We live in the village and keep a large farm. Sometimes it happens that something is amiss with this or that animal. And how to figure out whether it is sick or just not enough vitamins? We veterinarian says that animals, like people, need vitamins. Explain, please, if possible, what signs are observed in domestic animals with a lack of essential vitamins. And how to learn to distinguish what needs to be given to the cow, pigs and goats?
Nepargovich family. Shchuchin district.
The question itself, the respected Nepargovich family, is not quite rightly formulated, since vitamin deficiencies cause very serious diseases, such as:
The disease results from a lack of vitamin A or its provitamin, carotene. More often the young are sick, less often adult animals. A-hypovitaminosis can develop with long-lasting diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and intoxication. Massive damage to young animals occurs most often at the end of the stall content and in the spring, when the content of carotene in feed drops sharply. The disease can develop with a deficiency in the diet of digestible protein, easily fermentable carbohydrates, trace elements and other substances.
Signs of illness develop slowly. Vision is impaired, the animal is not well oriented, faces obstacles, other animals. Dryness of the cornea of the eyes and often its inflammation, keratinization of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and the gastrointestinal tract, which leads to indigestion, develop. Productivity decreases, growth and development are delayed, the function of reproduction is disturbed.
Assistance and prevention. Improve feeding and conditions. Animals give carrots, haylage, vitamin hay, grass meal. Vitamin A preparations, vitamin A concentrate intramuscularly or subcutaneously, are administered to cows in 150-200 thousand IU once every 2 days, calves and sheep in 50-100 thousand IU daily. For 2 weeks, you can give fortified fish oil: cows 100-200 ml 1-2 times a day, pigs and sheep 50-70 ml once a day, calves 15-20 ml 2 times a day. Vitamin preparation aevit, tri-vitamin, aquitalquinone, tetravit, retinol, oil concentrate of vitamin A, microvit A, microbiological carotene can also be used.
With a lack of carotene in the diets of pregnant animals, they are recommended in the second half of pregnancy to introduce oil concentrate of vitamin A - for cows 600-800 thousand IE, for ewe sheep 250-350 thousand IE once a week.
This is a disorder of the D-vitamin and phosphorus-calcium metabolism, leading to disruption of the general metabolism in the body.
The cause of D-hypovitaminosis is an insufficient content of vitamin D in feed. It is contained in good quality hay, sun-dried, animal feed (milk, eggs, fish oil). Rickets can develop when keeping animals in dark, unventilated areas, without walking.
Signs of vitamin D deficiency and their severity depend on the degree of deficiency of this vitamin. In acute cases, calves manifest in the form of appetite distortion: they drink urine, can chew and swallow pieces of rags, skin, chew manure. The gait of the animal becomes tense, cautious, with frequent stops, they lie more. Growth slows down, emaciation is observed, joints grow larger, limbs become weaker and bent. On the skin there are places devoid of coat.
In adult cattle, especially in highly productive cows, lack of vitamin D is manifested in the deterioration and distortion of appetite, indigestion. Sick animals lose weight quickly, their productivity decreases. Long-term lack of vitamin D leads to increasing weakness, careful movement, sticking. As a result of the weakness of the muscles in animals, there is a hanging abdomen, the discharge of the shoulder blades from the body, intermittent claudication.
Assistance and prevention consist in providing animals with benign, vitamin-rich and mineral-rich foods. The dietary sources of vitamin D are good, with leaves of hay, sun-dried, whole milk. It is useful to give fortified fish oil 20–40 ml each or inject it intramuscularly in a dose of 5–10 ml; burnt bones, bone meal, tricalcium phosphate are also included in the diet. Natural and artificial ultraviolet radiation has a good effect on the body of young and adult animals. Vitamin D preparations are also prescribed: videoin (D3), dry yeast concentrate of vitamin D2, oil concentrate of vitamin D2, trivitamin, etc.
Combined infrared and ultraviolet irradiation, which is obtained from the IKUF-1 m installations, is used with great benefit. These rays have a positive effect on the body of the young, as they increase its resistance and prevent colds and gastrointestinal diseases.
