Poultry is prone to a multitude of diseases, but most often chickens suffer from such misfortunes, and only the hatchlings acquired at markets or poultry farms, youngsters who have invested a lot of money, have so much hope.
That is why it is extremely important to take all preventive measures seriously, to be able to observe the bird in time to notice the first signs of the disease and to understand its causes. If they are rooted in improper care, violation of the feeding regime, then everything can be quite easily corrected, if young stock with pathological abnormalities is acquired, an infection has penetrated into the farm, then it is worth asking for help from specialists to avoid mass death.
What diseases can occur in laying chickens?
The young hens of laying hens do not have good health, especially if the chickens were acquired by pedigree, with high egg production and early onset of egg-laying and its late termination. After all, laying hens are valued precisely for these qualities.
When expecting to start getting a healthy and nutritious product on your own table or for sale, you should take care of the health of the bird from the first days of chickens' life, since most of the diseases that are almost asymptomatic can become chronic or affect the ability to carry normal, well-formed the eggs.
Laying hens may suffer from:
- infectious diseases, which are caused by penetration from the environment or sick chicken by pathogenic microorganisms, are easily transmitted from individual to individual, often dangerous not only for poultry, but also for people, are difficult to treat and can cause a massive death of the entire poultry population,
- parasitic lesions, that is, invasions of various types of worms, ticks, dangerous to chickens of any age by perojers, fleas, lice,
- pathologies and diseases caused by improper care, feeding, unsanitary conditions.
Diseases of chickens and their causes
The first and most dangerous for the livestock group of diseases is infectious:
- Salmonellosis - this disease can penetrate into the house with wild bird droppings, be transmitted to offspring from an infected mother, caused by pathogenic Salmonella bacteria. Extremely dangerous for both birds and humans.
- Marek's disease - caused by a virus that a sick hen secretes through the follicles of feathers, as well as droppings, is transmitted by a virus and by airborne droplets.
- Newcastle disease - the so-called pseudo-lesion, which infects the internal organs of an infected hen, is fatal to chickens. In a very short period of time, practically all the population of the house can be infected by one sick individual, in contact with it, by birds, in whose organisms this virus is present. Meat of infected chickens, eggs, shells, down and feathers, bedding, even feed, become the source of infection penetration into a prosperous economy.
- Pasteurellosis is caused by pathogenic microorganisms that can persist in the environment outside the carrier for a long time. Pastarella is extremely stable, it is transmitted both from individual to individual, and with feed, water, not only sick, but also over-ill chickens are contagious, and wild birds and rodents are carriers.
- Pulloz - a disease is also called tuberculosis, the bacteria that cause it are transmitted by airborne droplets, they hit the egg, meat, and the feathers of the sick. Chickens of hens can hatch with this disease already, if the mother was a carrier of bacteria.
- Infectious bronchitis - the disease causes the virus, which is called the virion, is transmitted by airborne droplets, long-lasting viability in the litter, on the inventory, in chick embryos.
- Coccidosis is a real punishment for the owners of personal households. Bloody diarrhea is caused by the simplest microorganisms - coccidia, for adult chickens most often it does not pose any danger, the immune system is able to resist infection. But chickens up to 3 months of struggle with coccidosis is very difficult, often after contact with a sick and even a recovered bird - the carrier kills the entire young.
- Colibacteriosis - pathogenic Escherichia coli is present in the environment, weakened toddlers, chickens who were on the run where unsanitary conditions reign, who drank from puddles or untreated drinking troughs, die from intestinal disorders.
- Mycoplasmosis - the pathogen is transmitted from sick individuals. Mycoplasma is extremely aggressive, but only for birds. It is stored in farms where timely disinfection and treatment of the premises with ultraviolet light are not carried out, there is no ventilation in the poultry houses, the rooms are cramped, overcrowded.
- Chicken pox - a virus that affects the mucous membranes, eyes, skin of chickens, is stable in the external environment, blood-sucking, parasites, sick individuals can infect babies.
- Avian influenza is an extremely dangerous disease, the virus is aggressive, it attacks both birds and people.
- Gumboro's disease is a viral infection that is deadly for a young hen, the pathogen is transmitted from sick birds both by airborne droplets and through feed, water, and the remains of dead animals.
- Laryngotracheitis - a disease caused by viruses that infect mucous membranes, is acutely contagious, its recovered chicken remains its carrier for life.
- feather perch - the mites are kept in the external environment for a long time, the litter of infected birds is dangerous, you can see with a naked eye the rods of feathers affected by them,
- fleas - blood-sucking easily penetrate from clothes, shoes, owners, infected animals, deliver a lot of problems to kids,
- Worms - eggs are stored in the soil, water, feed, infection occurs in violation of sanitary standards.
Pathologies and diseases of chickens associated with improper care:
- Atonia goiter - occurs when feeding low-quality feed and premix,
- Gastroenteritis - poor sanitation and poor nutrition lead to a disease, which is often called inflammation of the cloaca,
- bronchopneumonia - caused by hypothermia,
- ketaroconjunctivitis - inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eye in violation of content, inadequate ventilation, high ammonia content in the air,
- arthritis - abnormal development of the extremities, inflammation of the joints is caused by violations of the rules and rules of feeding,
- Avitaminosis - an insufficient amount of vitamins for chickens, greens, fresh vegetables and dairy products provokes the appearance of pathologies, the consequences of which affect the development of young.
Prevention of chicken diseases in the first period of life
Of great importance is the selection of eggs for breeding only from healthy chickens. During the hatching, the physiological process of embryo development must be observed. The first brood chickens are more active and grow faster. Chicks removed from the incubator should receive:
- bright clean room with heating,
- some water in a special drinker,
- small dry food in the form of corn chop or millet.
