Half of the success in obtaining the perfect crop depends on the variety. What you need to consider when choosing the type and variety of cabbage.
Of course, be sure to take into account all the features and nuances of the region where you live. Then choose the ripening period, taking into account the needs and use of the vegetable, resistance to cold, heat, drought, diseases, marksmanship, cracking.
You need to know the features of different ripening terms. Early cabbage has a small crop, loose cabbages are usually small (not more than 1.5 kg.), Which are poorly stored, are used only fresh to prepare various dishes.
Mid-season varieties more productive, they can be used in the summer and used for winter preparations. And late-ripening varieties are well kept, used for canning, pickling. Moreover, the time of crop sowing depends on the ripening period.
Watering cabbage in open field
Cabbage differs from the bulk of horticultural crops in that it “loves” water very much. But in the process of irrigating the beds with it, there is a nuance - watering is not characterized by constancy (its intensity and amount of moisture are implied). This is regulated depending on the degree of cultural development.
From the moment of disembarkation and prior to the formation of heads in this period, the frequency of watering gradually increases. Much depends on weather conditions, so the main criterion is the degree of soil moisture. For cabbage - about 75%. In practice, the plot is completely filled with water with the expectation that it is well absorbed into the ground, and to a great depth. And the “older” the culture (and therefore the longer its root), the more abundant the need for watering.
In addition, its consumption increases with the growth of leaves. And how to organize irrigation - once in a couple of days, and more, or every morning, but in moderation, the owner decides. Days (sunny or overcast), soil type and a number of other factors (for example, wind) are taken into account, but the meaning is clear. It is desirable that the soil in the landing of cabbage never dried.
The listed recommendations also need to be considered. Therefore, watering cabbage "like all" of the culture should not be. She in this plan needs an individual approach. Watering ends about a month before harvest. Otherwise, the cabbage will turn out to be "watery." For life it will already be enough for the moisture that takes a powerful root from the ground. Loosening the soil and hilling plants.
The first loosening of the soil and the destruction of weeds produced after the engraftment of planted seedlings. Subsequent loosening of the soil is carried out as needed after 7-8 days or after watering until the leaves close together in between rows.
The first loosening is carried out to a depth of 4-5 cm. The depth of the second loosening is 6-8 cm., The next to the closing of leaves is 8-10 cm. The width of the protective zone around the plants should be at least 12-14 cm. Loosening is especially important on heavy soils.
The first hilling of early varieties is carried out 15-20 days after planting. seedlings, and late varieties - after 25 days. Later hilling leads to damage to the root system and closure of the rosette of leaves. Hilling is carried out after watering or fertilizing, raking up the ground before the first true leaves. This procedure causes the growth of additional roots.
The second hilling spend 10-12 days after the first . Varieties with a short stump need only one hilling.
Top dressing of cabbage in an open ground
White cabbage is also very demanding for the nutritional value of the soil - for the whole time of its cultivation it is necessary fertilize three to four times . Pre-plants are shed to prevent root burns, and after feeding, they are necessarily doused with clean water to remove any fertilizer from the leaves.
The first feeding is carried out in 15-20 days after planting. Half a liter of mullein is dissolved in a bucket of water, you need to pour half a liter of the prepared solution onto the plant. The second is done after 2 weeks, using the same solution. These dressings are especially needed for early and late varieties.
The third feeding is necessary to enhance the growth of heads, and it is carried out only for middle-late and late varieties a week after the previous one. On a bucket of water is taken half a liter of organic and 15 grams. potassium monophosphate, 1-1.5 liters of the mixture is poured under one plant.
Cabbage requirements for heat
Vegetable plants of the cabbage group come from areas with mild winters. Wild relatives of cabbage, and cultivated cabbages in areas with mild winters, such as the Black Sea coast, easily tolerate snowless winters with frosts of 6–8 and even 10–12 °. There are varieties of cabbages that are very frost resistant.
Cabbage seedlings can tolerate a temperature drop of -5, -7 ° during the period of night frosts, if by that time it has had time to take root. It should be borne in mind that the ability to tolerate lower temperatures depends on the state of the plant, its hardening, growth conditions, air humidity and wind strength. Frost with still and dry air is more easily tolerated than with wind and humid air.
Experiments have shown that cold-resistant cabbage plants in low light assimilate better at 8 ° than at 18 °. With strong light, cold-resistant cabbage plants, on the contrary, assimilate better at 18 ° than at 8 °, but their assimilation curve rises less steeply than that of heat-resistant ones.
It is believed that cabbage shading causes a significant increase in yield. This is based on the use of scenes of highly stem and heat-resistant plants - corn, sorghum, etc. The scenes of such plants, planted through 5-10-15 rows of cabbage, changing the microclimate, contributed to an increase in cabbage yield by 20-30% or more.
