The cultivation of sunflower engaged more Indians who used seeds to relieve chest pain and treat fever. In the fields of our country, the culture of the Compositae family is grown mainly for the production of vegetable oil. In this review, we consider the main points of planting, care and technology of agrotechnics when growing plants in open ground.
Terms of planting sunflower at the cottage in the open ground
The cultivation of sunflower provides seed method of planting. Apply seedling sowing does not make any sense, because the grains are kept spring frosts without risk to the future harvest. Some gardeners living in the northern regions, manage to grow oil crops with seedlings (seedlings). The seeding is carried out in prepared pots or plastic bottles without a bottom in order to transfer shoots to the garden of the summer cottage together with the earth clod. This allows you to save a poorly developed root system. If it is damaged, the plant may not settle down in a new place.Modern high-oil varieties of sunflower are sown when the soil warms up to +10 degrees at a depth of 5 cm.
The term of sowing begins in late April or early May. Seeds of high-grade sunflower varieties sprout well and germinate when the soil warms to 8-10 ° С. Sunflower unpretentious to the conditions of cultivation, the temperature up to minus 5 ° just appeared shoots can easily withstand.
The most popular varieties for the Moscow region, St. Petersburg and other regions
Variety of varieties complicates the process of selecting seeds. When buying you need to focus on the popularity of varieties and climate features. Getting a good harvest is more likely with proven varieties of sunflower. This culture is grown in suburban areas, as in the Moscow region, St. Petersburg and in the southern regions. What sort of plant, decide for yourself.
The hybrid is characterized by high productivity, resistance to drought and disease (white rot, ash rot, fomozom, fomopsisu). Not afraid of the plant and weeds (clover). Sunflower mid-ripening period, the growing season lasts 110-120 days. The height of the stem with a basket is 140-150 cm. The variety is recommended for cultivation in the steppes and forest-steppe zones.
Three-line hybrid with a growing season of 100-110 days. The height of the stem reaches 165-170 cm. Strong immunity contributes to stamina against white and gray rot, fomopsis. Seeds contain a high rate of oil - up to 55%. Productivity makes 39-41 c / hectare.
The hybrid of the Dutch selection differs in resistance to herbicides. Feature of the variety is the low requirements for the cultivation of the soil. Technical ripeness occurs within 100-110 days after germination. on the ground surface. The content of oils in seeds is about 55%. It is not recommended to sow in the fields where there were flashes of Fomopsis.
Early ripe variety with a growing season of about 85 days. 54% oil. Plant height - up to 168 cm. The variety Buzuluk is stable under different climatic conditions, drought-resistant. This is a sort of intensive direction, it requires high-quality agrotechnology and the use of fertilizers.
Before planting, the seed must be properly prepared. The process involves sorting (selection of large healthy seeds) and soaking for 14 hours in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. To accelerate germination and obtain friendly shoots, the nuclei are processed with growth biostimulants. Fungicides and insecticides can be added to the solution to increase the resistance of young shoots to diseases and pests.
Before sowing a sunflower, you should seriously consider choosing a site for planting. The culture needs the sun, so the place should be well lit and ventilated. The ideal option is fertile soil with a small amount of clay. However, the plant can adapt to any environment, with the exception of acidic, saline and marshy.The soil for planting a sunflower after cereals and corn will fit just perfect
Preparing the site at the cottage is better to do in the fall, carefully removing all plant residues from it and digging the shovels to the depth of the bayonet. Simultaneously with digging mineral fertilizers should be introduced.
Sowing patterns and embedment depth
Let's figure out how to sow a sunflower and what is the optimal embedment depth? It is necessary to plant seeds in moist soil to a depth of 6-8 cm. In each nest you need to lay 2-3 seeds. When planting large varieties of plants, an interval of not less than 1 m is observed; for medium-sized varieties, a distance of 60 cm is considered acceptable. The more space is left between the holes, the larger will be the nuclei of the new crop.