The temperature is created comfortable, so that the kids do not climb on each other. To steam them should not be. If the heating is performed with an incandescent lamp, the temperature under it should be about 37-39 degrees, like that of a brood.
The chick, hatched from an egg, already sees, hears and is ready to follow the hen. The hen sits on the clutch after the firstborn for another 36 hours, after leaving the nest and leads the brood. Nature is wise, the remaining chicks will be weaker and may not survive. In the incubator, the process is stretched for three days.
When inspecting the squeaking family, attention should be paid to the activity of the brood, the mucous membranes and the state of the down or feathers. Weakened and inactive pets should be deposited until clarification in a separate box. Infectious diseases in the absence of immunity can quickly mow the entire brood.
Responsible is the first week of grooming the pet until the beginnings of feathers begin to break through. Chicken diseases are more common at this time. Malaise can be caused by:
- conditions of detention
- unbalanced composition of food,
- poisoning with poor-quality food or avitaminosis,
- bacterial and viral infections.
In order to obtain healthy young stock during the first month of life, it is necessary to observe the sterility of the feeders and the cleanliness of the chickens. In order to strengthen the brood immunity, vitamins for chickens in the first days are needed in the form of crushed green grass. Pharmacy formulations can be applied starting from the second week. From the first day in the trough should be gravel or coarse sand, for inclusion in the work of the stomach walls.
The role of vitamin supplements
If the chickens do not have enough vitamins in their daily diet, it will be noticeable from the fifth day of life. The chicks require vitamins A, B, D, K. The disadvantage of each is characterized by the following signs:
- A - conjunctivitis, weak legs,
- In - spasms, the head is thrown back, development lags behind,
- D - rickets, badly grows, soft bones, badly eats,
- K - the chicken refuses to eat, the skin is dry, there is no thermoregulation on hot days, cannibalism.
As a therapeutic and prophylactic agent for beriberi and polyavitaminosis, Trivit is prescribed for chickens. Vitamin complex oil-based is insoluble in water and added to food, according to the instructions. Do not exceed the dose. Use the drug as a medicine when there are signs of the disease in several individuals in the brood. Symptoms of polyavitaminosis will be diarrhea, convulsions, lethargy and weight loss of chickens.
Normally, if from the first days of life the chicks receive all the vitamins in their natural form. It will be enough 30 grams of different vitamin greens per head per day.
Water-soluble composition of multivitaminacidos chickens added to the drinkers. This is a dietary supplement recommended for all farm animals and poultry, but in different doses. The full range of active substances is convenient and effective in use:
A prophylactic agent that prevents inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, is the drug metronidazole for chickens. Water soluble tablets or powder are used. This medicine has no side effects.
What are chicken diseases symptoms and treatment
At first glance, it is difficult for a layman to distinguish between physiological diseases associated with errors in care and infectious diseases. The first sign of a contagious disease will be a rise in temperature in the chick.
The hen is programmed to hatch for two months. Then she begins to trot. Monthly chicks are considered adapted to independent living.
Non-communicable diseases of chickens are related to care:
- Overheating or cooling of the housing is dangerous for chickens up to one month of age, as they do not have thermoregulation. Such chicks move a little, gather in pyramids, they have signs of ARVI. It is necessary to adjust the heating mode and give a warm drink. If overheating is permitted, place the chicks in the shade and fill the water bottle, they usually overheat if there is no water.
- Atrophy of the muscle ventricle threatens chickens eating a flour uniform food and the lack of mineral additives in the form of small pebbles. Chickens eat and drink all the time, but lose weight. In litter comes undigested food. It is necessary to introduce crushed fruit and minerals into the diet. Make the diet varied.
- Indigestion makes itself felt at the age of one month. The reason may be rude substandard food, dirty drinking water and poor sanitation in the house. Vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, and indigestion will be the reason why chickens die. Treatment with antibiotics, replace food, include cottage cheese and yogurt in the diet. Drink cook with the addition of potassium permanganate or baking soda.
- Chickens can pick up stored chemicals, poison for rodents, or get excess salt. You can kill the bird with potassium permanganate, milk, but more often the chick dies.
- Cannibalism in chickens occurs for many reasons. A close room or too bright light can provoke aggression. One of the reasons is the wrong diet. If the body of the baby appeared slanted, the wound should be disinfected and made invisible. In extreme cases, the chicken needs to be planted. Why chickens begin to peck each other, set by experience. In the food add bone meal, yeast, herbs. Apply medical drug aminazin. Experts advise to debick the beaks, at an early age the procedure is painless.
- Other manifestations may be the result of malnutrition. Why do chicks fall to their feet? This problem is associated with a lack of calcium in the diet. However, rickets can have the same symptoms. And this is due to a lack of vitamin D and the content of chickens in a dark cramped room. To avoid illness, it is enough to feed your pets with special feed with a full set of balanced ingredients from the first days.
Contagious infectious diseases include all diarrhea. How to treat chick diarrhea depends on the color of the discharge. Diarrhea leads to dehydration, weakens the body. White diarrhea is dangerous, it indicates the presence of salmonella sticks in the room. Contributes to the spread of the disease overcrowding and poor hygiene. Brown foamy diarrhea is caused by an infection called coccidiosis. After treatment of diseased chicks should be destroyed, the house should be disinfected. Green diarrhea can be infectious or due to poor-quality feed. Bloody diarrhea is treated with Avatev and Baytril.