Heat resistance varieties associated with a good ability to maintain water balance. Since heat resistant cabbage varieties evaporate water more vigorously than less heat resistant ones.
Lighting requirement for growing cabbage
Growing cabbage requires compliance with certain rules to ensure the optimum amount of light. Cabbage grows best with a daylight duration of 17-18 hours. Insufficient illumination leads to the fact that the plant is drawn out, poorly developed, the amount of the crop decreases. You cannot grow white cabbage under trees or shrubs that shade it.
Cabbage protection against pests and diseases
Of the pests especially cabbage fly. Most often it damages the early varieties, as soon after the transplanting begins years of a cabbage fly.
Against the larvae of cabbage fly seedlings are sprayed with a solution of 80% technical chlorophos or other insecticides. The treatment is carried out 2-3 times every 6-8 days.
During the period of mass reflection of the caterpillars of cabbage aphids, cabbage moths, cabbage moths, cabbage moths and cabbage bug larvae, plants are sprayed with a 0.2% solution of 80% technical chlorophos or phosphamide. Treatments are carried out only before setting up a head of cabbage.
A simple and safe means of dealing with leaf-eating - spraying plants with a solution of superphosphate mixed with potassium chloride at the time of laying the eggs of the cabbage moth butterfly.
On cabbage, biological pest control is also effective. Spraying the plants with a 0.2 - 0.5% suspension of entobacterin can be done regardless of the time of harvest.
Of the diseases most cabbage strikes the keel, especially on acidic soils at 18-24.
Watering the soil when planting seedlings with a 0.3% suspension of zineba prevents this disease.
Care for cabbage in open ground
After seed germination, it is necessary to lower the ambient temperature a little, otherwise the sprouts will be too thin and high, which will adversely affect the quality of the seedlings.
In hot weather, it should be constantly sprayed and watered.
Black leg - can provoke rotting of the stem,
Watering cabbage at this stage should be done every 10 days, after watering the ground should be loosened. When leaves appear, the cabbage must be fertilized with nitrogen fertilizers. To do this, you need 10 liters of water, and dissolve 10 g of ammonium nitrate in them. Such a solution is needed for fertilizing 5-6 plants.
For example, in peat pots, tapes or cellophane bags with soil. An hour before the transplantation, the seedlings should be watered, and then the plant should be selected along with a soil clod. When transplanting it needs to be buried in the ground to the level of cotyledonary leaves.
Features of planting and care for early cabbageCabbage is different: white, red, Brussels, Beijing, color, decorative .... In this article we will focus on the cultivation of white cabbage. It plays an important role in human nutrition, without it you cannot boil cabbage soup or borsch. The majority of the population of our country harvests cabbage for the winter. What are the features of growing cabbage in the open field?
Required conditions for planting early cabbage- medium early, resistant to cracking. Head weight 1.5-2.5 kg.
Mid-season - sown from April 10–12, grown for about 35-45 daysF1The head of cabbage is round, dense, weighing 2.5-3.5 kg. Does not crack, differs in resistance to high temperatures, well transfers transportation. Used fresh and for processing.
It is not easy to do on the windowsill, so it is better to transfer the seedlings from a warm room to a glazed loggia, veranda or balcony (the temperature should be reduced from about + 18-20 ° С to + 14-16 ° С). When the first true leaf appears, the seedlings swoop into separate containers.
- Fertilize cauliflower with wood ash and manure
- Kila - provokes growths and swelling,
- The second period begins with the leaves on the seedlings and lasts until the head begins to form.
- In open ground, cabbage is planted when at least 5 leaves grow, and also when the plant is at least 12 cm long. This should be done around the end of April or the beginning of May.
- , Fertilizers depend on the type of soil. For example, the acidic soil should be fertilized with lime before digging so that the plant does not get sick after planting.
How to grow seedlings
All varieties of cabbage can be divided into three groups according to maturity: early, medium (medium early and medium late) and late. Agricultural cultivation of different varieties is different, but a lot in common. The early cabbage gives a crop in 2 - 3 months, the average - in 3 - 5 months, the late - in 5 - 7 months from the emergence of shoots.
Late ripening - sown from April 10–12, grown somewhere 30–35 days
Early ripe variety, the growing season from transplanting - 50-55 days.
JuneCaring for cabbage is surprisingly simple: this culture tolerates transplant well. In the open ground you need to water the plants and loosen the aisles. Cabbage needs moisture immediately after disembarking and during the formation of the outlet. And the greatest amount of watering she needs when heading out. First, the plants are watered in the morning or in the evening several times a week, then once. Early varieties are watered more abundantly in April-June, and later ones - in August. In the dry period under the plants make moisture every week. 15 days before the ripening of the cabbage, watering should be stopped so that the cabbages should not crack. This crop also needs soil loosening and hilling. If a crust forms on the ground, the plants do not receive moisture, since most of it does not penetrate to the roots. When hilling cabbage, weed growth is significantly reduced.The first time you need to feed the plant ten days after planting, and then every 2 weeks.
