Growing raspberries for some is considered a simple matter. But many do not know to grow a rich and tasty harvest of berries, you need to know some secrets planting and caring for this seemingly undemanding culture.
Where to plant?
By choosing the right place for planting raspberry bushes, you will provide yourself with a stable crop of tasty and aromatic berries.
The sun must be sweet for the berry. Raspberry moisture-loving plant. Therefore, the place for her to choose:
- Wet, but not swampy (well, if in this place in winter we accumulate a lot of snow).
- With a fertile layer of soil.
When is it better to plant - in the fall or spring?
Raspberry bushes can be planted in any warm season, but the best time to plant yet autumn.
In autumn, the best ratio of temperature and humidity. Bushes rooted in the fall, in the spring go faster in growth and less sick.
When spring planting plant takes root for a long time and the percentage of survival is less than during the autumn planting.
When planting raspberries in the fall, note that the bushes need to be planted 20 days before frost.
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Preparing the soil for raspberry bushes need to do in advance. If the bushes are planted in the fall, then landing pits prepare a month before disembarking.
When spring planting pits prepare from autumn. For some reason, seedlings not sown should be prikopat in the fall. In the spring it is important to have time to land the dug-out plants before the awakening of the buds.
Raspberry planted trench saves time on caring for her. Less watering, convenient to cover for the winter, increases the yield of berries.
- Choose a well-lit place.
- For uniform illumination of the raspberry tin trench direct from north to south.
- The length of the trenches is arbitrary, but the depth is 60-70 cm and 40-50 cm wide.
- If there are more rows than one, then the distance between them is at least 1.5 m.
- Heavy soil with loam needs to be lightened. Pour a layer of 10-15 cm gravel or sand on the bottom of the trench. Mix soil with humus. Spread mineral fertilizers on 1 square meter on top of it:
- 200 grams of phosphorus,
- 60-70 grams of potash,
- 300-400 grams of wood ash.
- You can use complex fertilizers: 200 grams of nitroammofosk or nitrophoska.
- Mix everything thoroughly again. Top sleep 10 cm of fertile land. Leave up to the top of the ditch 30-40 cm of free space.
- Strengthen the edges with sides. They should not crumble. For strengthening will approach: boards, roofing material or polycarbonate.
- From the ends of the trench to install T-shaped posts. Height is 1 m.
- Tension 2 rows of wire. From the ground in 30-40 cm and along the top of the posts.
- Plant saplings in a single line with a distance of 1 m between plants.
- Dig holes. Put the plant. Cover with soil. To plant stood firmly around the shtambik seal soil.
- Pour in two steps, in small portions until the soil is completely saturated with moisture. After watering the soil around the raspberry is recommended to mulch. This will prevent it from drying out and will relieve from the hassle of weeding and loosening. Peat, humus, needles or compost will be suitable as mulch.
- Saplings as growth should be tied to the wire. Garter start with the lower tiers.
The trench raspberry growing method is effective but optional and suitable for a large raspberries.Trench planting raspberry saves time care for her
If you have a small amount of raspberry, then it is better to plant it with patching or the bush method with the subsequent fan crown formation. Pits should be prepared two weeks before planting.
- Dig holes with a depth and a width of 35-40 cm. Between the holes there is a distance from 0.6 m to 1 m.
- Fill with fertile soil:
- 5-6 kg of humus
- 150 grams of double superphosphate
- 50 grams of potassium sulfate,
- 200 grams of wood ash.
- Pour the mixture into the bottom of the pit, and put 10 cm of simple soil on top.
- On the perimeter raspberry to put a barrier. Fit boards, roofing felt, slate or polycarbonate.
- Have sangentsev pruned roots to healthy. Crop shoots. Leave 35-40 cm.
- Lower the plant, straighten the roots and cover with soil. Condense around the stage.
- During planting, the root neck should be 3-4 cm higher than the soil level. After shrinking the soil, it will be at the soil level.
- After the raspberries are planted, water should be watered. Watering should be done in 2-3 doses in small portions. Until the soil is saturated with moisture.