Many gardeners puzzled how to arrange planting sunflower. Some have adapted to plant the plant along the fence (leave 65-75 cm between the holes, at least 30 cm from the fence). However, it is necessary to clarify that the fence should be in the form of a grid, so as not to create shading. As an option plant a sunflower between the beds of cucumbers or other vegetable crops that get along well with each other (the square-cluster method of 50x70 cm will do). Landing along the path is not less interesting (the distance between the holes is 70 cm)
Proper care of seedlings and agricultural technology
For the seeds in the baskets to be large, you need to make some efforts: provide with watering, in a timely manner to make additional fertilizing, to loosen the soil and remove weeds, to conduct inter-row cultivation. Periodic treatments of the plantation to prevent diseases and pests will be a good addition.
Irrigation of fields or beds with sunflower should be regularly before the formation of 4 pairs of leaves on the young shoot. Further watering is carried out as needed. Increase water consumption or increase the frequency of its introduction into the soil should be in the period of development of inflorescences and seed filling.Sunflower must be watered every day.
The soil is soaked with moisture to the depth of the roots. In hot weather, irrigation is carried out daily. If a prolonged high temperature is established with a low level of air humidity, then watering the beds or fields should be several times a day. This will help form large nuclei.
To grow and get a good harvest, sunflower needs regular feeding. The first is made after the formation of the third pair of sheets. Superphosphate is used as a fertilizer (20-40 g per 1 m2). It is scattered on the ground, after which they are buried to a depth of 10 cm and watered.Mineral and organic fertilizers will increase yields and accelerate the development of sunflowers
The second lure is made after the formation of the basket. At this stage, potash-nitrogen fertilizers are more suitable (a tablespoon of potassium sulfate is added to a bucket of solution of mullein). When ripening seeds use the same composition.
Pests and Prevention
Failure to comply with the rules of agricultural technology threatens the harvest. The greatest problems arise in case of detection of the disease. Among the most dangerous are the following fungal infections.
- Downy mildew (perinospora) characterized by the following features: withering leaves, thinning of the stem, white plaque on the underside of the foliage. If the culture is infected twice in one season, another symptom is added - small oily spots on the leaves. With the development of the fungus in the active phase, the basket is damaged, as a result of which it ceases to develop.
- Often the plants are affected by black spot, which is recognized by dark necrose spots, expanding over time to 4-5 cm in size. Other signs indicate infection: numerous cracks in the place of attachment of the stem to the stem, dark spots on the petioles of an elongated shape.
- Gray spot affects almost the entire plant, forming dark spots of angular shape with a gray contour on the leaves, petioles, stalks. Over time, parts of the plant dry up and fall off.
- With bacteriosis plant tissues rot, become covered with mucus. If you do not process the culture, it will wither and dry.
Insect parasites can also harm crops:
- steppe crickets - attack the plant at the stage of formation of the first leaflets, destroy the growth point,
- weevil - the parasites have a snack on the stem of young shoots, seed leaves are eaten away, sprouts that have not yet appeared on the ground surface,
- meadow moths - the larvae differ in gluttony, eat almost completely the leafy part of the culture, destroy the epidermis in baskets and stalks,
- gnawing scoops - insects at the caterpillar stage eat up the stem near the root zone,
- Chafer - parasite larvae damage the plant root system.
Sunflower crops begin to be harvested when the plant reaches full maturity. Basket and leaves dry up, become brown (brown) color. Mature sunflower seeds accumulate a sufficient amount of oil, the kernels become solid, and the peel acquires a shade corresponding to the variety. Estimated and all planted field as a whole. If the indicator of the remaining plants with yellow petals does not exceed 15%, the harvest time begins.
The culture includes minerals and vitamins that are beneficial for the body, and essential oils. It is possible to use sunflower seeds both in the culinary purposes, and medical. When landing on large areas, you can replenish stocks of vegetable oil for the winter. It is absolutely not difficult to master the agrotechnology of sunflower cultivation.
What to feed?
When a sunflower has 3 pairs of leaves it needs to be fed:
- Superphosphate is required per 1 m2 of area - from 20 to 40 g. The bait is thrown on top of the ground.
- At a depth of 10 cm, fertilizer should be prikopat - sketch on top of the ground and water.
After the baskets are formed in the plant, potash fertilizers are introduced into the soil with nitrogen fertilizers. First make an aqueous solution of mullein. This is 1:10 + 1 tbsp. l potassium sulfate.
"Important! These fertilizers are used when sunflower seeds ripen in sunflowers. ”
It happens that the stem of a plant is cracking, and on the leaves of an irregularly shaped form bubbles. This means that the plant from the soil can not get the right amount of boron. In this case, the leaves are sprayed with medicine containing boron.
