Breeding quail in an incubator is considered one of the most promising sectors of the poultry industry. The eggs of birds ripen quickly, and the quails themselves are unpretentious in their care and have an exceptional taste of meat.
Features of the withdrawal of this bird are that incubation of quail at home is possible only if there is an incubator. To grow this breed began relatively recently, about 50 years ago, but now in modern agriculture quails have a special role.
Quails are unpretentious in content, so they can be successfully bred in any conditions, not necessarily in a specially equipped room.
Quail embryos have endurance and survive even with a slight deviation of temperature. For good hatchability and healthy offspring, it is important not only to buy an incubator, but also to know how to create the most favorable conditions for this.
The fact is that the hatchlings hatched in the incubator lose their natural instincts and, as a result, are not able to incubate. Incubators can be used for small farming and home use. Hatching young growth weighing only 6-8 grams, and the initial survival rate is 70%. High survival rate and large offspring make quails one of the best domestic birds for hatching at home.
How to choose quail eggs?
There are several important criteria that need to be considered before incubation. It is necessary to choose eggs for hatching, it is necessary taking into account parameters.
- Egg mass
• 10 -15 grams, if the bird should go for breeding,
• 8 - 13 grams, if the bird will be used for meat.
- The surface of the shell. Eggs should be smooth, with small dark spots on the surface of medium pigmentation, not very saturated color. There should be no protrusions, cracks, mold or dents on the surface. It is desirable that the surface was matte, without excess gloss.
- Egg shape. It should be slightly elongated, slightly pointed to the top. It is desirable that all eggs in the incubator be the same size, about 2 - 2.5 cm in diameter.
Egg selection criteria
Before you put quail eggs in the incubator, you must view them through a special device - ovoskop.
If not, you can use a regular flashlight to enlighten the contents of the egg. It is important to carefully review the egg and identify any deficiencies, if any.
It is necessary to evaluate the location of the yolk, the air chamber, the presence of blood formations or the mixing of the protein with the yolk - such eggs are not suitable for incubation, they simply do not hatch anything.
Quail eggs for incubation are taken from females from the age of 2 months. In females older than one year, the eggs are not suitable for breeding. For breeding are taken medium-sized eggs. In small or large, there may be various disorders that place the successful breeding of healthy offspring.
Before you quail, you must properly prepare the eggs. The deadline for storage of hatching eggs is 10 days, then the visibility of the contents inside it is reduced and it is hard to understand whether a healthy egg is. You should also pay attention to the shelf life before laying different breeds of quail:
- Plain and Japanese - 17 days,
- Californian - 22 days,
- Virgin - 23 - 24 days.
It is best for incubation to take the eggs, which are a hen, only laid or 2-3 days old. The selection of quail eggs is important for obtaining healthy young animals, so it is important to give them enough time.
What to do before laying in the incubator
To hatch a healthy and viable baby bird, it is necessary that the egg be no older than 10 days and kept at a temperature of 10-15 ° C. Preparation of quail eggs for incubation of the most important stage of breeding quail. The percentage of young animals depends on the preparation. It is important not to keep eggs for incubation at room temperature. So they can quickly deteriorate.
The selection of quail eggs and their disinfection are necessary to increase the chicks' chances of survival. It is imperative that before putting them in the incubator, you need to wash the shells well, and it is better to use disinfectants for this. Quail eggs are laid in the incubator only after disinfection. For this you can use different methods:
- Disinfection with chemicals to destroy litter residues and bacteria. To do this, you can use "Brovadez-plus" or "Ecocide".
- Use ultraviolet radiation lamp. The method of quartz treatment is to irradiate the shell before incubation at a distance of 40 cm from the surface for 5-8 minutes.
- Wash the shell with potassium permanganate. We need to make a weak solution of potassium permanganate and gently wash the shell, trying not to damage its integrity.
Quail eggs can be laid in the incubator only when it is disinfected. It can also be treated with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, which will destroy all pathogenic bacteria and pathogens. Then, it is recommended to set a high level of humidity and temperature in order to warm up the device for several hours before laying eggs there.
