With this method, birds are grown mainly in one-story poultry houses, however, in order to save land massifs, they are beginning to change the construction of two-story rooms.
A good bedding material should be cheap and easy to transport, clean, dry, free from mold, have a high moisture capacity, have insulating qualities, do not form a large amount of dust. Peat, straw, sawdust, shavings, chaff, crushed corn cobs, barley films, sunflower husks, etc. are used. The density of planting with this method is 12-14 heads per square meter. However, experiments confirm the possibility of increasing the density of planting up to 18-24 heads per square meter floor. This is achieved in various ways. In particular, perches are mounted indoors.
The advantage of this method is that here you can create the best conditions for the growth, development of the bird and the convenience of its maintenance by staff. In addition, rearing birds in deep bedding requires the least capital outlay.
The disadvantage is the poor use of the entire volume of the room, a relatively low yield per square meter.
Growing on mesh floors.
Mesh floors for growing broilers should have cells measuring 16x16 mm and be made of wire with a diameter of 3-4 mm. The concrete floor in the hall where the bird is grown is made with a total gradient of 0.002 to one of the ends.
This method allows significanto to simplify bird care and effective cleaning and sanation after its slaughter, to almost completely mechanize production processes. For distribution of feed, watering of poultry, local heating, room ventilation, manure cleaning, use serial equipment TsBK-10V, TsBK-20V (this equipment is also used in growing broilers on deep bedding), Klimat-2, heat generators TT-2.5A , sets OBN-1, BGO-140, R-15, containers V-650, etc.
The method allows to do without litter, increase the density of planting up to 30 goals per square meter, as well as mechanize the unloading of poultry for slaughter.
However, when growing birds on mesh floors, products of lower quality are obtained. Chickens from the net formed Namin. Getting the claws into the mesh cells, broilers are often injured. Safety of a bird decreases. Higher and capital investments (although they then quickly pay for themselves).
1.5 Sanitary rules for obtaining high-quality products
When organizing the cultivation of broilers, it is necessary to ensure the mandatory implementation of veterinary and sanitary and preventive measures.
Broiler complexes should not be located closer than 1 km from settlements and 0.5 km from railways. Ancillary services (warehouses, masters, etc.) carry out the location of poultry houses. The territory of the farm is protected by a metal grid. Before entering the farm, equipment is being worn out of the debris and sanitary inspection room. The farm should have a storage room, a sanitary cleaning station and cemented sump wells, and a reservoir for litter near each poultry house. A litterhouse should be at least 300 meters away from the premises.
In order to exclude the penetration of wild birds, all the ventilation holes in the poultry houses and feed tanks are tightened with a net with a cell size of 2.0-2.5 cm. They are ruthlessly fighting rodents and flies.
Before placing a new batch of birds, it is necessary to endure a preventive break, which lasts for 4 weeks on the floor, for a cage - 3, for a floor and for a cage - 2 weeks. At this time, everything should be cleaned, washed, disinfected by wet and aerosol methods. In the case of floor maintenance, before delivery of a new one under the stylers, the floor is covered with lime at the rate of 0.5 kg per m2.
The hatching eggs must come to the farm from the enterprises, safe for infectious diseases.
Particular attention is paid to the hatchery. It is necessary to ensure quality disinfection of eggs entering the incubation, washing and disinfection of technological equipment, disinsection and sanitation of the incubation, excretion and screening rooms.
The sanitary day is set once a month for general cleaning, cleaning and disinfection of workshops.
An important place in the system of preventive measures is vaccination of birds.
It is desirable to add antibiotics and coccidiostatics to the feed for poultry (especially chickens).
Fallen and killed birds are opened, establish the reason for the disposal and register. In doubtful cases, it is investigated in veterinary laboratories. During the breeding period, the behavior of the bird, the palatability of the feed, water consumption, growth dynamics, general condition, and its appearance are observed.
Broiler farms should be maintained under the regime of closed enterprises. It is forbidden to visit farms by persons who are not related to raising or keeping poultry.
The main link for the prevention of diseases in the household is disassembly. Disinfect shoes, protective clothing, all cars entering, etc.
Strict control of incoming feed should be established.
Promotion of veterinary and sanitary knowledge contributes to the implementation of all preventive measures.
What breeds and crosses of broilers are the most precocious
The most popular breeds among owners of poultry farms are:
- Broiler-61 - at the age of 1.5 months it reaches a weight of 1.8 kg. The average daily gain is 40 g. Required feed costs for a set of 1 kg of live weight are 2.3 kg.
- Gibro-6 - 1.5 months weighs 1.6 kg. Every day, with proper care, the bird gains weight up to 40 g. The annual egg production rate is 160 eggs.
- Change - The result of the breeding of the two breeds described above. Such broilers add about 40 g per day and lay up to 140 eggs per year.
- Ross-308 - by the age of 2 months it reaches a weight of 2.5 kg. The average daily gain in live weight - 40 g. Egg production - 180 eggs per year.
- Irtysh - 1.5 months weighs 1.8 kg. Average daily gain - 36–40 g. Feed consumption - 2.2 kg for a set of 1 kg body weight. Egg production - 150 eggs per year.
- Russia - with an average daily gain in live weight of 50 g. At 1.5 months, individuals weigh about 2 kg.
- Siberian - lays up to 130 eggs per year. At 1.5 months, these birds weigh about 2 kg, adding almost 40 g per day.
How to grow broilers at the poultry farm
In broiler farms, they are kept either in cages or simply on the floor. These conditions are significantly different from a domestic chicken coop.
Growing chickens on the floor, often use wood litter 10 cm deep. On 1 square. m can fit up to 18 bird heads. In this room, a ventilation system and places for food are required.
Cellular content is the most popular method. Thus, in one room you can grow much more birds, save the available space. So, for 1 cu. m can fit up to 30 broilers. The main difficulty of keeping such birds is maintaining the correct microclimate in the whole room. Such rooms have not only a ventilation system, but also heating. In terms of utility payments, this is significantly more expensive.
What feed broilers in poultry farms
At the poultry farms, broilers are fed with special feed, which consists of:
- two types of meal,
- bone meal,
- complex of vitamins and minerals.
- amino acids, etc.
Automation of technological systems
Today, there are a lot of technologies that help reduce the cost of human labor necessary for bird care, i.e., simplify, while making it more qualitative. These include:
- ventilation system - to eliminate odors and purify indoor air,
- climate control system - to create an optimal temperature,
- automatic food supply system (feed and water).
The principle of the poultry farm is a bit similar to the domestic birds. The enterprises use special breeds of broilers, feed them with mixed fodders and keep them in specially equipped premises. The most developed factories fully automate their activities in order to reduce labor costs and create more ideal conditions for birds (temperature, humidity and air purity, food freshness, etc.). Remember that all products of such enterprises, which you acquire in stores, are subject to veterinary control in a regulatory body.
Growing broilers for meat.
There are several ways to keep broiler chickens:
- In the cells.
- On mesh floors.
- Floor content on deep bedding.
In industrial conditions, the most commonly used outdoor cultivation of broilers on deep bedding, this method we consider in more detail. This is the most practical way to grow broilers and is used on most poultry farms.
The essence of the method lies in the fact that broilers, starting from the age of one day, are kept in the poultry house on a deep bedding and so on throughout the entire fattening period.