- The soil around the trunk zamulchirovat. To do this, suitable humus, peat, sawdust or chopped grass.
According to Sobolev
So, what is the method:
- Preparation of beds and landing sites. We choose a well-lit place and the ridge is located from north to south or from east to west.
- Churn boards from the boards or make of slate. It is important that the bed is 20 cm higher than the soil level.
- The width of the beds is 1 m. Length as much as raspberry bushes. Between plants, a distance of at least 1 m. Sparsely planted bushes are better lit, blown. It is convenient to take care of them. The level of diseases decreases. This increases the productivity of raspberries.
- Raspberries are planted on the ridge in early autumn.
- Holes are dug 30 * 30 cm wide. Planted one seedling.
- Make a trellis.
It is not recommended to plant in one hole more than one seedling. Raspberries grow in one place for more than 15 years, so several bushes in one place will interfere with each other.
The raspberry yield of this method is also depends on correct trimming. In the spring, after the raspberries will give young shoots, hold the first pruning.
In late May or early June, trim at a distance of 80-100 cm from the ground. At such a height behind the bushes is convenient to care for. They do not lean toward the ground under the weight of the crop.
In the second year to spend the second pruning bushes. Side shoots should be cut to 10 cm. With such a pruning bush becomes like a small tree.
Produces a lot of flower stalks on which berries are tied. As a result, the harvest on the bushes increases.
Scions grown under bushes are not recommended to leave more than 4-5 pieces. The remaining offsprings are cut, and with the rest they are pruned the same as with the main stem.
By the method of Sobolev strong offspring is better to transplant to a new place, and the rest of the shoots cut. Thus, the usual grade is transformed into a remontant one. The bush bears fruit until deep autumn.
Forming the bed according to the method of Sobolev, the gardener does not need to dig and loosen the soil. Raspberry is a moisture-loving plant, therefore should be timely watering and should not allow the drying of the earth.
To retain moisture in the soil pour mulch on the ridge. If possible, as mulch is better to use fresh manure. Manure comes as a fertilizer, and covers the soil from drying out and weeds.
If there is no manure available, then we mulch the bed with available means. The layer of mulch should be at least 10 cm.Raspberry needs feeding, mulching and watering
Despite the manure of the garden, nutrient deficiency possible. It can be determined by the type of plant: the shoots become thin and weak, the leaf color changes - they twist, spots appear and the edges dry up.
In this case should be fertilized with organic: Pour the mullein infusion or chicken manure with wood ash.
How to make an infusion: in a third of the container, collect cow droppings and pour water to the top. Insist 2 days.
For watering it must be diluted in water 1:10. That is, take 1 l of infusion into a bucket of water, add a glass of wood ash. Stir and pour the raspberries.
Before covering the raspberries for the winter, you need to cut the branches from under the root. The young stalks of the current season should be carefully tied down to the ground and pinned with forks.
Now cover the stubby stems for the winter. Cover with knotted branches, and cover the top with non-woven cloth, tarpaulin or any other material at hand. In winter, artificial shelter will carry snow, which will keep it from freezing.
How to grow raspberries from seeds
Many raspberry varieties possible to grow from seed. The process is time consuming, but interesting. What is needed for this?
- Buy raspberry seeds in the store or collect overripe berries of your favorite variety.
- Squeeze the berries through cheesecloth. It turns out gruel. Dilute this gruel with water and wash the seeds. Empty seeds will float to the surface. They are not needed. The rest is collected and dried.
In flower pots
To grow raspberry seedlings in pots, seeds must be stratified. To do this, place the seeds in a wet napkin for two weeks in the refrigerator.
After planting in pots or a special box. Cook the loose earth, peat and soil mix in the ratio of 50 * 50.
Planting in pots to produce in March: seeds to plant at a depth of 0.5 cm, watered every 3 days. It should also be fertilized every 10 days with urea.
After the seeds germinate, we grow seedlings before the onset of heat. Then transplant raspberry seedlings in open ground.Raspberries can be grown from seeds in open ground and in pots
Now you know about how to grow raspberries in different wayshow to care for her, how to grow raspberries from seeds. This will help you grow a good and tasty crop of raspberry.