This is a metabolic disorder associated with a lack or absence of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in the body.
Cause. Adult animals, as a rule, themselves satisfy the need for this vitamin due to its synthesis in the gastrointestinal tract. However, under certain conditions, the synthesis of ascorbic acid may be disrupted. The disease occurs mainly in young farm animals with a lack of vitamin C in colostrum, milk and other feed. Vitamin C deficiency can occur when there is a violation of its absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, destruction by toxins (if there is a large amount of nitrate nitrogen in the feed), and diseases of young intestinal infections (dyspepsia, colibacteriosis, salmonellosis.).
Signs of C-avitaminosis are often manifested by anemia, i.e. pale skin and mucous membranes, and the appearance on the mucous membrane of the oral cavity, especially in the area of gums, hemorrhages.
The disease develops slowly. Initially, the pigs become lethargic, more lie, buried in the litter, the appetite is lowered, the wool ruffles, they become snacks. At the forefront of the phenomenon of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Feces in the beginning are mushy, then liquid, watery, frequent defecation. Spotted hemorrhages are noticeable on the gums and lips, at the site of which later on there is disintegration of the tissue with the formation of ulcers, sometimes tail necrosis occurs.
Most often, C-avitaminosis is recorded in piglets of weaning age. They have clearly visible hemorrhages in the skin, subcutaneous tissue, lips and gums. Conjunctivitis often occurs.
In calves, C-avitaminosis in general has the same clinical picture as in piglets.
More acute and severe disease occurs in the second half of the stall content, which is associated with an exacerbation of vitamin C deficiency.
Assistance and prevention. A necessary condition is to improve the feeding and maintenance of young animals. They give food rich in protein and vitamin C. They prescribe needles extract, germinated grains of peas, rye or wheat. Cabbage, potatoes, young needles, nettle, sorrel, linden and birch leaves, wild rose berries and black currants, herbs are very rich in vitamin C.
Ascorbic acid is given in doses: suckling piglets 15-20 mg per day, calves 1-5 mg / kg body weight 1 time per day with food for 7-10 days.
Infusion of needles with a therapeutic purpose is prescribed 1 time per day: suckling piglets of 25-30 ml, weaned piglets and gilts 50-100, calves 50-250 ml.
This is a disorder of the function of the central nervous system, accompanied by lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and exhaustion. The disease is more common in poultry, pigs and calves up to 2-3 months of age.
Cause. In pigs and poultry, the disease develops in the absence or inadequate intake of this vitamin with feed, in ruminants, as a result of digestive disorders, since this vitamin is synthesized by the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract.
The development of B1-avitaminosis contributes to long-term unilateral feeding with concentrated feed.
Signs. Vitamin B deficiency is more acute - in poultry, pigs and adult pigs are somewhat less sensitive to its deficiency. The main signs of B-avitaminosis are depression, loss of appetite, weakness of the extremities, pallor of mucous membranes, irritability, seizures, seizures. Often marked intermittent diarrhea and constipation, bloating, exhaustion.
In the bird, paralysis of the legs and wings, sometimes drooping of the head or neck curvature, shortness of breath are the most characteristic signs.
Assistance and prevention. Animals create good conditions. Feed rich in vitamin B1 (bran, green hay with leaves, carrots, bakery or brewer's yeast) is introduced into the diet. An effective therapeutic agent is intramuscular administration of vitamin (thiamine) in the form of a 0.5% solution in doses: calves in 10 ml, hens - 3-5 ml daily for 7-10 days.
Disease resulting from a lack or lack of vitamin E in the diet. Both adult animals and young animals are affected, but the disease is more acute in young animals.
Signs. With a lack of vitamin E, the reproductive function is disturbed: in males, a decrease in the formation of spermatozoa and the extinction of the sexual reflexes, in females, sterility or abortion. Prolonged absence of vitamin E in the diet leads to changes in the skeletal muscles and muscles of the heart.
Calves have decreased appetite, depression, muscle weakness, fatigue, increased heart rate and respiration.