An automated set of equipment for pulp and paper mill - 10, pulp and paper mill - 20, or similar, which allows to automate the distribution of feed and the supply of water to the drinkers, is used for floor keeping of broiler hens.
Equipment for growing broilers.
The equipment is designed for typical farm houses with the size of the premises:
Set of equipment PPM-20.
- A set of equipment consists of the following components:
- Control cabinet
- Bunker for feed.
- Screw conveyor
- Feeder chain washer.
- Bunker type feeders.
- Water supply system with storage tank and hanging drinkers.
- Suspended electric brooders BP-1 and BP-1A for spot heating chickens.
- Fencing for chickens.
The premises of a broiler farm must be necessarily equipped with forced ventilation and general heating. The presence of dampness and drafts in the premises of the farm is unacceptable.
Technology of growing broilers.
Initial stage: preparation of the room.
For the year on the farm in one room you can grow 4 batches of broilers, the term of growing each batch of broilers is about 8 weeks, between batches it takes 2 weeks for sanitary cleaning and preparing the room for settling a new batch of chickens.
The preparation of the room consists in cleaning the old bedding and litter. Inventory and all equipment is washed and disinfected with 5% soda ash solution.
The floors, walls and ceiling in the house are disinfected with a solution of caustic soda 2%, the walls, and the ceiling should be whitened with a 20% solution of freshly shed lime.
The floor in the house should be sprinkled with lime-fluff (consumption 1 kg per 1 m²), then the litter is laid on the floor with a layer of 7-15 cm, (sawdust, shavings or sunflower husk), the litter is leveled. In winter, litter thickness should be at least 10 - 15 cm.
The next stage: installation of equipment.
Suspended electric brooders, fencing for chickens, suspended drinking bowls and feeders are installed. After installing the equipment in the poultry house, it is necessary to carry out a control sanitization with gas, after which the room is closed for a day, then fully ventilated with the help of forced ventilation.
Before settling chickens of broilers, the room is heated for two days, maintaining a temperature of 25 ° C.
Planting of young broiler chickens.
Chickens in the house in wide cardboard boxes, from the boxes they are transplanted to the litter in the enclosed compartments of 600 pieces, place the chickens with a density of 18 pieces. on 1 m². After a week, the fence is removed and the chickens move freely around the house.
It is important for chickens to maintain an accurate temperature regime, as the temperature drops, chickens will begin to sink in and crush each other, the increased temperature has a bad effect on the development of chickens.
Table temperature regime broilers.
When the content of broilers is maintained around the clock light intensity of low intensity. Per unit of illumination is taken lx (4.6 lx = 1 W).
The table is the mode of illumination of the house when growing broilers.
It is not necessary to use a constant illumination in the house, you can use intermittent lighting, one and a half hours of light, two hours of light at the minimum.
Broilers, unlike ordinary laying hens, are less mobile, consume feed more often, and most of the time sit or lie on their side. Therefore, they do not need a large space; during the growth of young animals, the density is reduced from 18 heads to 14 heads per square meter.
Feed for growing broilers.
Since chickens broilers have high precocity characteristics, they require a full-fledged, balanced feed with high protein content, and vitamins with the addition of premix for broilers.
As feed, special feeds are used for broilers, for floor-keeping PC 5 - 3, PC 6 - 3, for keeping in PC 5 - 4, PC 6 - 5. For each growth period, feed of a certain composition is used.
Feed broilers need plenty, feed in the feeders should be constantly.
For day-old chickens in the first week, tray feeders with a side height of 20 mm are used, and vacuum feeders are used; a feeder feeders with a side height of 50 mm are installed for the second week; after two weeks of age, pulp and paper mill equipment is used for feeding.
The term of cultivation of broilers.
The term of cultivation is based on the optimal dynamics of the increase in live weight, while the body effectively absorbs food and there is an increase in live weight. When the intensity of weight gain starts to slow down, an overrun of feed begins, for broiler chickens the optimal age up to which it is advisable to grow them for 7-8 weeks.
By this age, broilers have a live weight of about 2.5 kg, gutted carcasses 1.7 - 2 kg.
At 8 weeks old, the broiler weight of cockerels is 20% higher than that of chickens.
Upon reaching the age of 8 months, the bird is allowed to be slaughtered, gutted, the carcass is cut, cooled in refrigerators to a temperature of +6 degrees and sent for sale to retail outlets.
Growing a broiler business.
The profitability of the broiler business is obvious, the profit can already be obtained 8 weeks after the purchase of chickens, but not everything is as simple as it seems at first glance. The high intensity of growth and weight gain of broilers affects the increased vulnerability of birds to various diseases. Broilers are more susceptible to diseases than ordinary chickens, therefore, they require special conditions of housing and be sure to vaccinate chickens. There are many cases of massive loss of livestock in violation of sanitary conditions of feeding and feeding, so you need to strictly adhere to the technology of cultivation and keep the house clean. With proper proper care, the bird's survival rate is 95–97%.
Under the conditions of a broiler farm, the investment quickly pays off, 4 batches of poultry are grown in one room per year. In the presence of a feed mill, own production of compound feed will save an additional 20% compared with the purchase of finished feed.
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Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine
Odessa National Academy of Food Technologies
Completed: 4th year student
F-ka. AKSiUP gr.A-41
Leader: Khobin V.A.
Section 1. The selection of the control object from the environment
1.1 General analysis of the technological process implemented by the unit, the goals and conditions of its conduct
Mapping and description of the essence of the technological process, implemented by the technological unit, as a targeted transformation of material and energy flows.
Poultry farming technology
This company uses the technology of growing broilers company KOBB. She assumes under itself cultivation of boilers from chicks to adult chickens, with an average weight of 2.7 kg, for 46 days.
For a period of 46 days, at the beginning chickens are placed in a specially built and equipped room. It is equipped with an automatic supply of drinking water and feed. А также поддержание температуры, влажности, вентиляции и состава воздуха.
This period can be divided into certain intervals, in which, depending on the age of the hens, the conditions of their cultivation change. In particular, temperature, air humidity, ventilation. Allowable air composition standards remain unchanged.
Table of changes in the set values of microclimate parameters from the time of growing chickens
Discharge in the house 20 Pa
Description of the design of the technological unit and features of its operation
Well, perhaps we will start from the beginning, that is, we will describe the requirements for the construction and placement of the house itself.
For the construction of a broiler house, it is necessary to choose a plot of land with good drainage of abundant natural ventilation. Place the house along the east-west axis to reduce the effects of sun rays on the side walls during the hot season.
· Sheds on the roof, necessary for shading on the sides of the house.
· The material from which the roof is made must be of reflective materials to reduce thermal conductivity. Covering material must have a lower insulation layer.
· Insulation must be at least 10 cm. Of glass wool or other material with similar properties.
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· Heating systems must have sufficient capacity, taking into account the particular local climate.
· Ventilation systems should be designed to provide a sufficient volume of air and to maintain an optimal temperature.
· Illumination should be such as to ensure uniform distribution of light at the field level.