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When to plant raspberries: spring or autumn?
The planting dates (spring or autumn) depend on the climatic conditions of the region:
- On South spring is hot, dry, passes quickly. In the southern areas of raspberries planted better in the autumn: the second half of September and early October. Before the onset of severe cold, the saplings will have time to take root and will quickly grow in spring.
- In the northern regions spring is long, wet - excellent conditions are created for rooting of saplings. If the winters are cold, with severe frosts, when planting in the fall raspberry seedlings often die from the cold.
- In the middle band raspberries can be planted in both spring and autumn. However, it was experimentally verified that the autumn planting was more successful.
It is preferable to arrange the beds in the direction from north to south: this way the bushes will get more sunlight. Often raspberry bushes are planted near the fence or along it.
The soil requires fertile, drained. Light loam will do. You can grow on sandy soils, but at least once a season you need to feed organic matter.
How to choose raspberry seedlings for planting
Healthy raspberry seedlings photo
Choose for planting annual seedlings with a thickness of about 1 cm with developed fibrous roots. They must be healthy (without any growths, damage to the root or stem).
How to plant raspberry bushes photo and description
Planted raspberry trench or patchwork.
It is necessary to prepare the site in advance. In the fall, this is done 1.5 months before the immediate landing. In the spring, get ready for a couple of weeks before landing.
Processing raspberry seedlings before planting photo
During planting, it is recommended to dip the seedling roots into a solution of fermented mullein and clay or into a growth stimulant solution.
Landing in the hole
- In humid or sandy soil for digging, add humus or peat soil, heavy loam diluted slightly with sand (1 bucket per 1 m²).
- Dig up the landing holes 50x40x40. Mix the soil from the planting pit with organic matter and pour it back.
- If there was no preliminary preparation of the soil, you should dig up the landing holes and cover them with a mixture of the following composition: 10 kg of humus or compost, 400 g of wood ash, 100 g of superphosphate granules, 50 g of potassium sulfate.
Planting raspberry seedlings in the landing hole photo
Distance between raspberry seedlings and rows when planting: Keep a distance between individual plants of 70-100 cm, between rows - 1.5 m. This is a patchy (cluster) planting method, which is preferable to be used for autumn planting.
How to plant a raspberry photo
- When spring planting raspberries, it is necessary to water the seedlings to moisten the soil in the hole abundantly. Humidity is maintained until signs of active growth of shoots and leaves appear, then they are watered once a week.
- It is not necessary to water in the autumn, especially if wet weather is foreseen.
How to plant raspberry seedlings photo
If possible, after irrigation, grumble the ground around a raspberry bush: this will keep moisture, reduce the amount of watering, improve the condition of the soil, its breathability and the activity of beneficial microorganisms.
You can plant raspberries trench way:
- Dig a trench 40-45 cm deep, 50-60 cm wide.
- Place seedlings at a distance of 40 cm from each other.
- Between the furrows stick to the interval of 1.5 m.
- If the topsoil is fertile, fill the trench with it by adding a small amount of ash. Feed depleted soil with organic or mineral fertilizers as described above.
- Do not recommend adding nitrogen supplements.
Lower the seedling into the furrow or pit, sprinkle with a little earth, pour plenty of water and fill the rest of the ground. The root neck should be flush with the soil surface. Slightly stiffen the soil, chuck the tree circle.
Planting raspberries in two rows
Planting raspberries in two rows of photos
Raspberry seedlings can be planted in double rows. The method has advantages: more intensive planting of bushes, saving space with the convenience of caring for raspberries.
- Paired rows are located at a distance of 40-50 cm from each other.
- Seedlings in rows are planted at a distance of 40 cm.
- The wide row spacing between the paired rows is 1.5-2 m, depending on the grade height.
Planting raspberries in summer
Planting raspberry summer photo
Raspberries can be planted in the summer in June, before the onset of the hot time, or when the main heat begins to recede, in the second half of August. By this time, the raspberry jam is already otplodonosit and it can be a little disturbed to obtain planting material. It is better if you dig up and divide the bushes completely, because the disturbed bushes in the old place will still hurt and will not remain complete along with the main planting.