Planting cabbage seedlings in open ground
Not in all regions it is possible to sow cabbage directly in the ground, sometimes it is required to grow seedlings first. Transplanting sprouts in the country ground is quite a laborious process, but you can cope with it.
The main difficulty is that small shoots can die from a sharp change in conditions, so they need to be hardened before planting.
It is necessary to begin tempering about 10 days before disembarkation. You can blow cold air from an open window. If you have a greenhouse, seedlings can be moved to the ground from the north side. It is necessary to arrange transplantation so that the temperature decreases gradually, then the sprouts will take root well in the new place.
In order not to dive cabbage shoots, each sprout should be transferred to a separate hole.
There is also a way to grow seedlings and plant them in cups.
It is important to know: in all containers for growing cabbage sprouts, large drainage holes must be made in order to avoid contamination of the cabbage with the black leg.
When planting different varieties of cabbage
Planting time depends on the region, the general climate and weather specifically for this season. In the southern regions of Russia, in the Kuban, they begin to plant cabbage from the end of February, and in the Urals from the middle of March. But on average, they sow cabbage like this:
- early varieties in early March, as soon as the air temperature at night is more than +3,
- seeds of medium varieties sown from late March to late February,
- late varieties are better to plant after April 20th.
Soil for cabbage
Before planting cabbage it is necessary to prepare the soil.
Recommendation: start cooking the soil in the fall.
- in the fall, it is advisable to dig up the soil in which you are going to plant cabbage, so that there is less trouble in the spring,
- after digging the soil should be fertilized.
Soil preparation just before planting.
- Remove weeds.
- Loosen it with a rake or, if you did not dig in the fall, dig it up.
- Water well.
- To form beds, the gap between which should be about 50 centimeters, wells, at a distance of 30-40 centimeters from each other.
Useful advice: in the wells, you can add a tablespoon of wood ash. Cabbage will grow faster, shoots will be stronger.
Watering and feeding
Interestingly, the cabbage should not be watered with cold water. Cabbage to this is very sensitive. No need to water directly from a hose or a well, it is better to let the water warm up. Too cold water for irrigation can lead to insufficient development of the root system. You can give the water to warm up in the sunlight, and only then do watering.
Immediately after planting, sprouts need to be watered several times a day, but at the same time ensure that the hole between the waterings has time to dry out.
When the cabbage grows a little, one watering per day is enough. But this is a general recommendation, and this issue can be approached flexibly depending on the weather and climate. If it is very hot, you can water the cabbage several times. The main thing is that the hole was not too hydrated, but not dried out.
After watering the young cabbage requires hilling.
It is important to know that in addition to watering it is necessary to use plant nutrition. At the initial stage, you can do top dressing with yeast, later with peat or humus.
How to feed shoots:
- The first dressing is carried out 10-15 days after planting cabbage in the ground. Organic fertilizers are applied to the soil at the rate of 1 l per well. You can also use a 0.5% solution of ammonium nitrate. This will saturate the soil with essential minerals. When applying the feed carefully avoid getting fertilizer on the leaves,
- the second feeding is done two to three weeks after the first. It can be a ready mix, as well as independently made from organic waste. Good options would be bird droppings bred in water,
- the third and the remaining supplements are required as needed, which is determined by the state of the head. If the cabbage grows slowly or languishes, but there are no signs of diseases and pests.
Diseases of cabbage, their signs and methods of treatment
To prevent or cure diseases of cabbage you need to know their symptoms. Consider some of them.
Fungal lesions are usually treated very early in the early stages. Just need to provide cabbage care when planting. Photos of fungal diseases will help you deal with its appearance and take the necessary measures.
- Cabbage keel - a common fungal disease affects young plants that have recently been planted in open ground with insufficient quality seed treatment. The roots are covered with growths and the plant withers. In order to prevent the spread of the keel, you just need to remove the sick sprouts from the soil and sprinkle the hole with lime.
- Mealy dew is also a fungal disease that is manifested by the appearance of yellow, white and gray patches on the leaves. If you do not take action, the affected leaves begin to die off. To prevent the development of dew, you need to disinfect the soil before planting, do not water the sprouts with too cold water, and you should not plant the same vegetable in one place for two seasons in a row. When dealing with dew that has already appeared, or as it is called, peronosporosis, vegetable processing with phytofluorine or 1% solution of the Bordeaux mixture shows good results.
- Fusarium - fungal infection of cabbage, characterized by the following features:
- yellow spots between the leaf veins,
- gradual drying sheet,
- on the cut of leaves visible brown spots,
- the head does not grow and languishes, acquiring an irregular shape.
