipede.
For growing at home, you need to choose the right place, it should have a good partial shade. The centipede needs high humidity, even during cold periods. The temperature should be strictly maintained, in the summer period from 18 to 20 degrees, and in the cold season from 10 to 14. Watering the Polypodium should be done only with warm water, quite often, spraying should also be regular. With the active development of the shrub fed liquid substances for indoor ornamental plants, once every two weeks. Polypodium container must be removed from the heating elements in winter.
These types of ferns are the most popular in home cultivation, with proper care, you can see a rather rare phenomenon, the flowering of these plants. Basically, these plants are not fastidious, and do not require constant attention, just enough to correctly choose a permanent place of residence for the bush, timely watering, and maintain a favorable temperature. Different types of fern can decorate offices, halls, living rooms or window sills of other rooms, they are placed in a single form or combined with other plants, creating an unusual look.
When growing a fern at home, there is nothing difficult, even a novice can easily cope with this task. Many growers prefer more rare varieties of this plant, and are not afraid to experiment.
I chose ferns for a number of reasons listed below:
- The compact size of the root system, which allows you to grow ferns in small pots, including hanging type,
- The lush and decorative green part of the plant, the appearance of which will give any room a unique charm, comfort and mystery. A correctly composed composition of fern is guaranteed to create a sense of presence, if not in the deep forest, then at least on its outskirts,
- Most species of ferns grow well in a small shade, and this is exactly what is most often found in the conditions of our apartments,
- Ease of care and maintenance. The only problem is the dry air in winter,
- Excellent frost resistance, which allows ferns to easily endure harsh winters in open ground, not to mention the apartment,
- High resistance to pests and diseases, developed over millions of years of evolution,
- Easy reproduction with rhizomes,
- Purification of the room from formaldehyde and harmful bacteria. Ferns secrete special enzymes into the air that adversely affect bacteria and fungal flora. Moreover, ferns break down formaldehydes contained in exhaust gases, which is extremely important for city apartments.
Despite this, not every type of fern is suitable for growing at home, and only certain varieties should be preferred, the main ones of which will be listed below.
This variety is very distantly reminiscent of a familiar fern, and more like a parsley, growing a small bush. In general, it is quite compact and slow-growing plant, which is very unpretentious in the care, but at the same time requires high humidity and frequent spraying.
If your room is dry, refrain from purchasing this plant. An ideal place for an Adiantum, it is a shaded glass balcony with an open window, inside which moisture is trapped, and there is access to fresh oxygen.
Phlebodium is notable for being from North and South America, which makes it a valuable enough specimen among true fern admirers. When the content of this plant should be aware that its roots grow mainly in the horizontal direction, which means the plant requires a shallow, but wide flowerpot.
Phlebodium in nature grows on other plants (does not parasitize), and receives most of the nutrients from humid air, which means it should be sprayed with water with a low concentration of fertilizers. The plant survives well and develops in the soil for orchids. Phlebodium is resistant to shading, and is suitable for decorating glass showcases, loggias, balconies and office spaces.
These types and names of ferns are only a small part of those that can be grown at home. Despite this, it is the plants listed in the article that are the most adapted for growing in the conditions of our apartments.
Home fern: How to care?
Different varieties of fern require somewhat different conditions of detention, but in general, care should be reduced to compliance with the following points:
- Temperature mode. The comfortable temperature of growth of the fern is in the region of 16-21 ° C. Temperatures that fall below 10 ° C are critical for plants unprepared for the winter. Ferns can not stand the heat, and the maximum temperature for them to be within 24 ° C,
- Light mode. Ferns do not require additional lighting, and do not tolerate direct sunlight. For normal growth and development of ferns require diffused daylight, and the more it will be, the better. If the fern grows all the time in a shaded area, it will slow down its growth and development, and in the case of Platicerium, it can lead to death,
- Watering and moisturizing. Ferns do not tolerate drought, and the ground must be constantly moist. When watering ferns should not overdo it, as overmoistened soil will lead to rotting of the roots. Try to keep moderate soil moisture, not turning it into dirt. Any fern requires moist air, and you have to spray it at least 2 times a day. If possible, a humidifier should be installed next to the plants (it does not hurt other types of indoor plants),
- Transfer. At a young age (up to 5 years), ferns are characterized by relatively fast growth rates, which means get ready to transplant every spring, but only if the roots begin to burst the pot. Ferns should be transplanted by the method of transshipment, since the plants extremely painfully tolerate this procedure, and are restored after it in about 2 months,
- Fertilizer. Ferns require moderate fertilizing with mineral and organic fertilizers for 1 time in 2 months. As an optimal fertilizer, a mullein infusion is suitable, or any liquid fertilizer of a universal type. Also now, fertilizers oriented specifically to ferns and related plants are increasingly common.
Папоротник комнатный, уход в домашних условиях за которым требует некоторой сноровки, также избирателен к почве.
Почва для папоротника должна соответствовать критериям следующих типов:
- The soil should contain rotten leaves, peat and pine needles, and also contain chopped wood bark,
- The soil should be loose. When transplanting a fern it should not be tamped,
- The soil must necessarily have a high acidity.