In case of any diarrhea, the diseased chick needs to be isolated, and then continue to be treated, the place of general maintenance should be cleaned and disinfected.
Infectious diseases are accompanied by high fever. If the chicken is separated from the flock and stands motionless, laughing, you need to examine it. A common disease is typhoid, which affects a chick from two months of age. Dies up to 60% brood. For the prevention of using antibiotics and pink solution of potassium permanganate.
Paratyphoid fever or salmonellosis is a common disease in free-range chicks. They can infect pigeons or seagulls, being close. Initially, the disease does not manifest itself, after it is difficult to cure, the herd attacks to 70%. Smallpox is not treatable. On the fifth day of the disease, yellow growths appear on the body and near the beak, then a rash appears in the beak.
In order to grow healthy youngsters and avoid lunge, it is necessary to observe the conditions of detention, use benign food and vitamin supplements. When inspecting it is necessary to reject chicks with minor deviations. Provide additional care and treatment for weakened chicks at the facility.
Hypothermia or hypothermia young
In the first month of chickens life, the thermoregulation system is still not working well for them, so they need to be warmed. If this is not done, it becomes cold, as a result of which the chickens gather in piles and squeak, climb on each other to warm up, and as a result can die.
Symptoms: Chickens do not move much, respiratory diseases begin to attack them, and intestinal upset is sometimes manifested. When the chickens are more than a month old, their growth and development stops, their plumage will dull.
Treatment: for a start, it is necessary to move the youngsters to a warm room, then pour them a warm drink, after which the bird begins to warm up and heals. Prevention: you need to monitor the temperature of the air in the room, to avoid drafts.
Hyperthermia or overheating
Increased air temperature is also very bad for the development of chicks. Overheating may occur on the birds ’walk when exposed to the sun. Especially overheating is possible in the absence of reservoirs in pens.
Symptoms: blueing and shrinking scallop, lack of appetite, indigestion.
Treatment: for treatment, remove the source of overheating.
Prevention: keep young stock in the shade, and chickens should have constant access to water.
Atrophy of the muscular stomach
The cause of this disease is feeding the chicks with the same mealy feeds, and also if there is no gravel in the feeder. Most often, the disease manifests itself in chickens aged from a month to three.
Symptoms: increased attraction to water, eating food all the time, in the litter you can see undigested food, weight loss.
Treatment: In the treatment, crushed grain is introduced into the diet, as well as gravel is added.
Prevention: you need to feed the chicks only high-quality food, while giving them finely chopped grass several times a day.
Indigestion or dyspepsia in young
The disease manifests itself at the age of chickens for about a month, with poor feeding, watering them with poor water, while feeding them rough and hard-to-digest food, with a lack of vitamins in the diet.
Symptoms: Inflamed gastric mucosa, nausea or vomiting. Indigestion is divided into simple and toxic. With simple indigestion, weakness, increased ruffling, immobility, eyes closed, diarrhea with mucus and undigested food, dirty fluff near the cloaca, slimming chickens, convulsions are observed.
With toxic indigestion, the same symptoms appear, but accompanied by high fever and all this leads to the death of the chickens.
Treatment: introduction to the diet of light feed chickens, give them yogurt, cottage cheese, milk whey, greens: onions, garlic or wild garlic. Instead of water, give aqueous solutions with soda or potassium permanganate. При тяжелой стадии дают препараты антибиотиков и сульфаниламидные лекарства.
Prevention: нужно кормить цыплят только хорошими кормами, легкими и полноценными. Птичник всегда должен быть чистым. Промывать кормушки и поилки, каждую неделю их дезинфицировать или промывать кипятком. Monitor the temperature of the air in the building, avoid hypothermia and hyperthermia.
Most often there is a lack of vitamins A, B and D, and sometimes it is also a vitamin deficiency.
Symptoms: with a lack of vitamin A, weakness in the legs, conjunctivitis. With a lack of vitamin A, the wings soften, developmental delay, convulsions, head thrown back.
With a lack of vitamin D (manifested at the age of two weeks or more) loss of appetite occurs, weakness, small growth, bones soften, and rickets sometimes develop. With a lack of vitamin K (appears on hot days and with respiratory diseases), lack of appetite, dry skin, comb, eyelids, hemorrhage may appear.
Treatment: As a treatment, chickens should be given preparations containing such vitamins. And also monitor their proper nutrition.
Prevention: for prophylaxis it is necessary to add vitamins A to the chickens feed (shabby carrot and greens), vitamins B (greens, germinated grain, fresh yeast, dairy whey, herbal, meat and bone meal and fish meal), vitamins D (fish oil, herbal flour, nettle, mineral elements), vitamins K (nettle, clover, alfalfa and carrots).
Peck or cannibalism
The reasons for this behavior are irrational feeding, a small room, when not letting the birds out on the street, bright and long lighting.
Symptoms: Chicks with this disease begin to pluck out each other feathers and body parts.
Treatment: Damaged birds are transplanted to another place, wounds resulting from pecking are disinfected with iodine, tar, potassium permanganate or sintomycin emulsion.
Bone meal, greens, yeast are added to the diet, they give dissolved salt with water, citric acid with water. Pharmaceutical preparations can be applied aminazin.
Prevention: for this you need to monitor the correct content of the bird. Also, when this disease appears, eliminate the cause.
Zinc phosphide poisoning
Zinc phosphide is a medicine used to bait small rodents. Chicks may accidentally eat these kernels.
Symptoms: depression, irrational movements, poor breathing, saliva outflow, diarrhea with blood, paralysis and convulsions, and eventually death.
Treatment: Lugol solution and potassium permanganate solution are used.