The main thing is to constantly water the sunflower, during the period of flowering and the ovary of the seeds to make fertilizer for it, often to spud, choosing weeds and the plant will give a rich harvest of large seeds. If necessary, with a drought, the plant is watered 2-3 times a day.
The sunflower is unpretentious to the growing conditions (for example, it can tolerate short-term spring frosts to -5 ° C), is drought-resistant. But in order for you to get large and beautiful seeds at harvest, you will need to pay enough attention to it.
Firstly, for a good harvest, planting sunflower is necessary on fertile soil. The best option is the soil with an average amount of clay in the roots of sunflower and with a sufficient amount of moisture under them. Landing on sour, marsh and saline land is not worth it. Another sunflower should not be planted in areas where earlier legumes (beans, peas, soybeans) used to grow, sugar beets and tomatoes (due to an excess of nitrogen in the soil after these plants), but the land after planting crops and corn is perfect .
Also, we do not advise you to plant a plant for several years in a row on the same plot (it is advisable to take a break for 3-4 years), since the sunflower very actively consumes the nutrients it needs from the soil, literally sucking them out of the ground. In addition, the sunflower is prone to various diseases, so this respite will get rid of most of the pathogens (from which the plant suffers), remaining in the ground. Another important factor is that the chosen landing site must be sunny and windless.
Oilseed sunflower (namely, it is a question of, you can read about decorative sunflower in the publication Decorative sunflower - the sun in a flowerbed) - this is a one-year crop that will need from 70 to 150 days to ripen, depending on the variety and place of growth. Planting sunflower seeds is carried out in warm, heated soil (when the earth warms up to +8. + 12 ° C), usually in April.
Before planting, seeds need to be pickled and calibrated. For dressing, you can use special disinfectants, but there is also an effective folk remedy that will help get rid of harmful microorganisms.
For the manufacture of this tool will need garlic and onion peel. Garlic (about 100 g) is passed through a meat grinder, then mixed with onion peel and poured with two liters of boiling water. This mixture is infused for about a day, then the infusion is filtered through cheesecloth.
Sunflower seeds are left in this infusion overnight before planting. Such seed treatment before planting will bring additional benefits: at first, it will scare off rodents and other pests who love to feast on seeds.
The greater the distance, the larger the seeds will be with seeds
When planting, seeds are sown to a depth of 8 cm, in each nest we leave 2-3 seeds. The distance between planted sunflowers is also very important and depends on the variety of sunflower. Between large sunflowers, the interval should be 75-90 cm, between average-height plants 45-50 cm.
The greater the distance between sunflowers, the larger the seeds with seeds will be. In small areas, sunflower can be planted in the aisle between cereals.
Sunflower seeds are loved not only by people, various rodents and birds also want to eat them. When planting for a while, the infusion described above for seed dressing will help protect the seeds from these dirty dogs.
Additional protection from birds will serve white threads tied on small pegs. In a few weeks, the emerged shoots will no longer interest the birds.
The pest invasion will begin when the seeds ripen
A new invasion of these pests will begin when the seeds are ripe. For their scare useful cloth strips, gauze and newspaper strings, strips of foil. If you have old CDs, you can also use them - the main thing is that they sparkle brightly in the sun. There is another option to protect the seeds from birds: a light gauze bag with holes for ventilation is put on the pollinated seed box.
Varieties of annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus)
- SAR variety
Sunflower, a variety of SEC. Photo from boguchar-semen.rf
- Variety Anyuta
Sunflower, variety Anyuta. Photo from ag-rus.ru
- Sort Vulcan
Sunflower, a type of volcano. Photo from ag-rus.ru
- Sort Orpheus
Sunflower, variety Orpheus
- Variety Gourmand
Sunflower, variety Gourmand. Photo from npo-vniimk.ru
Finally, I would like to note that it will not be difficult to grow sunflower seeds on “gryzovye” seeds. At low cost, you can provide yourself with homemade sunflower oil, and roasted seeds will help you pass the time in the evening at the TV, satisfy your hunger and provide your body with a mass of nutrients and vitamins. Yes, and they calm the nerves and quit smoking help - this is certainly verified :)