Dig up the necessary amount of planting material, divide into parts with 2-3 points of growth and plant in any of the methods described above. Summer planting raspberries will need to be watered well, so that the bushes begin. This method has the advantage: an earlier landing will provide better rooting and painless wintering, which is important for regions with severe winters.
How to water
In spring and summer, water only with a strong drought, abundantly once a week. More intensive watering is required before flowering, as well as during the laying and ripening of fruits. The prewinter watering is also important - at this time the process of laying out growth points is going on, and the more moisture is saturated, the more successful the winter will be. When watering the soil should get wet on 30-40 cm. The advantage is given to drip irrigation.
Sometimes loosen the soil, regularly remove weeds.
How to cut raspberries
Trimming is an important part of care.
- Biennial sprouts: in the first year they develop, on the second they lignify, bear fruit and die. These shoots must be cut to the base after the end of fruiting or next spring.
- Also cut thin, damaged stems.
- In one bush, leave no more than 7 strong shoots.
- In early spring, cut the stems, leaving their height of about 1.5 m - this is the middle part that gives the best fruits (spring pruning procedure can be combined with the autumn pruning of old branches). Trim to strong kidney.
How to tie a raspberry
Photos raspberry on the trellis
Tall bushes should be tied up. Place columns about 1.5 m high between rows, draw galvanized wire at a height of 1 m above the ground and tie shoots to it — this is a trellis garter. The following year, it is recommended to add a lower one (30 cm above the soil level) and an upper row (0.5 m above the average). So the shoots will not break off under the weight of the fruit, will simplify the process of harvesting.
Fan garter: between the bushes, drive in 2 pegs, tie up part of the shoots of one bush and part of the shoots of another, at different heights, bending them in an arc.
What and when to feed raspberries
If the shoots grow poorly, in early April and early May, under each bush, make a bucket of “talkers” (1 bucket of cow dung, 5 g of saltpeter or urea) in a bucket of water.
To improve the yield in the autumn, it is recommended to add organic matter (2-3 buckets of humus or peat with the addition of 100 g of saltpeter or urea under each bush).
Wintering in the Urals and Siberia
After the above actions proceed to the shelter. Stalks bend as low as possible to the ground, fasten them to the bottom row of the trellis. In winter, raspberry bushes should be under the snow. Throw it on top yourself if the snow cover is not enough. With a snowless winter should be covered with spruce leaves.
Diseases and pests of raspberry
With the observance of agricultural engineering and proper care of disease and pests are not terrible.
- Root cancer - swellings appear on the roots, berries lose their pleasant taste, twigs turn, turn yellow, leaves turn yellow and fall off. Вылечить растение невозможно. Выкопайте и сожгите больные растения. На этом участке не рекомендуют ничего высаживать около 2 лет.
- Rust - shoots are covered with dark ulcers, the leaves dry, fall off. In the initial stages, treat the bushes with a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture. When running cases, the bushes will have to be disposed of.
- Chlorosis - a viral disease peddler, which is aphid. It also happens when watering with cold water, from over-wetting the soil, lack of nutrients, or when the soil has an increased alkaline reaction. The leaves are shallow, deformed, the shoots do not develop, the berries dry. Find out the specific cause and eliminate it.
- Anthracnose - dry berries, gray spots appear on the leaves with a white edging. It is necessary to remove the affected areas, treat the bushes with a special preparation (nitrafen).
Pests are: raspberry beetle, raspberry stem fly, spider mite. It is necessary to carry out treatment with insecticide.
Types and grades of raspberry
There are varieties of raspberry:
- Garden or traditional - the most enduring species with a regular harvest, gives about 4 kg of berries from one bush. Pay attention to the variety Malakhovka.
- Repair - gives the greatest number of berries. Fruits twice per season.
- Large-fruited - differs in larger sizes of fruits in comparison with other varieties. Remarkable variety abundant.
- Yellow or yellow - breeders brought a lot of tasty berries with yellow color and a record size. The most interesting variety is Yellow Giant.