Prevention: do not put poison in those places where there may be chickens and eat it.
Poisoning by nitrites and nitrates
Such poisoning occurs as a result of eating pesticides, which are used in agriculture, as well as when eating feed containing high doses of these substances.
Symptoms: severe agitation, conjunctivitis, redness of the mouth and earrings. Dyspnea, saliva outflow and convulsions may occur. But in the end the chicken may die.
Treatment: lactic acid is considered a good remedy for such poisoning.
Prevention: keep these substances out of the reach of chickens. And also sometimes to investigate food and water for the content of such substances.
The causes of this disease may be due to an excess of salt in the feed, when feeding fish, cucumbers or water.
Symptoms: they can appear within two hours after poisoning, they will be noticeable in loss of appetite, great thirst, depression, too frequent breathing. After that, diarrhea, paresis, paralysis of the extremities manifest, and as a result, the death of chickens can occur.
Treatment: With this poisoning, a 10% glucose solution with a prick or a heavy drink helps a lot.
Prevention: you need to keep track of the feed you give to the chickens so that there is not a large amount of salt in it.
What infectious diseases can occur in young animals?
Infectious diseases can be of two types: bacterial (salmonellosis, colibacteriosis, tuberculosis, pasteurellosis) and viral (pseudo lens, laryngotracheitis, flu).
When such diseases can be noted a sharp increase in body temperature, the manifestation of drowsiness and poor condition, there are closed eyes and omission of the wings, red mucous membrane, accumulation of mucus in the oral and nasal cavities, poor breathing accompanied by fluff and whistle, diarrhea, poor condition of bird plumage.
Pulloz - typhoid
This disease can overtake chickens as young as two weeks old.
Symptoms: sick chickens can notice a lack of craving for food and water, a sluggish gait, gathering in piles in warm places, closed eyes, lowered wings.
Little move and heard a squeak. Litter first as a slurry, and then diarrhea appears with a yellow shade of foam. Down near the cloaca is polluted. The chickens begin to breathe very tightly with a rattle and a squeak.
With long-term weakness, chickens stop walking altogether, tip over and die. The mortality rate for this disease reaches 60 percent.
Prevention and treatment: used drugs: penicillin, biomitsin, furazolidone, sintomitsin, a weak solution of potassium permanganate. These drugs give and as a prevention from the first days of life.
Paratyphoid or salmonellosis
According to the disease most sick chickens that are related to water. This disease is very common, and in many cases accompanied by death, about 70 percent of chicks die.
Reasons such a disease can become the consumption of contaminated feed and water. Carriers of the disease are pigeons and gulls.
Symptoms: this disease is almost impossible to detect in the initial stages, since no symptoms appear, and immediately the young chicks die. Basically, the disease lasts up to four days, with this may appear loose stools, the nervous state of the bird, and abundant drinking.
Treatment and Prevention: use a variety of drugs that are effective in the disease pullorosis - typhoid.
Most often, this disease is sick chicks under the age of three months.
The disease develops very acutely and chronically. This disease may be secondary.
Symptoms: during the acute development of the disease, there are high temperatures, depression, loss of appetite, thirst, there is bad breathing accompanied by wheezing, which can be noticed while moving the chicks. You can also notice the defeat of the respiratory system, signs of enteritis and inflammation of the belly.
Treatment and Prevention: use of the drug furatsilina. Enter a quarantine on the farm. It is necessary to disinfect the room well.
These diseases can affect chickens between the ages of two and three months. Both poultry and wild can be sick. The disease most often occurs in the cold season.
Symptoms: during the acute course of the disease, lethargy, detached holding from others, all the time the chicken is sitting, mucus in the form of foam is released from the nose and mouth, wheezing occurs. The temperature rises to 43 degrees Celsius, dull and tousled feathers.
The stool is yellow-green in color sometimes with blood. Difficult breathing, no appetite, abundant drinking. The result is a strong weakness and the chicken perishes. In the case of hyperacute disease, the chicks immediately die. Mortality of chickens is about 80 percent.
Treatment: it is necessary to better maintain and feed the bird, as well as to apply drugs: hyperimmune polyvalent serum and antibiotics. And from the new drugs you can use trisulfone and cobactan suspension.
Prevention: it is necessary to comply with all sanitary requirements for keeping poultry, immediately remove infected birds from the flock, vaccinate chicks. In the diet add vitamins and minerals. In the event of a disease enter quarantine.
Newcastle or pseudo-disease
Not only chickens, but also adult birds are subject to this disease.
Symptoms: In some cases, the disease passes very quickly and is accompanied by the death of a bird within three hours.
Chronic disease progression is characterized by paresis and paralysis, sudden weight loss, high temperature, drowsiness, mucus from the mouth and nose, snoring breathing, yellow or gray-green diarrhea, this form lasts about three weeks.
Treatment: this disease is not treatable, so the infected bird is immediately destroyed. It is necessary to destroy a bird without blood, since the disease can spread with blood. This disease is dangerous for humans.
Prevention: when a sick bird appears, it must be immediately isolated from the rest, after which a strict quarantine should be introduced. Chicks need to be vaccinated. The room must be cleaned and disinfected.
Chickens are very susceptible to this disease.
Symptoms: already on the fifth day of the disease on the skin near the beak, the eyelid and on the whole body, you can notice yellowish spots, which eventually develop into wart growths.
The condition of the bird is as follows: bad mood, ruffled feathers, no appetite. In case of diphtheria and mixed progression of the disease, a white rash can be noticed in the mouth, which eventually interferes with breathing, therefore the beak is open all the time and rattling sounds are heard. Exactly such a diagnosis can be made by doctors.