Care for indoor ferns is easy. Like any other home plant, it requires a certain soil, a suitable location in the apartment, watering and spraying. Does not do without periodic fertilizer. In addition, you should know the features of transplantation of a flower, as it should be done every year because of its rapid growth.
The plant prefers loose soil with a large number of leaves and humus. Sometimes it may contain peat or needles. The earth should be very loose, airy. Through it, water will easily flow to the roots.
The roots of the plant can rot from overflow, so the pot needs good drainage.
The prepared soil can be purchased at the store or prepared on your own if you have sufficient skills to do this.
For cooking you will need to take in equal proportions:
- sod land
- leaf ground.
You should also add a little humus and sand. This recipe is the most suitable, forming the same soil conditions that are required indoor fern.
For the content of nephrolepis the clay pot will be the most suitable. It tends to collect excess moisture from the soil, and then dispose of it as needed. This nuance helps control the humidity of the earth.
However, the clay has the property of being covered with fungus, which is subsequently very difficult to withdraw.
Plastic packaging is also suitable. It should be remembered that this material does not allow air and does not have good stability. In order for the plant to feel great and not fall from the surface, it is necessary to choose a steady and large pot. Its diameter in the diameter should be 2 times smaller than the size of the flower crown.
Watering and spraying
Water fern need soft water, slightly warm. In the summer season, this can be done 2 times more often than in winter. Otherwise, in the winter period the plant will continue to grow and will be too elongated with small leaves, since there is not enough sunlight.
Watering should be such that the soil in the pot remains slightly damp. Excess water, as well as drought - are not the best conditions for indoor fern.
Spraying the leaves should be done daily, especially during the heating period. Excessive dryness of the air nephrolepis is not suitable. You can also take care of suitable humidity in the room. To do this, it is recommended to purchase a humidifier or regularly hang a wet towel on the battery. This microclimate in the apartment is useful not only for the flower, but also for people.
Water is better to take distilled or rain, as the water from the tap will leave white spots on the green.
Top dressing and fertilizer
Fertilize room fern is recommended in spring and summer. This can be done using any ready-made solutions for feeding. They must be diluted according to the package instructions. Then add the same amount of pure water to the resulting solution. This option is the most appropriate feeding for nephrolepis.
To transplant room fern, you will need:
- Gently holding the flower by the base, pull it out of the container along with the earthy clod.
- Part of the old soil shake off the rhizome. If there are rotting roots, they must be removed.
- Place the plant in a new container, cover the surface with fresh earth.
Transplantation is best in the spring. If this is done at a different time of the year, the room fern will take a long time to take root and look not the best way.
Breeding room fern
The most suitable way for the reproduction of nephrolepis is the division of the mother bush. This action can be performed during the transplant period. The plant is examined for the presence of daughter rosettes, after which they are separated with a part of the roots from the common rhizome. They also need to land pre-prepared soil.
At the stage of growing a new fern, it is necessary to carefully monitor the indoor climate and strictly follow all the requirements for caring for a flower. Some outlets do not survive, which is the norm. However, the division of indoor fern is the easiest method for its reproduction.
Plant Diseases and Pests
Fern can hurt, like any other home plant. Most of the troubles are associated with improper care, as well as an insufficient amount of attention of the hostess at the stage of acquisition and transplanting a flower.
To reduce the incidence of nephrolepis, you must:
- Refuse to independently prepare the soil. Store soil is thoroughly sterilized and does not contain pests.
- Quarantine newly acquired plants.
- Do not leave the flower in drafts, in direct sunlight, near the battery.
- Watch the soil moisture, do not overfill the soil.
If you follow the recommendations for the prevention of diseases of room fern, they can be successfully avoided. But if the plant is still sick, you must put it in quarantine and immediately take action.
Possible diseases and how to deal with them:
It appears dark brown drips on the ends of the sheet. Affected leaves are recommended to be removed from the plant, the crown should be treated with a fungicide. Watering for some time must be reduced, and the sheets do not spray.
At first the leaves turn yellow, then turn brown. Fern dies quickly. At the initial stage, it is important to monitor the irrigation, not to re-moisten the soil.
It appears wet brown spots. It is necessary to completely remove the affected areas, treat the plant with a fungicide and do not water for some time.
Leaves, stems and soil are covered with gray moldy bloom. The fern should be quarantined, all affected leaves should be removed from it, treated with a solution against mold.
Fern affects: whitefly, white poduras, mealybug, nematodes, spider mites, aphids, thrips, bills and others. Most pests start up due to improper plant care. The affected areas should be removed by carefully treating the entire crown and rhizome with a suitable insect solution. The plant in this case requires quarantine, as the pests quickly move to healthy flowers.
The main problems with growing
All the problems that flower growers may face are related to improper care of the room fern. The green leaves immediately begin to show the effects of not suitable microclimate or watering.
Among them are:
- falling foliage - is due to insufficient watering, darkening - the effects of overflow,
- yellowness on the leaves indicates dry air,
- Slow growth and pale green foliage indicates insufficient feeding.
If you comply with all the conditions of nephrolepis, it will decorate any room with greens of its magnificent crown. Therefore, all the efforts to care for the flower are definitely worth the time spent.