- Chokeberry or black raspberry - do not confuse with blackberry. Varieties with blue-black color of the berries. Very exotic berry. The best varieties: Coal, Litch, Bristol, Boysenberry, New Logan.
- Standard raspberries or raspberries are powerful plants that do not require a garter. Varieties: Fairy tale, Tarusa, Fortress, Galaxy.
Varieties of repair type: Apricot, Mulatto, Orange miracle, Diamond.
Varieties of early ripening: Golden Giant, Cascade, Vega, Cumberland, Glen Ampl.
Varieties of late ripening: Mirage, Ruby, Stolichnaya.
Before asking for advice on how to plant raspberries, determine the season for conducting these works. Often choose the autumn planting, at the turn of September-October, but in some regions it is necessary to have time before the onset of frost. Conduct such work in the spring, but as early as possible, before the start of sap flow. This option is not suitable for areas with long winters.
Raspberries are planted in several ways: in separate bushes, scattered around the garden, in trenches along a fence or an outbuilding. Some gardeners in the course are handy containers (deep pan or flower pot without a bottom, car tire, etc.). This option is suitable for young seedlings that can be sheltered near the garden where strawberries are grown.
Experienced gardeners already know how to plant raspberries in separate individuals. Beginners should adopt the proposed guide. Shrubs or distribute a single unit on the site, or form a number of them. In the second case, the distance between the plants is 1.5-2 m. Dig holes of diameters of 0.45-0.6 m, digging them in half a meter.
If the soil is not completely fertile, fertilizers are placed at the bottom of the pit: 1/3 of a bucket of compost or humus, 40 g of wood ash, the same amount of superphosphates and 12 g of ammonium nitrate. To prevent home-made nutrient preparations from burning on the roots of raspberries, the composition is sprinkled with a layer of earth and only then the seedling is lowered into the pit.
The depth of planting the bush should be optimal so that the basal buds do not dry out from close proximity to the surface. But also it is not necessary to lower a plant deeply, it will negatively affect its development. Landmark for planting is the basal neck - it should look out of the ground slightly.
Planting raspberries in separate bushes
Note! Planting ends with abundant watering of bushes, soil tamping and mandatory mulching (sawdust or straw).
Loosening the soil, removing weeds
Loosening is a prerequisite in the agricultural technology of raspberries. This procedure allows you to remove the dry crust from the surface, ensuring the penetration of air and moisture to the roots. Weeding is periodically carried out, which includes the elements of loosening.
But in order to avoid these agricultural troubles, it is recommended immediately after planting the tree trunk circle of the earth, using rotted compost, straw, torn grass, etc. This layer (at least 10 cm) will maintain moderate soil moisture and prevent the growth of weeds.
Bending down the raspberry bushes for the winter
Ways to prepare the berries for winter depend on the grade. The common raspberry does not tolerate frosts well, so the shoots that will produce next year should be bent to the ground. Step by step action is as follows:
- the stems are carefully removed from the trellis,
- bundled up and tilted to the ground
- so that the shoots do not straighten, they are pinned (but not squeezed) with wooden straps or wire.
In areas where severe frosts are expected, but winters with little snow, branches wrap with agrofilm and spandbod. As an additional measure - over it you need to put a lapnik. It is recommended to make low fences around the plantation that will provide snow retention.
Preparing raspberries for winter
The repairing variety, transferred to one-time fruiting, will not have to bend down, since all the shoots are pruned. In this case, it is enough to shower the hemp with foliage, pine branches or a thick layer of sawdust.
A raspberry bush, more like a tree, it will be difficult to bend down to the ground because of the powerful stems. For varieties such as Tarusa, the shelter is made differently. The branches are slightly shortened and arch-shaped supports are installed over the plant, over which they stretch the spandbod, or each bush is individually tied with a warming material.
Most raspberry varieties have a spreading crown that you want to tie up. This will protect the shoots from breaking off under the weight of ripe fruit. Yes, and trellis easier to harvest.
Equipment support for the stems begin to implement from the moment of planting seedlings. If a trench option was chosen, wooden or metal poles are driven into the ground along the edges of a row on both sides of the bushes. With a significant length of the trench will need additional (intermediate) support.