Treatment: a disease that is not treatable. If a sick bird appears, it is immediately removed from the rest, and informed to a specialist in order for it to take any measures.
Prevention: it is necessary to vaccinate young. Disinfect the house. Birds need to add dry ashes, in which they bathe and at the same time get rid of parasites.
Parasitic diseases catching up chickens
This disease can occur from the very first days of the life of the young, but it also catches up at the age of a month.
Symptoms: depression, no craving for food, loose stools, dirty feathers around the cloaca, diarrhea may be with blood, paresis of the limbs may appear at the end of the disease.
Treatment and Prevention: apply furasalidone, a solution of norsulfazol with the addition of water.
The causative agents of this disease are worms, up to fifteen millimeters long. Fifty to thousands of them can be found in a diseased bird.
Symptoms: with such a disease suffers stomach, lack of appetite, loose stools.
Treatment: use the salt of piperazine.
Prevention: With this disease, fetothiazine is used for about a month. You can give the birds a solution of potassium permanganate within a month.
Inflammation of the ovary
Such a process may occur with an injury to the ovary, which, subsequently, can lead to the manifestation of blood clots in the follicles. In this case, the yolk does not enter the oviduct, but into the belly, which causes an inflammatory process called yolk peretonitis.
The inflammatory process can occur as a result of very frequent feeling of the birds or due to some kind of injury.
The result of inflammation can be the formation of two yolks in the egg, small eggs or eggs with a very thin shell, can also be eggs with only one protein.
It occurs most often in places that are not covered with feathers; these are comb, earrings and toes. The scallop turns black and dies as a result of frostbite. Fingers can fall too. When frostbite spots appear, they should be rubbed with snow, treated with iodine and spread with ointment against frostbite.
Before the onset of frosts, it is good to lubricate the uncovered places with edible grease or petroleum jelly.
It is necessary to keep birds in warm rooms, and to warm the house before winter.
Fundamentals of prevention and diagnosis
Diseases in chickens, like in humans, are non-infectious or infectious-viral. The first category - ailments associated with poor conditions, physiological phenomena. The reasons in this case may be a draft, the lack of useful trace elements in the diet, impaired temperature or light conditions. The result - chickens cease to trot, behave unnaturally, reduce activity.
The second category is caused by the same negative factors. In some situations, they provoke sources of infection: bacteria, viruses, spores. Another variant of infection in the livestock of chickens is an infectious effect from the outside. Viruses are carried by other animals, wild birds. This can cause a massive death of chickens.
Even with minor signs of a disease, you should immediately begin to act:
- A sick chicken is a signal that a pathogen has appeared somewhere in the yard. The first step is the separation of affected individuals into quarantine. For this, it is better to equip a suitable place in advance.
- Start to search for negative factors. Even if an exact reason is not found, it is necessary to eliminate all possible foci for preventive purposes. Inspect the shaded places in the compound for mold. Make sure that there is no dampness in the grain and other feed of the hens, and there is no stagnation in the drinking water.
- Explore the territory in search of rodents.
- Examine the dark corners of the barn house in search of the same mold. If she showed up, just cleaning her up would be a little. Check and modify the ventilation system. The goal - to save the room for chickens from the corners with stagnant air.
Attention! The ideal environment for life and development of all kinds of bacteria and fungus is high humidity and standing air. Eliminate these risk factors.
Dangerous diseases of chickens: pasteurellosis, pullorosis-typhoid
This category of infectious diseases. If you do not make a diagnosis in time and do not begin treatment, the virus runs the risk of being transmitted to other birds. Most often the disease affects the liver of chickens. So you can lose all livestock. In some cases, the disease is transmitted to other animals, as well as people. Common diseases of chickens:
Pasteurella bacteria transporters - rats, mice. Chickens and young chickens up to 3 months are most susceptible to illness. Birds lose their appetite, blue shades appear on the ridge, mucus accumulates in the nose. Prevention - vaccination of chickens with cholesterol drugs.
Treatment of pasteurellosis is ineffective. Apply antibiotics (tetracycline, norsulfazol) or sulfametazin. But it is much more efficient to get rid of sick chickens by burning individuals. Then carefully clean and disinfect the chicken coop. Otherwise, the pathogen will survive in the litter, water, feed, dead birds.
Pulloz-typhus affects chicks up to 2 weeks old. They begin to actively drink water, neglecting feed. The young growth presses the paws, squeaks plaintively, lumps together, becomes sluggish. The hen's scallop turns blue, and the stool looks yellowish, frothy, liquid gruel. High-quality treatment of pullorosis is possible with the help of furazolidone and biomycin.
Salmonellosis and colibacteriosis
Salmonellosis is a known disease of chickens up to 1 month. Its symptoms are difficult to confuse with others:
An animal with a neglected disease dies in convulsions. The virus is transmitted through manure, eggs, feed, air. Experts advise to treat the bird like this:
- 10-day course of furazolidone and streptomycin,
- chloramphenicol, sulfanilamide, chlortetracycline,
- 10-day continuation of procedures using one furazolidone,
- Actions are repeated after a week break.
Attention! Prevention measures - immune serum. The house is thoroughly disinfected. Levomycetin is given to healthy chickens of all ages (three times a day during the week).
The causative agent of the disease colibacteriosis - E. coli. It can also infect another bird living in the yard. Not only chickens, but also adults have low immunity to the disease, and colibacteriosis is also very dangerous for human health. Symptomatology: excessive consumption of water, loss of appetite, difficulty breathing, low activity. The chicken starts falling to its feet, suffering from diarrhea. For treatment use medications: terramycin, biomitsin, enroflaksatsin, ampicillin, sarafloksalin.