In piglets, the disease manifests by shortness of breath, vomiting, diarrhea (often bloody), weakness, paralysis, fever.
In chickens and turkeys, E-avitaminosis is manifested by poor appetite, a depressed state, a violation of the coordination of movements, and a throwing back of the head.
Sick chickens and ducklings rise with difficulty or do not get up at all, lie with frantically stretched limbs. There are swelling of the subcutaneous tissue.
In E-vitamin deficiencies in ewes, a large number of stillborn babies and the birth of weak lambs, which often have difficult to treat digestive disorders, often occur.
Assistance and prevention. Pigs, birds, calves include green grass, wheat germinated grain, carrots, clover or alfalfa flour, flax seeds, sunflower seeds, oat flour, and corn. Weak-born calves, pigs, lambs from 3-4 days of age are given vitamin E supplements: calves 15 mg, piglets and lambs 10-15 mg per day. Doses of vitamin E for adult animals: cows 0.01-0.03 mg, pigs 0.005 mg / kg body weight. Younger vitamin E is best given with colostrum. Preparations of vitamin E are tocopherol, feed E-25, granuvit E-25.
Prevention of E-avitaminosis should be carried out from the prenatal period of fetal development. Therefore, pregnant animals should be given a sufficient amount of feed rich in vitamin E.Read more articles on this topic here.
What is animal vitamin deficiency
All processes in the body of animals depend on the correct balance of vitamins, micro-and macronutrients. They control the metabolism, affect the productivity and fertility of cows.
Cattle get the necessary vitamins from the feed, but this amount, especially in the winter, may not be enough. As a result, vitamin deficiency occurs - lack of vitamins, or hypovitaminosis - their lack.
In case of deficiency of these elements, animal growth slows down, productivity decreases, the work of almost all organs and body systems deteriorates, libido decreases, ovarian dysfunction and impaired spermatogenesis are manifested. There is also a decrease in immunity, susceptibility to infectious and inflammatory diseases, and even the death of young animals.
Why and who most often happens
Avitaminosis is associated with an imbalance of nutrition, when the intake of vitamins in the body is less than the need for them. It usually develops at the end of the winter-stall period, when during the winter the cow consumed a supply of useful substances and for a long time did not receive enough ultraviolet light.
At this time, lethargy, exhaustion, refusal of food and all other changes indicating a deficiency of vitamins begin to appear.
Especially sensitive to this phenomenon are cows and dairy cows, young animals and sires. The same is manifested when keeping calves in poor conditions - in a cold, dirty and damp room.
Then even a good diet will not be able to compensate for the consumption of internal energy, which goes to maintain the necessary body temperature and the work of all organs.Most often, beriberi is observed in February, March, April
Vitamin A A
A lack of vitamin A in the diet indicates a lack of carotene in it. This is most often affected calves and cows with increased lactation. In the presence of a full-fledged diet - silage with rich vitamins and combined feed - you need to check the work of the gastrointestinal tract. Some gastrointestinal problems are bad for the absorption of carotene from food. Three month old calf with signs of vitamin A deficiency
- loss of appetite, slow growth of young,
- dryness of the mucous surface of the eyes,
- blurred vision - animals bump into different objects, lean too much towards the ground,
- inflammation of the respiratory and digestive organs,
- stopping estrus in cows and reducing the quality of semen in bulls,
- the threat of miscarriage, oxygen and water starvation of the fetus, premature birth.
In addition to the basic diet, you should take vitamin A. For replenishing carotene and rapid growth, calves also use the following remedies:
- "Biovit 80" - improves the digestive tract and strengthens muscle tone,
- "Eleovit" - improves immunity and can be used from birth,
- Vilofoss - animals of any age are saturated with proteins and vitamins.
Carrots, fish oil, alfalfa hay, mixed fodder with vitamin A are also introduced into their diets. In addition, it is good to give oatmeal with grated carrots or potatoes and oatmeal.
When it is impossible to replenish vitamin A with dietary correction, its daily oral intake to pregnant cows (50–100 thousand IU) and one-time intake to calves (1 million IU in the first feeding or from a bottle) is prescribed. Cows can also be given 500,000-100,000 IU of the drug intramuscularly with a repeat of 1.5-2 weeks.