In the first year it is enough to tighten one row of wire at a height of 1 m from the ground. The shoots on the lower tier are tied up with an interval of 10 cm. In a year, another 2-3 rows of garters will be needed, which are laid with an interval of 30 cm from each other.
Important! Young shoots will be tied up on the lower tier, fruiting ones on the upper ones.
Raspberry garter options
If the planting of seedlings was carried out in the pits, and the bushes are at a considerable distance between them, then the garter is provided separately for each plant. In this case, gardeners give more preference to the fan-shaped method, scattering branches to both sides of the center and tying up each shoot for 2-3 rods evenly spaced from the bush.
Those fertilizers that were made during planting, raspberry enough for the current season. The following year, in spring, the berry is fed with complex mineral fertilizers (how to use it, prompts the attached instruction). This food is brought under the bushes with a frequency of 1 every 3 years.
Nitrogen-containing agents are used every spring (end of March - beginning of April). The solution is prepared from cow dung (1 shovel per bucket of water), with the addition of urea or saltpeter (5 g). Raspberry is responsive to such food and will give a good harvest.
On one site raspberry can exist for a quarter of a century, but after 5 years, yields will begin to fall due to depletion of the soil. Then there are reasonable questions: how best to transplant raspberries and when to transplant raspberries. First you need to choose a new place under the berry, relocating, for example, on the former vegetable beds. The best predecessors are potatoes, legumes, tomatoes and onions.
Having decided to plant raspberries, it should be borne in mind that the old bush is not transferred to the new site. For this purpose scions are used, in which the root system has already developed quite well (up to 15–20 cm). Moreover, their age should be 1 year. By selecting the aboveground stem in a diameter of not less than 10 mm, it is cut from the uterine horizontal root and planted in prepared holes. If the seedling is higher than 30 cm, it should be shortened.
After extraction of the scions, root cuttings can be used as planting material. Having dug up the remnants of the roots from the ground, they choose the most viable - 10-15 cm long and 3-5 mm in diameter. Each cutting is placed in wet sand and stored in the basement until spring.
A newcomer to gardening is also interested in this moment: when the raspberries can be transplanted so that it will settle down better in a new place. The choice of season entails its own characteristics in agricultural technology:
- For most gardeners, spring is the favorite breeding month. But planting material harvested in the fall. By this time, good roots are already formed on the cuttings,
- If there is a need to do berry-berry change in the summer, then the choice of location is more responsible. New landings should not be exposed to direct sunlight. Therefore, it is necessary to provide shading for the whole season. Since August, the berry can be opened. So that rooting is successful, all summer long seedlings provide abundant watering,
- Choosing autumn, landing is carried out in the first half of September. By this time, the shoots should already have a strong root system. Otherwise, the sapling will not suffer the winter cold. After planting, the bush is watered and lined with a large layer of mulch.
Whatever period the summer resident chooses to transplant raspberries, it must be borne in mind that rooting during the spring procedure will be most effective. The plant has a whole season to get settled in its place. If this is a remontant variety, by the autumn it will be possible to get a small crop on the shoots.
Autumn planting is preferred. Warm autumn allows seedlings to take root well and prepare for winter. In early spring, raspberries successfully start growing and in summer will yield the first crop. The best month for landing is October.
But in the spring to plant raspberries is recommended only in extreme cases, if you do not have time to do this in the fall. As a rule, spring in the south quickly turns into summer. Planted at this time the bushes immediately throw fruit buds, not having formed a root system. They need a lot of moisture, which delivers the roots. In such conditions, raspberries grow poorly, often dries out.
How to choose seedlings for planting?
Seedlings can be grown independently or purchased on the market (in the store). Usually sold annual or biennial bushes with the root system.
Attention should be paid to such moments:
- The stem should not be too thick. The thicker it is, the more strength the root system will need to feed the seedling. It is better to choose bushes with medium thickness or thin shoots.
- If the trunk is too long, then developed roots are required, otherwise they will not be able to feed the escape. It is recommended to choose the bushes, the length of the shoots which does not exceed 50 cm.