Coccidiosis and infectious laryngotracheitis
Coccidiosis is transmitted by parasites - coccidia. It is a disease of chickens under the age of 3 months. Symptoms:
- low physical activity of young chickens,
- a sharp decrease in appetite
- lowered wings, ruffled feathers,
- diarrhea that changes color from slimy-green to dark bloody.
The treatment consists of a weekly course of disinfectants: furazolidone, norsulfazole, coccidin, sulfadimezin. They are added to the food of young chickens. Prevention consists of regular cleaning and disinfection of the chicken coop. The parasite is tenacious. Chickens remain infectious for 7 months. after recovery.
Infectious laryngotracheitis periodically affects extensive agricultural areas. The disease is transmitted directly from bird to bird. Risk age - up to 3 months. Juveniles begin to wheeze, cough and sneeze. Other symptoms:
- coughing and wheezing, whistling when breathing,
- watery eyes, runny nose,
- redness and swelling in the larynx.
Symptoms are similar to mycoplasmosis. Do not look for detailed differences. Treatment for this disease of chickens follows the same pattern. As a preventive measure, hatchlings are given a solution of titan 2-3 times.
These diseases of chickens are not transmitted from bird to bird or man:
- Cloacite. With a deficiency of fluorine and calcium in the diet, chickens develop an upset stomach, followed by irritation of the cloaca. The bird weakens and stops running. The mucosa should be washed with rivanol, smeared with petroleum jelly. After disinfecting the chicken coop, it is desirable to eliminate the causes.
- Intestinal flu. From poor-quality food or allergies to feed the chickens begin to suffer from diarrhea (yellow-green feces with a strong odor), high temperature, poor appetite.Laxatives plus a course of antibiotics will cure the bird, and dietary correction will restore its strength and productivity.
- Worms They are easy to see in the liquid feces. A secondary symptom is a lack of appetite in chickens. In this case, the weekly reception of the glasshouse helps.
Ticks are also ways to cause pathology in the body of chickens. Knemidokoptoz forms the growths on the paws, as in the picture. Ectominum, trichlormetaphos and butox have proven themselves in his treatment. The louse and feather bite the bird, causing it discomfort and leaving red spots on the body. You can get rid of them with the help of an insect or arpalitis. In the treatment and prevention of chicken diseases strictly adhere to the instructions for the drugs. It is important not to harm the feathered.
This is the most common nuisance that threatens the young, as their thermoregulation in the first month of existence is unsatisfactory. Therefore, an additional source of heat is needed. If this is not taken care of, then the babies are threatened:
- respiratory infections
- frequent stools
- slow growth
- loss of feathers.
Chickens need to be kept in a warm room, to control its temperature, not to allow through blowing, to give them water with heated water.
Occurs when the bird is under the scorching rays of the sun in places where there is no reservoirs for their cooling.
- blue shriveled scallop
- lack of appetite,
The way out of the situation will be to place the young in a shaded area with a canopy or house that is well ventilated and has water tanks.
Atrophy of the muscle ventricle
It may appear when:
- given monotonous mealy food,
- There is no gravel, shell rock, and other potassium-containing ingredients in the feeder.
It affects chicks of 1-3 months of age in large numbers, sometimes up to 80% of all existing individuals with mortality rates of up to 20%.
- big weight loss
- increased thirst
- increased hunger.
Treatment - introduction to the diet of a sufficient number of crushed grains mixed with gravel.
Prevention - adding chopped grass to food 5 times a day.
Lack of vitamins
Especially important vitamins are A, B, D, K.
Consequences with lack of vitamins:
- And - deterioration of digestion,
- B - slow growth,
- C - weakening of the body's immune defense,
- D - rickets
- E - swelling of tissues and organs
- K - ulcers and pecking.
Indicators and treatment for deficiency vitamins:
- And - weakness in the legs, loss of appetite - you need to feed with fresh greens, grated carrots,
- В - softening of feathers, slow development, convulsions, head tilting back - it is supposed to give greens, germinated grains, fresh yeast components, dairy whey, flour (meat and bone, fish, grass),
- D - bones soften and bend, no appetite, weakness and slow growth - in the diet are added: nettle, fish oil, grass meal, mineral substances,
- K - no appetite, dry skin, hemorrhages - recommended: alfalfa, nettle, clover, flour from them, carrot. It is advisable to give "Vikasol" diluted in water as an additive to food (1 g per 10 kg in the course of 2 weeks).
There are 3 types:
Zinc phosphide poisoning It happens when food is accidentally poisoned in rats and mice.
- impaired coordination of movements
- hard breath,
- copious saliva
- frequent stools with blood
As a result, death is possible. To prevent it, you need to give medication.
Treatment: lugol solution: 1 tsp. inside 2-3 p / d or 1 tsp. 0.15 solution of potassium permanganate 1 p / d.
Symptoms of pesticide poisoning:
- strengthening the red color of the mouth and earrings
- increased salivation,
- severe decrease in body temperature.
Treatment: lactic acid, half diluted with water 2-3 r / d for 1 tsp.
Salt poisoning happens when there is a lot of it in food - in fish, cucumbers, water.
- fast loss of appetite
- increased thirst
- a sharp decrease in vital activity
- loss of muscle strength
Treatment: 10% glucose solution is administered intravenously - 1 ml per 1 kg of body weight, plus plenty of drink.