Example of a house
Formulation of the conditions under which it is possible and appropriate to implement the process under consideration
There are also a number of stringent requirements for this growing technology:
1. Requirements for equipment.
2. Requirements for poultry keeping environment.
3. Requirements for growing poultry
· Density of planting and content
· Main growing period
· Final fattening phase
Providing clean, cold water with appropriate feed volumes is a fundamental factor for obtaining good results when raising poultry. Without adequate water consumption, feed consumption will decrease and the boilers will be overhanged.
The enterprise uses a closed type system with high flowability. It allows water flow at a level of 80-90 ml / min. They provide access to water at the bottom edge of the nipple and are equipped with a micro cup.
These shelves are regulated depending on the growth of the bird. When drinking the bird should slightly reach for the nipple. Nipple shelves should operate with an even distribution throughout the pressure system. The recommended distribution of 12 heads on one nipple. Nipples should be located no more than 35 cm from each other.
Nipple drinkers of the closed type have a number of advantages:
· Water pollution is not as likely as in open systems
· Reduced chance of leakage
· Do not require daily cleaning
Water consumption by poultry should be 1.5 - 2 times higher than feed consumption.
There are water temperature requirements, see table below.
Too cold, low consumption
Too warm, low consumption
The bird refuses to drink
It is also necessary to provide a reserve of water. Ideally, you need to have a reserve that corresponds to the total water consumption in 24 hours. To prevent stagnation, the tank should be included in the overall water supply system.
Feeding systems are the most important factor in rearing poultry. If the volume of feeding is not sufficient, then there may be problems with the growth of broilers and, as a consequence, the loss in weight. The distribution of feed and the proximity of the feeders to the bird is the moment. All feeding systems must be calibrated to provide feed, with minimal loss.
Suspended bowl feeders are used at this poultry farm.
· The recommended landing density is 60-70 heads per 33cm calyx.
· Must be loaded in excess at first feeding.
· Should not impede the free movement of the bird in the aviary.
· Should allow the bird to completely eat the food, in order to avoid its gluing, but should not be half-empty.
For my model's house, 3 feeding lines are permissible.
Food is stored and served from the bunker located near each house.
The control of feed availability in feeders is controlled in this way. In the last trough there is a level sensor that gives readings about the amount of feed. If the feed is not enough, then the controller turns on the engine that starts pumping feed from the internal bunker to the feeders, until the last one in which the sensor is filled. After filling the controller turns off the motor. The presence of feed in the inner bunker and filling it with the outer one is also monitored by a level sensor. If the level of feed in the inner bunker is minimal, the pump is turned on, which feeds the feed from the outer bunker to the inner one through a pipe. Thus, the system is fully automated and does not require manual labor. Follow only the filling of the external bunker.
The amount of feed in the outer bunker should correspond to 5 day consumption. And the bunker itself must be moisture-proof, in order to avoid the appearance of a fungus.
One of the key elements for achieving maximum results in growing poultry is to ensure a stable microclimate in the poultry house. Fluctuations in temperature, especially at the level of sex, can cause stress in small chicks.
There are also certain requirements for choosing the type of heating:
· Minimum ambient temperature.
· Required temperature.
· Heat release by the bird itself.
· Heat loss through walls, floor, roof.
In the house of my design, to maintain the temperature, heating with warm air was used. For this purpose, 4 gas cannons JP 95 are installed in the house. Air is heated by burning gas. If the temperature in the house decreases, as indicated by the sensor, it transmits a signal to the controller. The controller in turn starts the burners and opens the gas supply.
The guns are also equipped with a thermal relay, which in the event of a controller failure or malfunction will turn on the burners when the temperature reaches the set limit.
To create an effective low-pressure system, it is necessary to ensure a controlled microclimate, which includes control of air flow, including the elimination of uncontrolled air leakage. This is especially important in the period of brooder heating, in which drafts at the floor level could have a detrimental effect on chickens. As a consequence, the air must flow into the house at such a reduced pressure that allows the incoming air to rush under the crest of the roof first, before the flow will fall. This is a function of the air intake section, combined with the performance of the fan with a practical reduction in operating pressure. The total air intake area should be designed to provide the required amount of pressure reduction, which also depends on the width of the house. The required air pressure is achieved by combining the power of the air exchanger and the fan.
Pressure reduction data for my design house:
Pressure (cf. art.)
Width of the house (m.)
Air speed (m / s)
6.45 cm at 11.1 m / h
The air intake must be under pressure control to maintain a constant air velocity at all stages of ventilation. Also, the curtain should be equipped with a sealant for tightness.
The feasibility of using natural ventilation, are its use in regions with relative humidity close to the required parameters in the house. The location of the Oril-Leader poultry farm almost fully complies with this requirement.
Also, for more efficient maintenance of the microclimate in the house, tunnel ventilation is used. It minimizes the effect of temperature fluctuations during hot weather. In the system of tunnel ventilation, all the fans are located in one end of the house, and all the air intakes in the opposite end. The air enters at a speed of 2.4 m / s, along the entire length of the house, at the same time taking moisture, hot air and dust. The air flow creates the effect of cooling by the wind, which reduces the temperature by 5-7. The effective temperature in the house should not exceed 30. In this case, complete air exchange occurs in 0.75-1.3 minutes.
As an environmental factor affecting all stages of production, light in poultry houses requires close attention. The intensity of illumination, the uniformity of illumination, the color of illumination and the duration, affect the development indicators and the health of the bird.
That is, a well-designed installation of light sources will allow chicks to quickly find food, water and heat in the brooder phase of rearing.
Poultry houses should be equipped, the possibility of a smooth shutdown. Incandescent or fluorescent lamps are well suited for this purpose.
Ventilation is the most important environmental control factor in the house. Ventilation affects air quality, temperature and relative humidity. Without effective ventilation, feed conversion, weight gain and the condition of the bird will deteriorate, which is accompanied by an increase in the number of birds requiring culling. In addition, poor ventilation will require a change in the density parameters of planting birds.
The ventilation system should:
· Provide air at any time, to cover the need for poultry oxygen.
· Distribute fresh air evenly, do not create drafts.
· Maintain effective temperature.
· Dissolve moisture.
· Remove sharp-smelling and side gases.
Air quality is estimated based on supply volume, presence of ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and relative humidity levels.
Air quality guidelines
The minimum ventilation should be increased if these parameters are not achieved.
If this is not done, then there will be problems with maintaining the microclimate in the house, which in turn will lead to problems with feeding and watering the birds, stress and weight loss.
The litter is a very important factor in maintaining the microclimate. The good condition of the litter affects the health of the birds, to obtain high performance parameters and the quality of the carcass.
It should be laid out in an even layer, 10.2 cm deep.
The most important functions are:
· Absorption of excretions - which reduces the contact of the bird with the droppings.
· Creating an insulating layer from the cold floor.
The litter materials may be different, but all must comply with certain criteria. Such as to possess absorbent properties, to be light in weight, not expensive and not toxic. Also, the characteristics of the material should allow its further use as fertilizer or fuel.
In this factory for this purpose, the laying of the husk of seeds.
Bird stocking density
The success of growing broilers significantly depends on the correct planting density, which ensures efficient use of space for optimal results. In addition to economic and technical factors, the density of landing significantly affects the welfare of the bird.
For proper assessment of planting, it is necessary to take into account such factors as climate, type of house, slaughter weight of birds, environmental legislation. Otherwise there may be problems and the bird will be sick.