In order to prevent the disease, in the spring and summer it is necessary to prepare vitamin feed, as well as a sufficient amount of carrots, beets and potatoes. In addition, it is important to maintain a stall for animals in good condition. It should be clean, insulated and well lit.
This type of beriberi is more common in young animals, in adults it is quite rare. For the prevention of avitaminosis in calves, special attention should be paid to feeding the cow after calving.
- nervousness, unhealthy activity, cramps,
- there is a tremor in the muscles and ataxia (impaired coordination of movements),
- the animal lifts its legs high and bends strongly, as if stepping on the parade-ground,
- disorders of the digestive system, loss of appetite, exhaustion, growth retardation,
- skin problems - peeling, baldness in wool,
- swelling in the joints.
It is necessary to pay attention to changes in the behavior of the animal, without waiting for the appearance of complications. At the first symptoms should be added to the diet of a cow or calf carrots, brewer's yeast, bran.
When symptoms of avitaminosis are pronounced, drugs of group B are prescribed. Usually, 0.1% cobalt chloride solution in a dosage of 100 ml is used for therapy.
It is necessary that the B vitamins are always contained in the diet of cows. They are found in bran, green hay, carrots, fodder or baker's yeast. In winter, you should add in the preparations of vitamins of group B.
Vitamin D is produced by the body of cattle under the action of ultraviolet rays. It is responsible for normal calcium and phosphorus metabolism, and its deficiency can lead to osteomalacia (softening of the bone tissue).
Most often, young lactation and high lactation cows suffer from vitamin D deficiency. This is due to the accelerated metabolism in these groups of animals. Rickets in calf
- low animal activity, lameness,
- rickets, improper development of young limbs,
- weight reduction, hollow sides,
- pain on palpation of the ribs, pelvic bones, joints,
- eating unusual food - stones, bones,
- licking various objects - walls, rags, urine,
- jaw deformity, gingivitis, tooth loss.
The diseased animal should be separated from the general herd, its maintenance and nutritional conditions should be improved, and daily walking, especially in sunny weather, should be carried out. Great helper in avitaminosis - juicy green grass.
If there is a severe lack of vitamin D, drug therapy is prescribed. Предварительно, для определения причин болезни, у животного берётся кровь на содержание электролитов.
В качестве лечения могут выступать:
- ежедневные солнечные ванны при помощи ультрафиолетовых ламп длительностью 10–15 минут,
- внутримышечные уколы масляного раствора витамина D в количестве 100–200 МЕ,
- при прогрессирующих симптомах — внутримышечный 20-процентный раствор глюконата кальция,
- внутривенное введение 10-процентного раствора хлористого кальция.
In the spring and summer period, a sufficient amount of silage should be stored - corn, clover, alfalfa. Bone meal and forage chalk are added to it. When it is impossible to store silage in winter, the grass is dried and fed to cattle as hay.
This vitamin is responsible for the work of all internal organs, metabolism, fat metabolism and the reproductive system of animals. Its deficiency leads to a problem with the appearance of offspring and the healthy development of the young.
- metabolic disease,
- infertility of animals
- slowing ovarian function and lack of heat in females,
- deterioration in quality and reduction in the number of semen in bulls,
- premature and stillborn fetus,
- hidden abortion in the early stages,
- enzootic muscular dystrophy in calves,
- in severe cases - lameness, paralysis, degenerative processes in the cardiovascular system.
To replenish the supply of vitamin E in the body is often used oil concentrate - "Trivitamin." His dose is prescribed individually and only by a specialist.
Vitamin E is found in high concentration in wheat germinated grains and green fodder, therefore it is necessary to ensure sufficient amount of them in the diet of animals. In addition, in the winter time you need to provide additional vitamin supplements.
Disease exchanges and avitaminosis diseases
Of the diverse diseases associated with metabolic disorders, the most common diseases of the body, caused by a violation of protein, carbohydrate and mineral metabolism. No less often observed pathological conditions arising from the lack of content in the diet of vitamins.