Appears because of feeding coarse, indigestible food, because of the use of stale, musty water. At the same time, in the chicken the stomach mucosa becomes inflamed, vomiting begins - in the acute form of the disease, and in chronic - toxicosis. Dyspepsia can be of 2 types: simple and toxic.
When idle is observed:
- sticking feathers and down,
- lack of appetite (partial or complete),
- abdominal distension,
- diluted stools of different colors with mucus and remnants of undigested food,
- stillness and closed eyes.
When toxic to the specified signs are added:
- temperature rise,
- progression of weakness
- total exhaustion.
Death can also be the result of this type of poisoning.
- introduction to the diet of feed for easy digestion, not causing fermentation and rotting of food (yogurt, whey, cottage cheese, greens, onions, garlic) and the restriction of fat and protein complex,
- adding soda and manganic acid potassium, glucose, ascorbinka to water to ensure reproduction of lactic acid bacteria,
- the use of antibiotics and sulfonamides in case of severe disease,
- restriction of products in which the lime content is high in the first days.
Rasklev (or cannibalism)
Often associated with feeding, poorly organized and poor quality, as well as with poor conditions for chickens. These are: a small room, crowding, a long stay without fresh air, strong lighting in a long period of time. And, as a result, - high excitability of chickens. Because of him, the birds begin to attack each other, pluck feathers, peck at different parts of the body. By itself, pecking is not a disease, but only a deviation in behavior, causing considerable damage. In order to prevent it, you need to create the necessary conditions for chickens.
Treatment: Chicks that have wounds should be placed separately and smear the damage with sintomycin emulsion, iodine, potassium permanganate or tar. To balance the diet, you need to add greens, yeast, bone meal, citric acid solution (1 g per 50 chickens for 15 days). It is also recommended to moderately salt the food with a solution containing 0.1–0.2% of table salt over 4–5 days. You can apply: "Aminazin" - 3 g per chick, sulfur - 0.5 g per 1 kg of food - 4-5 days.
May start due to:
- accidental damage or shuffling,
- potassium deficiency in food
- wet litter.
With arthritis, the birds are without movement for a long time, and when they start walking, they limp. But these symptoms also apply to a number of other diseases, such as viral infections. Therefore, you need to be careful and look at other signs, such as swelling of the joints and tissues that are adjacent to them.
Treatment. If it is really arthritis, the treatment is as follows (per 1 kg of chicken weight):
- ampicillin - 20 mg,
- sulfadimethoxin - 100-200 mg,
- polymexin M sulfate –50000 one,
- Sodium benzylpenicillin - 100,000 units.
Each of the listed means is applied in continuation of 5 days in the form of additives to a stern.
Bronchitis, pneumonia, runny nose
Associated with a lack of fresh air and low temperature in the house or outside.
- hard breath,
- low mobility
- loss of appetite.
Are cut off: drugs "Gentamicin", "Tetracycline", "Erythromycin", "Enrofloks". It is necessary to diagnose the disease by a veterinarian and to comply with the dosage in accordance with the instructions.
Ascites (abdominal dropsy)
Formed as a result of violations of water-salt metabolism, poor performance of the heart, liver, kidneys. In addition to stagnation of fluid in the abdominal cavity, this is also observed in the veins. Treated: adding vitamins, herbs to the feed, pumping out a liquid by penetrating a sterile needle into the peritoneum (with the help of a veterinarian).
Often threatens chickens appeared to light in winter or late autumn. Particularly affected areas on the body, not covered with down and feathers - earrings, scallops, fingers. They may turn black and fall off. First aid: rubbing and treatment with iodine and special ointments. In addition to warming the chicken coop to the cold, you need to lubricate the vulnerable points with petroleum jelly, grease.
Curved and Curly Fingers
These are two different, albeit similar phenomena. They are characteristic of the first weeks of life and are most often observed in broilers. But sometimes there are ordinary chickens due to deviations received by inheritance. In case of pathology of the first species, the bird rests on the lateral parts of the feet, the second one moves on tiptoes. Causes can also be injuries, cold uneven floor, improper incubation. Curly fingers also appear due to paralysis of the lower limbs or lack of riboflavin in food. If the cause cannot be established and eliminated, it is better to get rid of such chicks.
As experts say: "Correct diagnosis - 90% of treatment success and then heal.
Pulloz (or typhoid)
This dangerous disease can overtake young in the third week of life.
- very poor appetite
- sluggish movements
- lowered wings
- closed eyes,
- churning in a handful in a warm place
- limited mobility
- constant squeak, pathetic,
- stool in the form of a slurry with a yellowish foam,
- dirty cesspool
- heavy breathing, wheezing.
When the described condition is long-lasting, the chickens stop moving, fall and die (up to 60% of the livestock).
- "Penicillin" - 300-500 thousand units. 10 heads + water - 1 r / d 3-7 days,
- "Biomitsin" - 5 mg per 1 kg together with feed or water - 2 p / d 3-7 days,
- "Furazolidone" - and 0.2 g with food per 100 chicks - 10 days,
- "Sintomitsin" - 0.5-1 g per 100 chickens 2 r / d - 3-4 days,
- a weak solution of manganese (additive to the drinker).
And also strictly according to the instructions used:
Very common and dangerous, difficult to detect at an early stage and threatens to kill 70% of the population. Its symptoms are few and are also characteristic of other diseases. These are: thirst, diarrhea, purulent, conjunctivitis, agitated state.
Causes of infection: infected food and water, the transfer of pigeons and gulls, rodents.
Treat Chicks need the same medication as with pullorosis.
And also used:
It is important to fight rodents, drive away gulls and pigeons.
Tuberculosis in chickens
A dangerous disease that often leads to the death of poultry. Tuberculosis mainly affects chickens aged about 9-10 months.