For our climate type, planting density of 30 kg / close to ideal.
Parameterized process flow and general characteristics of the parameters and their interdependencies.
Graph of the setpoint temperature in the house from the bird's lifetime
Graph of the set value of the relative humidity in the house from the bird's lifetime
Graph of the set value of the air volume in the house from the bird's lifetime
1.2 the Concretization of the regulations and conditions of the process, its formalized presentation
Identification of standards for the technological process and operation of the technological unit
Technological regulations - determines the conditions under which as a result of the technological process a product with specified properties is obtained. It is a set of nominal values and tolerances for deviations from the nominal technological parameters.
- The temperature inside the house, according to technology.
- relative air humidity, according to technology.
- the volume of air in the house per head.
- discharge in the house.
Operational regulations - defines the conditions for normal, trouble-free operation of process equipment. It is a set of nominal values and tolerances for deviations of the operational parameters of this TO.
- lighting in the house.
- The composition of the air in the house.
Technical, Economic and Environmental Regulations - defines the conditions for the effectiveness of the process and its environmental friendliness. It is a set of nominal or maximum permissible values of technical, economic and environmental parameters.
- energy costs for growing one broiler
Analysis of the consequences of the release of technological parameters of operational parameters for routine tolerances.
Depending on the consequences, there are two types of characteristic types of violations:
1. The technological process does not stop and is eliminated by managing the process.
2. The technological process stops completely or partially, for its renewal it is necessary to prepare the equipment.
The purpose of automating my facility is to maintain the microclimate in the house, namely the main parameters, temperature, relative humidity and the passing air volume. Since I deal with animals (chickens) in my facility, the regulated areas and the ZN are quite wide, so the second type is not typical for my MOT. That is, all violations and exits beyond the regulated area are eliminated with time.
Nominal value of parameters
Humidity in the house
Discharge in the house
Identification of parameters characterizing the conditions of the technological process and operation of technological equipment
The conditions of the TP can be grouped by some signs to integrate into groups.
RAW PARAMETERS - characterize the properties of the product being processed.
ENERGY PARAMTERS - characterizes the energy that is supplied to the process equipment from the outside and is spent on changing the properties of the products.
- pressure in the gas pipeline.
- gas composition (quality).
- outdoor wind speed.
- the house is illuminated by the sun.
- humidity of outside air.
- the speed of air movement in the house.
MECHANICAL PARAMETERS - parameters of technological equipment, characterize the state of its working bodies.
- speed control 1-2 fan.
- speed control 3-4 fan.
- speed control 5-6 fan.
- the inclusion of end fans 1-8.
- gas consumption for heating.
- clogging filters, grids.
Formal parametric scheme
A formalized parametric scheme is the maximum level of a formalized description of the TP, and at the same time the most general concept of OA.
1.3 Development of the block diagram of the control object
In the future, we will consider the position of side inlet valves in the house as the control object, and, as control actions.
Concretization of the goals and objectives of the facility management, identification of regulated and optimized variables
The overall goal of the enterprise is to fulfill the planned targets for the volume of production and to obtain a certain economic effect. Decomposition of this goal leads to the following goals:
a) at the level of the technological process - coordination of exhaust ventilation with the degree of opening of the side intake valves. That is, the distribution of the ventilation system according to the multi-step system, as well as the active mixing of air, for more reliable readings from the sensors, and to prevent energy costs for increasing the fan speed.
b) at the level of individual units of technological equipment - optimization of the position of side inlet valves and the speed of rotation of the exhaust fan.
Hence, management tasks can be divided into:
а) необходимо обеспечить требования регламента( поддержание разряжения на определенном уровне).
б) задачи оптимизации процесса. (В данной курсовой работе не рассматривается).
Подчеркну что главное задачей является обеспечить наименьший процент брака, то есть избежать смерти курей или их неправильному( не своевременному) росту.
Выбор управляющих воздействий объекта управления
As control actions, it is advisable to choose impacts that can purposefully change the costs of maintenance of material and process flows. In my case, I chose such effects as the position of the side valves, which directly affect the discharge in the house.
Isolation and classification of disturbances
After the selection of control actions by me, all other input variables fall into the category of perturbations, i.e. such environmental influences, the change of which violates the course of TP and maintenance regimes.
In my case, there are no controlled disturbances and noises.
To uncontrollable perturbations include everything else. For example, air mixing between sections or wind speed overboard.
Generalized structural diagram of the SAR
Section 2. Identification of models of channels for the transformation of the coordinate effects of the control object
2.1 A priori analysis of static and dynamic properties of the control object
A priori analysis and selection of the structure structure of dynamic properties (statistical, static, stationary, non-stationary) control channels and controlled disturbances based on knowledge of the physical laws of the technological process
By analyzing the physical nature of the processes, the following conclusions were made:
Regulation of value of discharge of air indoors.
A priori analysis and decision-making on the admissibility of linearization of static properties of control channels and disturbances of the controlled object, based, in particular, from the ranges of change of regulated variables during the operation of the CAP, for the development of which the object is identified.
In the process of considering the admissibility of the linearization of the static properties of the control channels, the following decisions were made:
On channels u1-Pr.v. in 1 h. , u2-Pr.v. in 2 s. , u1-Pr.v. in 3 h.
The linearization of the static properties of this control channel is permissible, since the given value of Pp.in. = const and regulation Pp.v. does not require a wide range of changes. and the static characteristic on the selected area has no significant curvature. This allows you to make a decision about the admissibility of linearization of static properties of an object through this control channel.
2.2 Evaluation of static characteristics and identification of linearized models of the dynamics of the control channels of the control object in the vicinity of its operating modes.
Conducting a classic active experiment and assessing the static characteristics of the object of regulation.
Obtaining static characteristics of direct channels of the control object:
but) Obtaining static characteristics on channel u1-Rr.v. in 1 zone
To get the second point of the static characteristic, I waited until the values stopped changing. Then put the RO in the position equal to 10% of h. Ro. This will correspond to the value Рр.в. = 45Пa. To obtain the third point of the static characteristic, I waited until the new value ceased to change. Then put the RO in a position equal to 20% of h. Ro. This will correspond to the value Rrazr = 35Pa. To get the fourth point of the static characteristic, I waited until the new value ceased to change. Then put the RO in a position equal to 30% x.r. This will correspond to the value Rracr = 26.5Pa. To get the fifth point of the static characteristic, I waited until the new value ceased to change. Then put the RO in the position equal to 40% of h. Ro. This will correspond to the value Rrazr = 20Pa. To obtain the sixth point of the static characteristic, I waited until the new value ceased to change. Then put the RO in the position equal to 50% of h. Ro. This will correspond to the value Rrazr = 15Pa. To obtain the seventh point of the static characteristic, I waited until the new value ceased to change. Then put the RO in the position equal to 60% of h. This will correspond to the value Rracr = 11.5Pa. To get the eighth point of the static characteristic, I waited until the new value ceased to change. Then put the RO in the position equal to 70% of h. Ro. This will correspond to the value Rracr = 8.9Pa. To obtain the ninth point of the static characteristic, I waited until the new value ceased to change. Then put the RO in the position equal to 80% of h. This will correspond to the value Rrazr = 7.2Pa. To obtain the tenth point of the static characteristic, I waited until the new value ceased to change. Then put the RO in a position equal to 90% x.r. This will correspond to the value Rrazr = 6Pa. To obtain the eleventh point of the static characteristic, I waited until the new value ceased to change. Then put the RO in the position equal to 100% of h. This will correspond to the value Rrazr = 5Pa. At the end of the experiments, we will put the RO of opening the dampers (“hatches”) in the position equal to 40% of h. Ro. for carrying out experiments to study the transient characteristics of the cross channels of the controlled object.
b) Obtaining static characteristics on channel u2-Rr.v. in zone 2
Obtaining a static characteristic in the second zone is done in the same way.
at) Obtaining static characteristics on channel u3-Rr.v. in zone 3
Obtaining a static characteristic in the third zone is done in the same way.