- Белая гниль — грибковое поражение крестоцветных, которое часто ведет к масштабным потерям урожая. Характеризуется ослизнением листьев, а также появлением черных точек на кочане или соцветии. Белая гниль часто поражает капусту в конце вегетации или при хранении уже собранного урожая. Prevention of white rot is compliance with the conditions of storage and vegetation, the absence of excess moisture in the soil and the room. It is also necessary to remove from the soil the remnants of cabbage after harvesting.
- In addition to fungal diseases, cabbage can also be affected by viral infections, such as Turnip mosaic, which is characterized by the appearance of dark shingles headings on a vegetable.
It is important to know that viral infection does not respond to treatment, therefore attention must be paid to prevention.
Pests and preventive treatment methods
They bring a lot of trouble gardeners, as they bring significant damage to the crop.
- Cabbage Aphid. A small pest that has a discreet silver-white color. Aphid lives at the base of the leaf and feeds on cabbage juice, gradually depleting the plant. If the leaves of your fruit gradually curl and die, carefully examine the leaves at the base. There are different ways of dealing with aphids, the treatment of malathion is effective. You can also scare away aphids with harsh smells of tobacco, garlic infusion or onion peel.
- Cabbage fly is similar in appearance to the classic housefly, but slightly lighter. An insect lays eggs at the base of cabbage leaves, and its larvae, developing, feed on the root system. The main sign that a fly has worked on a vegetable is the pale-lead color of the lower leaves of the head, as well as wilting. The solution of Chlorophos or Thiophos is effective for controlling the larvae of the cabbage fly.
- Cruciferous fleas are small black bugs that feed on young shoots. Most young plants may die, and the yield of more adults falls. Helps in the fight with bugs processing shoots with soapy water or dusting with a mixture of wood ash and road dust.
So, we looked at how to choose the cabbage, planting and care in the open field, as well as planting seedlings, hardening. If at all stages you have done everything correctly, then cabbage will be able to please you with your homemade taste from the end of June until December.
Watch the video! Care for CAPTURE in the open field
How to care for cabbage after landing in the ground
White cabbage, red cabbage, Savoyard belong to the cabbage species, and therefore care for them in the open field is very similar. After transplanting, on the 2nd-5th day it is necessary to carry out inter-row processing (remove weeds, plow the ground), provided that the plants have taken root, they look strong and healthy.
It is necessary to loosen the first time deeper, the next times - less deeply, since the root system of cabbage is already growing. Do not confuse loosening with hilling, these are two different agrotechnical methods that have different significance. Loosening allows you to get rid of earth crust on the surface, hilling promotes the accelerated formation of adventitious roots.
The first hilling of cabbage is carried out after planting of seedlings in 20-25 days, rolling the ground to the leaves, then the procedure is repeated after 15-20 days (can be combined with top dressing). For early varieties, one hilling is required, for medium late, late ones - it is desirable to spend two hilling. It is worth noting that hardening helps the plants to develop additional roots, sit firmly in the ground, improve nutrition.cabbage planted in “collars” of a plastic bottle from slugs
Hilling and removing leaves
While caring for cabbage, pay special attention to hilling, which was discussed above. The first podgortaniya land should be carried out immediately after 3-5 days after transplanting into open ground, which will contribute to the growth of the roots and the rapid growth of the leaf apparatus.
As for the removal of leaves from cabbage, here the views of summer residents and gardeners are divided. Some recommend removing a pair of lower leaves, while others do not advise doing this. If you follow the agrotechnology of cabbage cultivation, then this approach is not necessary and mandatory, it is best to remove the leaves, if they are the focus of the disease, turned yellow or dried, other situations are not the cause of leaf removal.
By removing the lower leaves, the inflow of nutrients to the head is reduced, which hampers its development and if the foliage is broken off at the time of heading, you can delay the harvest, and for a long time. Here you have another reason why cabbage does not grow.
If the care of the cabbage was correct, then in June or July it is already possible to shoot the first early crop, middle-late and late varieties are harvested in August and September, and some in the month of October. Early varieties should be cut as cabbage heads form.
In the middle lane, they cut off early cabbage from the 20th of June, finish harvesting in July, and in the south - from the second half of May. For the first tenderloin, they usually choose cabbages, the mass of which is not less than 0.5 kg, and further cleaning begins with heavier ones.
Collecting the harvest, it is very important to remember that cut cabbages should not be left at high temperatures, as they quickly lose weight, taste will deteriorate sharply. Varieties of medium ripeness and late, as a rule, are cut in one or two doses.
If you decide to cultivate, do not forget how to care for cabbage in the open field, so that there is a good harvest, otherwise you will not see tasty dense heads in the garden!