In a sick bird, activity decreases, limbs are paralyzed. There is a high body temperature, mucous membranes change color. Sometimes the disease causes intestinal upset, which is manifested by nausea and vomiting.
It is inappropriate to carry out therapy to eliminate such a disease. Because birds require a long and expensive treatment. It is important to prevent bacterial contamination of chickens in advance. In the presence of symptoms of the disease, it is necessary to make a special test for tuberculosis, the results of which will be known in 2 days.
Sick birds decrease activity
Salmonellosis in chickens
A dangerous infection in chickens, in the presence of which all systems of internal organs are affected. The disease in adults is manifested by a decrease in egg production and overall productivity.
Often the disease is exposed to chicks up to 14 days of age. Chicks quickly become infected with blood, which is fatal.
Poultry gets infected by infected animals, people, and also through feed. Some chickens are infected with salmonella while still in the incubator, in the absence of periodic disinfection. In large poultry farms, an epidemic of disease can destroy most of the birds. It will be necessary to completely replace livestock.
Common symptoms of the disease:
- secretion of mucus from the eyes and nose,
- hard breath,
- lack of normal motor activity.
Treatment is carried out only at an early stage of the development of the disease with antibiotics. Salmonella-infected adults will need to be destroyed. Their meat is not fit for human consumption.
Hypothermia and Hyperthermia
Hypothermia is called hypothermia. Especially in the first weeks of chick life, their bodies have not yet adapted to the new temperature. Therefore, they are kept under the lamp for the first month.
- low activity
With constant hypothermia, chickens are collected in one pile, often lagging behind in development, refuse to eat food. Weak chicks rapidly die.
Hyperthermia (overheating) also negatively affects the body of young animals. Such an illness develops during long-term chickens walking under the open rays of the sun. In the absence of a special canopy and water source, the chicks become lethargic, refuse to feed. In hot weather, it is undesirable to produce chickens for independent walking.
Hypothermia and hyperthermia are not treated with medication. It is important to normalize the temperature in the room where chickens are kept. If necessary, install a heater in winter.
This disease occurs in both birds and animals. It is characterized by purulent discharge from the eyes. If such a process is left without treatment, blindness is rapidly advancing in chickens.
The main symptoms of the disease:
- eyelid edema
- lack of normal mobility.
For treatment, it is necessary several times a day to drip birds into the eyes special drops based on antibiotics and corticosteroids. Such funds can be purchased at any veterinary pharmacy.
Viral disease affecting chicks from the first days of life. It is mainly distributed in chickens, where the conditions of keeping young stock are not met. It is rapidly transmitted by airborne droplets and affects all livestock. In most cases, only half of the chickens are cured, and the rest die.
Symptoms of laryngotracheitis include:
- Open beak,
- Coughing up blood
- Red eyes,
The severity of symptoms depends on the form of laryngotracheitis. With the acute course of the disease, the symptoms are very disturbing to the chickens, and in the chronic - less noticeable, the carriers of the disease do not appear at all.
Help kids can only vitamin therapy and such drugs as Sulfazole, Selfametazan. For preventive purposes, it is recommended to disinfect the chicken coop with the help of Glutex, Vircon and other similar solutions.
This disease, which should be feared not only chickens, but also people. Bird flu carriers can be wild birds that transmit the virus to domestic animals. In the domestic environment the disease quickly spreads across the population and carries a danger to humans.
Symptoms of influenza virus infection are pronounced:
- Complete or partial loss of appetite
- The chickens are sitting ruffled,
- From the dirty cloaca and nasal passages mucus is secreted, this leads to the fact that the chicks begin to choke,
- The temperature rises to 44 degrees,
- Likely convulsions.
If a bird flu is diagnosed in a bird, then you need to do only one thing - to destroy the sick individual and to burn the carcass, since it will not be possible to cure the chicken. The healthy part of young animals are vaccinated.
Worms are found not only in chickens, but also in animals and people. Symptoms of the appearance of worms in birds are very similar to the manifestations of infection of any other organism:
- Digestive problems
- Weight loss with a good appetite.
- Significant decrease in productivity.
Worm invasion can be successfully treated with medication. As a rule, use such tools as febantel or fenbendozol. For the purpose of prophylaxis, once every few months, chickens and adult chickens are fed with Fenothiazine.
Cannibalism can not be called a disease - it is rather a feature of behavior that develops when chickens do not have enough food or room in the hen house. Strong individuals begin to peck the weak in order to free up the area and provide themselves with food in the required quantity.
Unfortunately, having tasted the taste of blood once, the birds can not always stop and continue to peck until most of the population is exterminated. Most often this behavior is manifested in broilers.
The main symptoms of slander include:
- Plucking feathers from their fellows,
- Damage to body parts of other chicks,
- Explicit slaughter of weak individuals.
At the first signs of a disease, treatment will give a positive result, if there is a reason for the occurrence of aggression in birds and is eliminated.
- Weak or affected individuals are temporarily removed and wounds are treated.
- Particularly snooty chickens are also recommended to be planted from the main herd.
- If their behavior does not change, such hens are rejected or kept separately.
If the chick is sick, then first of all it is removed from the healthy young stock in order to avoid the occurrence of an epidemic and the loss of the livestock. In the case when it is impossible to diagnose a disease on their own, they seek help from a veterinarian, as it is often necessary to carry out preventive treatment.
Dmitry V. Morozov
Hereditary poultry farmer, owner of a poultry farm, graduated from St. Petersburg State Agrarian University with honors, the author of articles in specialized publications