The control actions will be chosen as input actions, since they have the greatest influence on the regulated variables. To simplify the organization of the experiment and minimize the time spent on conducting the experiment and processing the results obtained, stepwise effects will be used.
We will conduct the experiment in such a way that all transitional processes are within the regulatory areas of the TP. Input effects should be such that the system's response to them is noticeable against the background of interference and disturbances.
Planning of an active experiment at the facility for selected input actions and obtaining reactions in time to them in the course of natural or mental experiments.
Getting dynamic response channel u1-Rr.v. in 1 zone
After registering the change of the controlled variable, we obtained the following graph:
Getting dynamic response channel u2-Rr.v. in zone 2
Receiving dynamic response channel u3-Rr.v. at3 zone
Getting dynamic response channel u1-Rr.v. in zone 2
Receiving dynamic response channel u3-Rr.v. in zone 2
Getting dynamic response channel u2-Rr.v. in 1 zone
Getting dynamic response channel u2-Rr.v. in zone 3
Analysis of the information obtained in the course of the experiment, justification and selection of the structure of channel models (structural identification of models).
The meaning of structural identification is to choose the type of model according to the type of transition graph obtained during an active experiment. Based on the results of active experiments, we can draw the following conclusions:
- OU channels have pronounced static properties.
- OU channels are delayed due to the OU design features, in particular, its geometric dimensions.
The transfer function of the OS for the control channels Pp. will have the following form.
1st order model:
Since the model of the first order does not ideally reflect our transition process, but to a greater degree serves to determine the parameters of an object according to engineering methods. We will also use the model of the 2nd order:
The choice of methods and the parametric identification of models of the first and second orders. Parametric identification of first and second order models.
For models of the first order of static objects, it is most appropriate to use the “tangent 3” method of Rotach and the “two common points” of Minina. To identify first-order models, I choose Minina’s “two common points” method, since the resulting model of the transient characteristic will most accurately reflect the real transient process, since it has two common points with it, unlike tangent methods, where the real transient characteristic and its model have only one point in common.
Identification of models of the first and second orders of the channel for regulation of air discharge in the inside of a room.
Identification on the model of the 1st and 2nd order on the channel u1-Рр.в in 1 zone, u2-Рр.в in the 2nd zone, u3-Рр.в in the 3rd zone
The transfer function of the object of the first order channel u1-Rr.v, in 1 zone:
To identify the model of the second order I choose the method of "two common points" by Minina.
The transfer function of the object of the second order on the channel u1 - Rr.v, in 1 zone:
Identification on the model of the 1st and 2nd order on the channel u1-Рр.в in the 2nd zone, u3-Рр.в in the 2nd zone
The transfer function of the object of the first order on the channel u1-Rr.v, in 2 zone:
The transfer function of the object of the second order on the channel u1 - Rr.v, in 2 zone:
Identification on the model of the 1st and 2nd order on the channel u2-Рр.в in 1 zone, u2-Рр.в in the 3rd zone
“Identification of the model of the first and second orders of the channel for regulating the discharge of air indoors using the Minina’s“ two common points ”method
The transfer function of the object of the first order on the channel u2-Rr.v, in 1 zone:
The transfer function of the object of the second order on the channel u2 - Rr.v, in 1 zone:
Section 3. Identification of models of input effects of the control object
3.1 A priori analysis of input effects
Analysis of the physical entity, possible ranges of changes in the frequency properties of input effects and their consequences
In addition to the control actions on the object of regulation in real conditions there are disturbances. In our case, coordinate perturbations (controlled and uncontrolled) and parametric, which by their nature are uncontrollable, act.
The essence of coordinate perturbations is that the value of the regulated variables, in addition to the control actions, is also influenced by other parameters, such as raw materials and energy. The consequences of some need to eliminate, therefore, these parameters controlled coordinate perturbations. All other parameters are combined into a group of uncontrolled coordinate perturbations.
The essence of parametric perturbations is that the parameters characterizing the dynamics of an object can change under the influence of various kinds of input effects. It is clear that all of these effects vary in fairly small ranges and at the same time are low-frequency. However, when combined, the total signal will have high frequency properties. The consequences of the presence of coordinate disturbances is a decrease in the dynamic accuracy of the SAR.
Uncontrolled parametric perturbations change in small ranges, it is clear from the fact that there are no input effects that could lead to a significant change in the parameters characterizing the dynamics of the object. Parametric perturbations are essentially low frequency. The consequence of parametric perturbations is the possible occurrence of ATS instability.
Analysis of the identification capabilities of models of coordinate and parametric perturbations of various levels of detail and the choice of the general structure of models
Coordinate perturbations can only be identified using statistical methods of identification, since it is impossible to change them purposefully. The method of statistical identification is a passive experiment. The essence of this method lies in the fact that over sufficiently long time intervals synchronously fix in time significant changes in the input and output variable channels of the control object. Perturbations as input actions can be taken deterministic or stochastic.
The advantage of deterministic models is:
A. easy model identification and simulation
B. simplicity and clarity of methods for analyzing ACS,
C. simplicity of the synthesis of ACS of the simplest structure due to the possibility of using standard techniques.
The disadvantages of deterministic models in front of stochastic:
A. approximately describe the nature of the effects of the environment on the control object,
B. do not provide an opportunity to give a uniform assessment of the quality of ACS for various combinations of input effects due to the need to conduct a large number of single experiments with the model, especially for non-linear ACS,
C. do not allow to set and solve control problems that require operating with probabilistic characteristics of controlled variables.
From all the above, it is clear that in our case it is necessary to use the stochastic model to improve the accuracy of the description of the impact.
A stochastic model can be represented in the form of a random process with several additive components:
F (t) - deterministic slowly varying component,
- stochastic mid-frequency centered component - centered random process,
In real conditions, the object is non-stationary, but the identification and subsequent control of all causes of non-stationarity is practically impossible. It is also almost impossible to collect any representative statistics on these disturbances. This would require solving the problem of current parametric identification of models and the organization of very long observations, since the spectral composition of parametric perturbations is much lower frequency in comparison with the spectral composition of coordinate perturbations. This often allows one to accept the hypothesis about the constancy of the values of parametric perturbations on time intervals, the length of which is sufficient for damping transients in ACS caused by coordinate perturbations. This assumption allows you to explore the ACS as stationary, but it requires multiple repetition of research for different values of the coefficients. However, taking into account the uncertainty can significantly simplify the describing functions by reducing their dimensions and simplifying the procedure for obtaining them. Ultimately, this ensures the construction of an ACS that ensures the fulfillment of the goals set for it and is rather rough.