Paralytic myohemoglobinuria in horses. The disease is characterized by rapid compaction and rebirth of some muscles with the onset of paralysis and the appearance of dark red urine.
The reasons. The disease is observed mainly in horses well-fed, phlegmatic and crude constitution. The reason is a long, from one to several days, the release of horses from work, without posting, while the abundant food concentrates.
Signs. In the very first hours of work, the animal develops sweating, difficulty in moving the hind limbs. Then the animal falls and cannot rise, especially on the hind limbs. Muscles, especially croup muscles, become dense and insensitive. A very characteristic feature of myohemoglobnuria is urine staining (hemoglobin) in red OR dark red to black.
Current and forecast. With a moderate degree of the disease comes recovery. In severe cases, the disease often ends in the death of the animal.
Treatment. It is necessary that when the first signs of the disease appear, it is not unreasonable to stop working and deliver the animal to the farm or to the nearest veterinary institution.
The animal is given soda dissolved in water, through the mouth, or injected into the rectum with enema 100.0-150.0 every 2-3 hours. To strengthen the activity of the heart, caffeine solution is injected under the skin. The muscles of the croup and the lumbar region are covered with something warm. In addition, the animals are supported by the apparatus (Fig. 116).
Prevention. During the period of many days of forced standing, well-fed horses are prescribed daily walks and reduce the feeding of concentrates by 40-60%.
Acetonemia in cattle. Acetonemia is a disease of cows characterized by the accumulation in the blood of acetone bodies.
The reasons. The most likely cause of the disease is prolonged overfeeding with concentrated feeds that are too rich in proteins and fats.
Signs of. The animal becomes depressed. In the future, there is a paresis of the limbs, and the animal ceases to rise independently. In this case, the head usually lies on the chest, as in the birthing paresis. Reflexes are usually lowered.
The body temperature in most cases is normal or below normal. The most characteristic symptom is the discharge with exhaled air, urine and milk of acetone, the smell of which resembles the sweetish smell of chloroform.
Flow. Most often chronic. The most dangerous current, accompanied by zalazivaniem and a strong degree of oppression, bordering on the drowsiness of the animal.
Treatment. A 40% glucose solution is administered intravenously in an amount of from 150 to 250 ml with a repetition every 1-2 hours until improvement occurs. In addition, through the mouth, and with the disorder of swallowing through the esophageal tube, simple sugar is administered at 200.0-400.0 diluted in 1-2 liters of water, soda 50.0-100.0 dissolved in 200-300 ml water with repetition every 3-4 hours until improvement and salt laxatives. At the same time injected subcutaneously with a solution of caffeine. Blowing air into the udder and vigorous rubbing of the animal are used as auxiliary measures.
Prevention. Do not allow both systematic overfeeding and sudden feeding of excessively large quantities of concentrated feed to the animal. Useful daily walks of animals.
Osteomalacia (softening of the bones). Osteomalacia is a chronic disease of the whole organism, accompanied by a disorder of mineral metabolism. Most often it occurs in adult cattle and goats.
The reasons. The most common causes can be: insufficient mineral supplements, low content of mineral salts and vitamins in feed and lack of walks in the open air.
Signs of. Due to the softening of the bones and their pain, the movements of the animal become strained. Often, especially before birth, stalling develops.
Sometimes there is inflammation of the carpal, hock and coronary joints, and tendon sheaths.
Under the influence of minor bruises, bone fractures can occur. The temperature usually remains normal.
Treatment. Diseased animals are transferred to feeding on green, juicy grass or in its absence for feeding with outside oat grains OR clover hay, oats, oilcakes, etc. Sour food is excluded from the diet. At the same time organize systematic walks of animals. Through the mouth, chalk is given for 30.0-50.0 Kruppa and 10.0-30.0 for small animals with feed, wood ash (beech, elm, ash, pine) to 100.0, bone meal for 25.0- 40.0 (large animals), fish oil 30.0-100.0 per day, vitamin D concentrate (intramuscularly).