- The root system should be well developed. A plant with a single root is guaranteed not to take root. Too old or dried roots become brown in color. From their purchases is also better to refrain.
- At the root of the neck must be present replacement buds, from which new shoots will develop. If they are not, do not buy a sapling.
- It is not necessary to choose seedlings that have suspicious swellings (galls), cracks, or deep spots.
- If there are leaves on the shoots, this indicates that the plant was dug up during the period of active sap flow. During this period, raspberries can not dig. She definitely will not survive. Seedlings transplanted only after the foliage.
How to choose a place?
It is important to choose the right place for planting raspberries. It should be well lit by the sun and be protected from cold winds. In particular, the raspberry will be well protected from the wind fence. Rows are recommended to be located from south to north, so that the plants are better illuminated by the sun during the day.
It should refrain from laying the raspberries under the trees. Shrubs will reach up, and buds will be formed at the tips of the shoots. Such shoots may not mature to winter, which will lead to loss of harvest. Do not like raspberry neighbors such as potatoes, tomatoes, strawberries.
The soil of the raspberry is fertile, sandy or light loamy and has good drainage.
General rules for planting raspberries
Selected for planting raspberry plot should be prepared. In any case, it should be cooked in the fall. The soil is dug up on a spade bayonet and cleared of weeds. Organic fertilizers (1-2 buckets), superphosphate (70 g) and potassium sulphate (50 g) per 1 square of area can be added for digging.
Sand can be added to heavy or peaty soil. It is possible to apply fertilizer not under digging, but directly into trenches or pits. In this case, 3 kg of humus or compost, 30 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium salt are consumed per hole.
Raspberries are planted in two ways: bush and ordinary. It is necessary to strictly observe the distance between the bushes and rows, avoiding the thickening of plantations.
The locations of the raspberry rows are marked and the furrows or pits are digged.
The bushes are planted in prepared pits or furrows 40 cm deep. The trench width is 50-60 cm. A distance of 0.5-1 m is maintained between adjacent bushes. In a couple of years all empty spaces will be filled with raspberry shoots. The distance between the rows is 1.5-2 m. If several different raspberry varieties are planted, then the distance between these plantations is kept about 4 m.
Raspberries planted in excavated pits. The distance between adjacent bushes should be about 1-1.5 m. The depth of the pits is 25-40 cm, and the diameter should allow the root system to be placed freely in the hole.
The depth of planting should be such that the root neck of the bush is approximately at ground level. If the seedling is too deep, then it will be difficult for young shoots to break through the layer of earth. In this case, they will consume the energy they need to grow. When too shallow planting roots in the summer will dry up, and in winter they may freeze.
Plants planted in the ground, watered abundantly. When the soil near the bushes shrinks, they pour the earth under the bushes. It is advisable to soil the bushes under the bushes.
Tapestry for raspberry
So that raspberry bushes do not break and do not bend, special supports - trellis - are arranged on raspberry trees. Along the axis of each row, raspberries are driven into wooden or metal poles into the ground. They are located at a distance of 2-4 m from each other.
At a height of 1 m wire is tied to the posts. It will serve as a garter shoots raspberry. If necessary, in addition tie another 1-2 rows of wire between the posts.
Proper planting raspberry bushes does not guarantee a high yield.
For the bushes need timely and regular care. It consists in the following:
- Regular watering. Raspberry loves moisture, so in the summer you have to literally fill it with water.
- Timely pruning. Every autumn you need to prune the shoots, cutting two-year-olds who have already given a harvest. Also weak, unnecessary and diseased shoots are removed. The recommended number of shoots per raspberry bush - no more than 7 pieces.
- In spring, the remaining young shoots are shortened by a quarter. The recommended height of the shoots after pruning is 1-1.2 m.
- Shoots attached to the trellis.
- To reduce the number of weeds in raspberries, you can mulch the soil under the bushes.
If you follow the simple recommendations listed above, growing raspberries and getting decent yields from them will not be a big problem for the owner of raspberries.