A priori, we can assume that, taking into account the specifics of my process, namely, controlling the discharge of air, then we will consider the stochastic model in the form of a random process with a predominant mid-frequency component.
We assume that they do not arise in my process. Because Atmospheric pressure cannot change at high speed.
We also assume that noises can occur. Because All our sensors and instruments are grounded, and the wires are shielded, so it is unlikely that we will get measurement noise.
In our case, it can be assumed that in uncontrolled coordinate perturbations, the mid-frequency component prevails.
3.2 Identification of models of deterministic and random components of coordinate perturbations
Planning a passive experiment to collect information about coordinate perturbations, preliminary selection of the speed of drawing up a tape of recorders or the period of recording information in a PC, recording duration, presentation of realizations recorded during the experiment or generated by a special program variables.
We will conduct a passive experiment as follows: we will write in the computer memory a sufficiently long realization of the output signal at a sufficiently low drawing speed of the chart tape. When recording in a computer signal is pre-filtered. To record the uncontrolled coordinate perturbation, it is necessary to determine the necessary length of the implementation, the quantization step in time and the number of points.
1. The implementation length of Tp is selected from the following considerations:
where is the estimate of the rms oscillation period of the SP
where: S0 is the number of intersections of Tr with on the time interval
-interval for estimating the root-mean-square period.
2. Quantization of time () is defined as follows:
3. The number of points is determined by the ratio
We represent the experimentally obtained realization of a controlled coordinate perturbation. In this course work will be provided schedules of output actions generated by the software of the Department of APP on the operating conditions of this OS.
Analysis of realizations, justification and specification of the conditions for attributing its individual components of the overall structure of the coordinate perturbation model to certain types, the choice of the conversion (filtering) of signals for their separation
The beginning of identification is connected with the decision to assign the components of a real signal to one or another model component in accordance with the chosen model f (t). In order to do this relatively reliably, it is necessary to have preliminary information about the properties of the object through the control channels. If we represent them as a first-order model with a delay t0, then by the ratio of the average periods Tn of these components and t0, it is possible to separate the signal:
1. if for the component Tp Tp> 4 * t0, then it is expedient to attribute it to quasi-deterministic and stochastic components.
3. if for component Tп> 40 * t0, then it is advisable to attribute it to the deterministic component.
В качестве фильтров можно использовать фильтры низких частот, которые могут реализовать процедуры выделения скользящего среднего с равномерным или экспоненциальным усреднением.
Для равномерного усреднения: Wфр(р)= (1-exp(-Tор*р))/( Tор*р),
Для экспоненциального усреднения: Wфэ(р)=1/(Tо э*р+1),
The values of Tor are chosen 3 ... 5 Tn (Tn is the root-mean-square period of oscillation of the random component that they want to remove). Toe = Ѕ Thor, i.e. when using an inertial link for filtering (which is the simplest in practice), its time constant should be chosen equal to half of the required averaging interval.
In our case, in the uncontrolled coordinate perturbation, the predominant one, according to the principles outlined above, is the random component, so the remaining components can be ignored.
Pre-processing (filtering) of the recorded implementation of the input action (if it was not carried out simultaneously with the recording) and the formation of file implementations of the signal components that correspond to the selected structure of the coordinate perturbation model.
Filtering was carried out while recording uncontrolled coordinate perturbations, so there is no need to carry it out now (noises are eliminated). We will create a file of a random component of an uncontrolled coordinate perturbation, in which information will be recorded on the values of variables at each quantization step, on the number of points and on the quantization step.
Estimation of the probabilistic characteristics of the random component of the coordinate perturbation, analysis of the estimate of the probability density, correlation function, spectral densities and refinement of the model structure (structural identification), in particular the assessment of the presence of a substantial latent periodic component.
The generated file with the random component of the uncontrolled coordinate perturbation is considered and will be processed in the IdSoft program, which will determine the estimates of the random component of the uncontrolled coordinate perturbation, i.e. get probability density, correlation function and spectral density.
We will carry out the structural identification of the model, i.e. it is necessary to carry out a structural identification of the probability density, the correlation function and the spectral density.
Structural identification of the probability density P (x) is reduced to the definition, by the form P (x) of its model. A probability density model can correspond to a model of a normal (Gaussian) random process, a harmonic process with a random initial phase, or a sum of normal random and harmonic processes with a random initial phase. In our case from fig. No. 18.104.22.168. by the type of probability density it can be seen that the estimate P (x) best describes the model of a normal (Gaussian) random process:
As models of the correlation function, correlation functions are usually used, random processes of which can be obtained by passing a random process of the type “white noise” through linear dynamic links. Structural identification of spectral density models and the correlation function should be carried out simultaneously, because These models should not contradict each other. It should be noted that this determines the presence of an oscillatory component.
The structural identification of the spectral density models and the correlation function is carried out by comparing their type with the spectral density type and the correlation function proposed in a special table.
We are best suited models in paragraph number 3, therefore, we have the following models of spectral density and correlation function:
Parametric identification of models of probabilistic properties of random components, evaluation of identification results, and, if necessary, return to the previous item
Parametric identification comes down to definition. Perform parametric identification in IdSoft using optimization methods. In the previous paragraph, we chose the 3rd type of spectral density and correlation function, but in addition to No. 3, we can also approach No. 4. We verify the correctness of our choice in the course of parametric identification:
Results of the identification of random process models
Based on the identification results, it is clear that the structural identification was conducted correctly.
Found values = 0.5461 substitute in the dependencies found during parametric identification and get the following models:
3.3 Model selection and parametric identification of parametric perturbations.
A description of the expedient procedure (experimental, analytical or heuristic research, etc.) of obtaining information on parametric perturbations.
It is almost impossible to collect any representative statistical data on parametric perturbations. This would require solving the problem of current parametric identification of models and the organization of very long observations, since the spectral composition of parametric perturbations is much lower frequency in comparison with the spectral composition of coordinate perturbations. It is clear from this that conducting experiments does not make sense to obtain information about parametric perturbations. Analytical studies are costly and do not guarantee any correct result due to the large number of assumptions and assumptions. Therefore, we have only one way to go - heuristic research.
The choice of the type (deterministic or stochastic) model and the setting of its parameters.
It is known that the parameters characterizing the dynamics of the object (, T, K), change under the influence of external influences very slightly.
We take the form of a model of parametric perturbations that vary according to a linear law. 3974400
After technical inspections and cleanings of the system elements, they return to their original values.
From this it follows that during the course of our transient process, parametric perturbations are not very significant, so we can accept the hypothesis of quasistationarity.
Section 4. Implementation of models on digital computers.
4.1 Implementation on the digital computer models of channels conversion effects
Representation of models of dynamics in the form of compounds of typical units available in the library on digital modeling.
The simulation is carried out in the MatLab5.2 environment; the dynamics of the conversion channels of the effects can be implemented in it using the following connection of typical links that make up the MatLab5.2 library:
The model of the dynamics of the first order control channels has the following form:
Now in the form of a connection of standard links:
The model of the dynamics of the second order control channels has the following form:
Representation of static models in the form of basic functions of a programming language.