Prevention. With insufficient content in the feed necessary salts and vitamins injected into the diet of food rich in lime and phosphoric acid, as well as vitamins. The amount of acidic feed in the diet is either reduced or excluded from the diet altogether.
In addition, organize systematic walking of animals.
Lizuha The reasons. It occurs when there is a lack of cobalt and vitamins in the feed, as well as when feeding hay obtained from marshy, acidic meadows.
Signs. The most characteristic signs are: an irresistible desire to lick urine, walls, etc., to eat various foreign bodies (rags, bones, etc.).
Flow. Chronic. If the causes of the disease are not eliminated, the animals die in the event of exhaustion.
Treatment. Apply cobalt chloride (for cows - 10-30 mg per day for 15-20 days).
Hypo-and beriberi A. Avitaminosis A is understood as a disease resulting from the lack or absence of vitamin A or its provitamin, known as carotene, in the feed.
Signs. In cows: abortions, stillborn fetuses, weak and easily sick offspring, afterbirth retention, endometritis, barrenness, low content of carotene and vitamin A in the blood, delayed molt and insufficient mobility of the joints.
Males-producers - the deterioration of sperm quality.
In calves: weakness and reduced viability after birth, stunted growth, diarrhea from the first days after birth, occurring more often at normal and low temperature, often bronchopneumonia, eye disease, as well as a predisposition to the disease of colibacillosis, paratyphoid fever.
In pigs: fetal death, abortion, the birth of the dead, weak and sometimes blind piglets, infertility.
Spread: weakness, growth retardation, insufficient weight gain and often anemia, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, bronchopneumonia, catarrh of the stomach and intestines, bone disease resembling rickets.
Wowetz: loss of appetite, emaciation, movement disorder, infertility, abortion and the birth of weak lambs.
In poultry (most often in chickens and pullets): outflow from the eyes, eyelid glueing, clouding and ulceration of the cornea, growth retardation, emaciation, cheese-like raids on the oral mucosa, paralysis.
Flow. Most often chronic.
Forecast. The disease can take a massive spread and is accompanied by a large animal mortality rate from complications and joining an infectious disease !.
Treatment and Prevention. Adult animals (cows, pigs, sheep, etc.) in the winter period are introduced into the feed ration green, better clover, hay, good! silage from early harvest plants and other feed with abundant carotene content. In the absence of carotene-rich foods, vitamin A concentrate or fish oil is used. For cows, vitamin A concentrate is injected intramuscularly or subcutaneously up to 100 OOO — 250 OOO U units per day or every 2–3 days, or once a week, respectively, increasing the dose. Fish oil (natural) is administered internally with feed to cows up to 100.0-200.0 1-2 times a day, fortified fish oil is used intramuscularly in 5-10 ml every 5 days, sheep and sows are respectively reduced. The duration of treatment is at least 4-5 weeks.
In order to prevent A-hypovitaminosis in young animals with a lack of feed rich in carotene, pregnant cows for 1-2 months before calving intramuscularly (subcutaneously) injected vitamin A concentrates every 2 days, 200,000 IU or once a week, respectively, increasing the dose, along with forage gives fish oil 100.0–200.0 per day, pregnant pigs and sheep are reduced in doses of vitamin A, respectively.
Newborn calves born from cows with A-ginovitaminosis, immediately after birth, prescribe vitamin A concentrate intramuscularly or with colostrum, and then with milk (35 000-50 000 IU 2-3 times a day for 3-4 weeks) and early and abundant feeding of colostrum, especially in the first days after birth. Calves of later age, in addition to vitamin A concentrate, are prescribed fish oil at 30.0-100.0 per reception once a day with food, raw carrots in a shabby look, good green food. Pigs and lambs are prescribed the same as calves, respectively, reducing the dose.
For the birds, in summertime, walking on green meadows, green dressing (clover, alfalfa, vetch, green cabbage, nettle in shredded form, 10-30 g per head per day) are organized. In winter, vitamin hay is given with food in the form of hay leaf or hay flour, silage from green plants 10-50 g per head per day, carrots in shabby or chopped form, 10-20 g per head, brewer's yeast 2-5 g per day, germinated grain 10-20 g, fortified fish oil 3.0-10.0 per day and other preparations of vitamin A.