Let's see when to plant raspberries in the spring. It's all very simple, you need to choose the moment when the earth is already slightly warmed up, the average daily temperature is already above zero, and the buds have not yet blossomed. This is usually end of April - beginning of May.
The advantage of spring planting is that the soil is sufficiently wetted after the snow melts and spring rains. If the spring has stood out dry, it is worth postponing the planting until the fall, or be prepared for the fact that the plant will have to provide regular abundant watering.
Next, we consider how to plant raspberries in the spring, having studied step by step instructions, including the steps of selecting and preparing seedlings and the plot, as well as methods of planting.
How to choose seedlings when buying
When choosing planting material, you need to pay attention to the root system: it must be strong and healthy in appearance. A good seedling should have 2-3 escape. At the base of the shoot should be at least three buds. The height of the seedlings does not matter.
It should be borne in mind that the root system of the shrub tolerates drought very poorly: if you do not intend to plant the plant immediately, put it in water, and during transportation, wrap it with a damp cloth or put it in a wet plastic bag.
First of all it is necessary to take into account that raspberries are a perennial plant, and the place must be chosen not for one year. Shrub prefers sunny areas that are well protected from winds and drafts. Не рекомендуется высаживать малинник на возвышенностях и крутых склонах, так как это может привести к недостатку влаги. Очень часто для малины выделяется место вдоль забора (предпочтительнее с южной стороны) — в таком случае растению будет комфортно, а вы добавите небольшой защитный элемент своему участку. Perfectly suitable for planting raspberries also areas near the outbuildings - they will protect the bush from strong winds and frosts. The plant tolerates the neighborhood with fruit trees (except cherries).
Preparation of seedlings lies in the fact that in no case should the root system be allowed to dry out - it is very sensitive to drought. Therefore, after the purchase should be constantly monitor this moment. Immediately before planting it is recommended to moisten the roots in water or ground solution from the planting mixture.
After landing, you should follow a number of simple rules on care, which will not take much time and effort, and the result will certainly please.
Be sure to water the bushes immediately planting, it is desirable to repeat the water procedures in 2-3 days, in order for the plant to take root well. It is better to mulch the soil around the raspberry, it will help to retain moisture in the soil longer. This can be done with straw, sawdust, compost or peat.
As for the subsequent watering, then the weather should be guided by the weather: if the summer is very dry and the soil is too dry, the raspberries must be watered, but in no case should it be poured, it doesn’t need too much moisture.
Fertilize raspberries mainly with organic and mineral fertilizers. In spring and autumn you can feed the plant with compost, rotted manure, chicken droppings or peat. Mineral fertilizers are preferably applied in the spring. It can be as a complex of minerals, and potassium, nitrogen, superphosphate and phosphorus separately.
Besides that raspberries pruned immediately after landingthen this procedure should become regular. The shrub needs to be pruned immediately after harvesting, as well as in spring and autumn. Raspberries should be cleaned from dried stalks, as well as to ensure that the shrub does not grow much. In the summer, too, do not leave the plant unattended: if faded shoots appear, they should be immediately cut. Such care will ensure order in your garden and help you achieve maximum yield.
In order for the plants not to bend under the weight of the berries, they need to ensure reliable support. Place two poles at the edges of the rows and stretch the twine at a meter height, then carefully tie the shoots with a cloth. For more mature raspberries, add a couple more rows of wire or twine at a lower and higher distance (about 30 cm and 1.5 m).
Raspberries are sprayed with Carbofos in order to prevent the occurrence of pests. The procedure is carried out in the fall, in dry, windless weather. If after spraying rains began, it must be repeated. There are traditional methods of spraying: for this use infusion of tansy, urea or garlic.
In order to prepare the infusion of tansy, you will need 400 g of dried tansy soaked in 5 liters of water, after a day the solution must be brought to a boil and boil over low heat for half an hour. When the mixture has cooled, it must be drained through gauze and diluted with five more liters of water. After that you can start spraying.
Planting and caring for raspberries do not require special knowledge and strength - by performing a number of compulsory procedures, it is possible to grow a chic, richly fruiting raspberries in one's plot.