Since the conversion channels of input actions have linear static properties, the channel static model, as a function of the programming language, is not specified, the static channel properties are expressed through the transfer coefficient of the dynamic properties model of the simulated channel.
4.2 Implementation on the digital computer models of input effects
Representation of models of random component effects in the form of sequentially included basic white noise generator and a shaping filter, selection of generation step and calculation of filter parameters.
To simulate a random process with characteristics adequate to the real random process that were obtained during the research in Section 3.2., It is necessary to calculate the parameters of the shaping filter, the process of reproducing the random process model can be represented by the following formalized scheme:
fBSH is a random white noise type process, generated by a basic random process generator.
f is a simulated random process with specified properties.
The essence of the forming filter method is to convert random input effects applied to it, on the weekend, which is a reproducible random process with given characteristics. The immediate task is to find the transfer function of the shaping filter Wxy (p) using special methods.
It is known that the spectral densities of the input and output signals are interrelated:, where Sx () is the spectral density of the output signal, Sy () is the spectral density of the input signal, Wxy (j) is the transfer function of the shaping filter.
It can be expressed as:
or else: - the product of complex conjugate parts.
It is seen that the desired transfer function corresponds to the expression on the right side.
We have:, now we replace j with p, and now we get the transfer function of the forming filter: Wxy (p) = (p).
- spectral density of the input signal,
- spectral density of the output signal,
So the transfer function of the forming filter has the following form:
In operator form:
It should be noted that in the process of reproducing the random process model and evaluating the characteristics of the random process, the parameters of the shaping filter were corrected.
When identifying using this filter, I received incorrect results, namely = 0.32
Therefore, in order to get the specified coefficients, I applied the iteration method.
As a result, the filter suitable for us took the form:
4.3 Implementation on the digital computer of the full model of the OS
Development of a complete structural diagram of OU modeling.
Under the full structural diagram of the simulation of the Shelter understand the scheme with an indication of all the necessary links for the implementation of the regulation of the discharge on a computer.
Conducting a model of machine experiments
Let's compare the results of an active experiment, through the main channels of regulating the discharge u1-Rr.v. in 1 zone,u2-Rr.v. in zone 2,u3-Rr.v. in zone 3, with their models of order 1.2.
Compare, the results of an active experiment, on cross-channels of regulation of discharge u1-Rr.v. in zone 2,u3-Rr.v. in zone 2, with their models of order 1.2.
Compare, the results of an active experiment, on cross-channels of regulation of discharge u2-Rr.v. in 1 zone,u2-Rr.v. in zone 3, with their models of order 1.2.
Channel transient response u1-Rr.v. in 1 zone,u2-Rr.v. in zone 2,u3-Rr.v. in zone 3obtained by conducting an active experiment on the model
Channel transient response u1-Rr.v. in zone 2,u3-Rr.v. in zone 2obtained by conducting an active experiment on the model
Channel transient response u2-Rr.v. in 1 zone,u2-Rr.v. in zone 3obtained by conducting an active experiment on the model
Comparing the obtained transient characteristics with the experimental ones, we can say that they fully correspond to the actual change in the discharge in the house.
Cooperation between Farmers and Poultry Farm
The Primorskaya poultry farm has a set of resources necessary for raising poultry. The exception, a kind of bottleneck, is the lack of a sufficient number of broiler sites.
Many Farmers have idle livestock buildings, quite suitable for growing broilers. And this may well become the basis for cooperation with the Poultry Farm. The contractual cultivation of poultry consists in the cultivation of chickens at Farmer sites with the active participation of our Poultry Farm.
Stages of cooperation
The farmer leads the hull
for growing poultry.
with experts studying
poultry rearing process.
Poultry Farm and Farmer
After 22 days of daily incubation
chickens are delivered for planting
in the farm case.
During the growing period, the Poultry Farm supplies the Farmer with feed, veterinary preparations and advises on growing technology issues.
At the end of the growing period, the birds are caught and the share of the Poultry Farm is delivered to the slaughter and processing plant.
Why is it unprofitable to grow birds on their own?
If you decide to grow a bird yourself, you will have to face many problems.
- Independent maintenance of the process with feed and daily chicken at the expense of its own working capital. Own quality control and organization of logistics.
- Independent sales, dependence on fluctuations in the market of live poultry.
- The need to create their own competence in the field of animal science and veterinary medicine.
- Possible delays in payments from buyers.
The benefits of working with us
Often, opportunities to start their own livestock are limited due to the need to attract significant working capital. Thus, for the cultivation of 30 thousand heads of broilers (one outdoor building) it takes more than 3 million rubles to purchase a day-old chicken and feed for a period of more than 40 days.
In case of contract cultivation, this working capital is provided by the Poultry Farm. A farmer, at his own expense, pays only current expenses, first of all, energy and wages.
In the current market conditions, it is difficult to sell a live-grown (live) bird, and prices can fluctuate significantly. Sometimes the sales process is delayed for days and weeks, which leads to an increase in cost and a reduction in the number of growing cycles per year.
In case of contract growing, the Poultry Farm guarantees the minimum price at which the Farmer is guaranteed to be able to hand over his poultry. On the other hand, given favorable market conditions, the Farmer reserves the right to sell his share at the highest possible price to a third party.
When buying feeds from manufacturers, there is often a question of quality and timely delivery. Our Poultry Farm has its own plant for the production of animal feed and is economically interested in high rates of cultivation at the Farmer.
Thus, in the case of contract cultivation, Farmer does not have a headache on one of the key points affecting the cultivation result - the provision of feed.
The poultry farm in the framework of the contract for the cultivation of the contract provides a full range of advice on growing technologies and veterinary medicine.
Our specialists regularly visit contract cultivation partners for consultations and promptly leave for a place in case of problems.
At the Farmer’s request, the Poultry Farm can take over the supply of veterinary drugs.
The main production task of the poultry industry is to create the necessary conditions for the rearing of young stock and the maintenance of the parent stock. The factory works with the Ross 308 cross. Breeding chickens for the acquisition of the parent flock are imported from the tribune of the Tula Oblast “Aviagen”. Rearing youngsters are kept up to seventeen weeks of age in the shelter of the remmolodnyak, from where at the age of 120 days they are transferred to the premises for the parent flock.
Repair young animals and adult birds are kept on deep bedding, using sawdust as bedding material. For the acquisition of one poultry house with an adult bird in the amount of 8600 hens and 900 roosters, 8.840 thousand heads of one-day hens and 1360 thousand heads of roosters are raised. Chickens and cockerels are kept in the same room, enclosed by a metal grid. Planting density 7-8 heads per square. m
Poultry farming broiler cultivation at home
So how do you start poultry? Broiler poultry is unpretentious, but nevertheless it is necessary to decide on the scheme of growing poultry. The first scheme is the content of birds in the cages. This type of cultivation involves the construction of a special battery-cell structure consisting of several tiers.The second scheme is the floor keeping of chickens. For the organization of such a method, a room is allocated for the birds, and the floors are covered with straw bedding. But each of these methods has its advantages and disadvantages, both in principle and everywhere.