It is useful to feed the green mass grown on mineral-water solutions (hydroponic method).
Hypo-and vitamin deficiency B. Causes. The lack of feed in one of the vitamins or vitamin B complex.
Signs. Lethargy will disappear, in 20-60 days there will be increased irritability and seizures of convulsions
In birds: decreased appetite, lethargy, convulsions and paralysis.
Green food, carrots, sprouted grains, bran, use preparations of vitamin B (thiamine, riboflavin).
Rachitis (vitamin D deficiency). The reasons. Insufficient content of vitamin D (or its provitamin) in feedings, as well as calcium and phosphorus salts. The development of the disease contributes to poor conditions, lack of light in the room, chronic indigestion, stall maintenance without walking.
Signs. In young animals, they first observe lag in growth, a tight walk, later curvature of the forelimbs, bending of the spine, and crawling on the carpal joints. The disease develops within 1-3 months.
Forecast. When running forms, animals often become economically unsuitable and are rejected.
Treatment. Animals are given vitamin D supplements and fish oil. To calves, fish oil is given orally in an amount of from 10.0 to 100.0 per reception for a long time, vitaminized fish oil is injected 2-5 ml under the skin every 5 days, and vitamin D concentrate is injected intramuscularly at 10,000 IU per day for 10-15 days or more. They create the best living conditions, irradiate animals with a quartz lamp and feed green grass, good green hay, and root vegetables (especially carrots). With a lack of minerals in the diet, increase the amount of bran, flour, cake and grain and give (calves) precipitated chalk of 5.0-10.0, 10% solution of calcium chloride in one tablespoon 1-2 times a day with food , bone meal at 10.0-30.0, calcium phosphate at 2.0-10.0. Pigs, lambs and other young animals reduce doses of vitamin D and mineral preparations, respectively.
Prevention. Animals, especially young animals, should be grazed on good pastures, fed with green fodder, good hay, roots, give mineral supplements, provide a diverse fodder ration. The use of fish oil.
Hypovitaminosis "D" in cattle
Under the action of ultraviolet in the body, animals produce vitamin “D”. It contributes to the normalization of phosphorus-calcium metabolism. Insufficient amount of vitamin leads to osteomalacia. The animal's bones soften. The disease has the following symptoms:
- low activity, the cow tries to lie down more, she barely gets to her feet, limps when walking,
- there is disease lizuha, the animal licks the walls, objects that are in the stall, urine, rags,
- cows eat uncharacteristic food: bones, stones,
- the animal becomes skinny, the sides sink,
- gums become inflamed, incisors begin to move and fall out, jaw bones deform,
- palpation of the joints and ribs appears sore, there are changes in the bones of the pelvis.
At the first signs of a lack of vitamin D, the animal is separated from the herd, and a certain therapy is prescribed. Treatment is associated with changes in nutrition, improvement of living conditions, daily walks, especially on sunny days. With obvious symptoms of hypovitaminosis, medication is prescribed.
In the spring and summer, it is necessary to make silage stocks for the cow. It should consist of alfalfa, clover, corn. In the silo add bone meal, fodder chalk. If it is not possible to store silage in winter, the herbs are dried and given to cows in the form of hay. Veterinarians prescribe juicy green grass for osteomalacia. This is the first aid for cattle with hypovitaminosis "D".
- As therapy, the animal is irradiated with ECM lamps. The cow receives artificial sunbathing. Procedures are carried out daily for 10-15 minutes.
- Additionally prescribe an oily solution of the vitamin intramuscularly. Dosage - 100-200 IU.
- If the symptoms of beriberi in a cow are progressing, then calcium gluconate 20% solution is administered intramuscularly.
- Enter intravenous calcium chloride, a solution of 10%.
To determine the causes of the disease, cows take blood for electrolytes. Medication is prescribed only after receiving the analysis.