The disadvantages of the floor method are a high level of capital investment, since it is necessary to build a room of fifteen square meters when growing one hundred broilers. Ten of them will be used by chickens, the remaining five will be used for maintenance. Due to the fact that the birds live near their own droppings, the outbreaks of diseases, respectively, become more frequent, which means that it is necessary to carry out intensive veterinary activities that are unprofitable from an economic point of view.
Now consider the advantages of the cellular method of content. In order to establish your mini-farm, you need only eighteen square meters, where you can grow two hundred chickens. This is what cellular poultry farming is famous for. Chickens broilers in such a scheme require minimal costs, the only thing that is important for them is the ventilation, lighting and heating for their growth and development.
How to organize ventilation and prepare the house to receive chickens?To make growing broilers successful, they need to create the following conditions:
- Chickens need a constant temperature. Therefore, the chicken coop must necessarily be heated. In order to create a suitable microclimate for them, you can use a pyrolysis boiler or a buleryan, but if the room is small, you can also use electric heating.
- Also do not forget about ventilation. You should not hope for natural ventilation, as it will be small, so be sure to purchase additional ventilation equipment.
- The walls in the house should be plastered and covered with a layer of lime. When it comes time to change livestock, be sure to disinfect and whiten the chicken coop.
Если все вышеперечисленные условия будут соблюдены, то в выращивании бройлеров проблем не возникнет.
Как изготовить клеточные батареи для птиц самостоятельно?There is a lot of broiler breeding cell types, but if you listen to the advice of farmers with experience, it is best to make a cage one meter wide and forty centimeters high. The battery must be three-story. The pallet must be installed at an angle from the front of the battery with a space of twenty centimeters and five centimeters from the back wall.
If the house is small, then five of these cellular batteries would be enough. To make the birds feel more free, you can remove the partitions between the cages and make one large fifteen meter battery of five meters for each floor.
In order to make it you should use:
- Square tube 30x20 - for supporting structures.
- Square tube 15x15 - for the main lintel.
- Extra lintels can make them drywall.
- Mesh mesh - for the back wall
- And the fine-meshed mesh is for the floor.
For the manufacture of cages for chickens, you can use wood, but for security reasons, it is better to refuse this option. The tree quickly absorbs chicken droppings that lead to the development of harmful microorganisms and poultry disease in the end. Feeders for broilers can be made from galvanized sheets, and as drinkers, it is best to use their nipple option.
Growing chicks or buying them?
Before you start growing broilers, you need to remember that most meat breeds are crosses. Cross breeds are hybrid breeds and poultry, which is obtained as a result of following the strict, complex rules established by geneticists under the strict supervision of veterinarians.Therefore, if you decide to grow exactly the meat of the bird, then crosses are exactly what you need. The most popular of these are the Ross, Cobb, Gibro, Smena Crosses and Hubbards. You can give preference to meat Cochin, pomfret, Cornish, fireworms, longsheam, Dornings, but to grow, they will be much longer, which is unprofitable compared to broilers.
If you chose to grow exactly crosses, then you did it right, because they are gaining commercial weight by the fiftieth day of breeding, and slaughter can be started already from the fortieth day, while the carcasses will weigh on average two and a half to three and a half kilograms. When growing such broilers, feed conversion will be significantly less compared to other breeds. And the profitability of the production of your projection will be from fifty to seventy percent.
If you want to grow broilers from eggs by incubation, you need to buy high-quality eggs, such a scheme offers poultry. Broilers at home, grown in this way, are healthier than those that you would have bought on the market already daily chickens. And all because, you yourself followed the process of development of chickens, creating the necessary temperature in the incubator, determining in the end viable individuals after their birth. In the market, chickens can sell you a culling, saying that they are completely healthy and will definitely make a profit in the future.
How to grow chickens yourself?
The price of eggs for incubation is thirty percent of the cost of a day-old chicken, plus five to ten percent of the incubation costs plus losses that may occur during the process. If proper incubation conditions are observed and the incubator operates without failures, then ninety-ninety-five percent of the chickens will emerge from the eggs laid. But in the event that poor-quality eggs are purchased, the hatching capacity will significantly decrease.With self-incubation, the cost of the chicken is reduced by fifty percent. The total cost of growing broiler meat is also reduced by seven percent.
Similar results will be obtained only if the equipment is of high quality. If you don’t have one, find a trusted supplier and purchase day old broiler chickens.
There are a lot of feedback from farmers who say that it is better to purchase ten-day chickens, as there are fewer problems with them, but based on experience, daily chickens are the best way out.
In the first days the chicken is formed, therefore at this time it is necessary for him to carry out all the necessary veterinary procedures. If you do everything as needed, then all acquired chickens will be healthy and will not die in the process of growth. But so that all the chickens survive, make sure that you do not sell the culling. For this reason, it is best to purchase young animals from trusted people.
Babies can be grown in a large box, covered with paper and sawdust, above which you need to hang a heating lamp and a temperature sensor. The temperature in the improvised nest should not be below thirty-one degrees and above thirty-three. The light of the chickens should be around the clock.
Care and Growing Tips
In order for the young growth to grow healthy, chickens need to be fed with antibiotics and given them vitamins. All you need is a week. All of these drugs should be added to warm water that needs to be poured into the water for babies.
It is best to keep litter up to two weeks, then it is best to remove it. You need to change it every two days. While milking with preparations, chickens are fed with starter feed, you can also feed with millet and give chopped onion and egg.
Since this breed of bird is growing very quickly, try to have in your diet all the necessary minerals and vitamins. If they feel a lack of them, the birds will slowly grow and hurt. From the age of fifteen days, babies can be transferred from the box to a regular chicken coop and choose the system by which you will continue to feed them.
What and how to feed broilers?
Feed the bird bred at home can be according to three schemes. Let's start with the first. Feed additives can be prepared independently from wheat, chalk, corn, sand, soybean and top crust and vitamin complex.Undoubtedly, such a scheme is very beneficial, but it has its drawbacks. Meals should have a certain percentage of fat and protein, the same can be said about proteins. Buying ready-made feed additives, you can be sure that everything in them is of high quality and balanced. Buying the same components separately, you can purchase one of them of poor quality, spoiling the whole future feed.
The second scheme is the purchase of ready-made feed additives. This method is very simple. You will only need to give a certain amount of feed to the bird, and in the end you will get the desired result. But this scheme has its drawbacks. For example, such as an increase in cost by ten to twelve percent and the complete lack of influence on the quality of meat on your part.
The third scheme is to use bmvd for feeding broilers. Often, this option is used on many mini-farms. The essence of this technology is the self-preparation of feed from wheat, bmvd and corn. In contrast to the finished feed, this will cost seven percent more, but you can independently form the carcasses of your bird.
In the event that you add more corn to the feed, you can make the meat more yellow, and if you increase the wheat, the meat will be fat. Thus, you can independently achieve the quality of meat you need.
Successful broiler mini farmVazavkin Eugene has been involved in poultry since the age of thirteen. During this time, he managed to start breeding many breeds of birds, but most of all he likes all the same broilers, as they grow quickly, are easy to maintain and bring good profits. Now on his farm they breed mostly purebred meat and egg birds, there are also exhibition specimens, which he breeds for aesthetic pleasure. In the future, he plans to replenish his farm with several foreign broiler breeds in order to provide himself and the surrounding areas with high-quality and ecologically clean meat.