How to lay quail eggs
There are several ways to lay eggs in trays: horizontally and vertically. The first method involves horizontal laying, in which they roll from one side to the other, rolling. With vertical masonry, the capacity of the quantity is less, but the percentage of maturation is higher.
In the incubators with a vertical tab there is no automatic mode of coup. If there is no tray in the kit, you can do it yourself. Quail eggs should be placed in the incubator with a blunt end up, tilting them at 45 degrees. In this position, the embryo will be formed in a comfortable position.
Incubation in a horizontal way requires laying eggs on the grid. In order not to get confused when turning over, you need to note one side.
There is almost no particular difference between the ways of bookmarking, or rather there is, but it is insignificant.
The capacity of the vertical tab is less, but the percentage of hatched chicks is higher, while with the horizontal tab it is possible to accommodate a larger number, but their output is less.
If we talk about the results, then with a vertical laying 200 eggs you can get 170 quail, and with a vertical method of 190 pieces you can get 150 - 160 chicks.
It is better to spray the shell with water once or twice a day so that there is enough moisture for the development of the embryo. Incubation of quail without a coup will not give a high percentage of offspring, because the yolk in one position can stick to the shell and the embryo will not be able to develop.
To avoid sticking of the yolk to the shell, it is recommended to turn them over at least twice a day.
Temperature in the incubator
To control the temperature in the incubator, you need to put a thermometer on alcohol inside the incubator, even if there is a thermostat in it. This is necessary to control the temperature with an accuracy of one tenth of a percent. Before you put a mortgage you need to warm up the camera. The temperature should not exceed 38.2 ° С. At this temperature, it is necessary to warm the chamber for two hours and then reduce it to 37.6 ° C.
It is important to establish the correct temperature regime in the chamber, since it depends on the temperature whether the chicks hatch out healthy, or this leads to the death of the embryos. At low temperatures, the embryo will not be able to form normally, and the conclusion may be delayed for 1-2 days.
In the first week it is recommended to keep the bookmark at a temperature of 37.8 ° C. Humidity should not exceed 50-55%. You need to turn the eggs 3-4 times a day. About airing - read below (after the table).
In the second week you need to leave the temperature the same as in the first. The moisture level should be reduced to 45 - 50%. Turning masonry need every 5 hours. You can cool masonry 2 times a day for 20 minutes.
In the third week you need to reduce the temperature. The temperature should not be below 37.4 ° C, and the humidity should be increased to 60-65%. Eggs do not need to be cooled or turned, as the embryos are already formed and embryos can stick to the shell.
Every day you need to air the camera and spray masonry. By the end of the third week should appear the first chicks. If some eggs have already hatched, while others are not, then you can leave them for another 1-2 days in an incubator.
Ventilation and humidity in the quail eggs incubator
It is important to maintain the necessary humidity in the chamber, otherwise the egg will dry out. At low humidity, the embryos can stick to the shell. If there is not enough moisture, then the shell itself hardens and it is difficult for chicks to get out of it. The incubator has a capacity for water inlet. It is important to regularly fill the water, depending on the volume and its flow. One of the most important moments is the choice of water. Incubation requires boiled or distilled water.
Each incubator has a ventilation system. But even with artificial ventilation, it is necessary to open the lid of the chamber and let the brood be ventilated for 5-10 minutes. It is provided in nature and any hen gets up to eat and drink water. In the first two days of incubation does not need to be ventilated. From 3-4 days you need to air the bookmark, including the ventilation system.
When viewing the eggs through the ovoscope, it is clear that the yolk is separated from the protein. From the first days of life, the egg quail is clearly visible. The germ begins to form from the first week of incubation. It will be immediately apparent whether he is alive or not. If its middle is dark, and around it is a light border, then the embryo has died.
In the second week, a well-developed capillary network is seen. It should occupy a quarter of the entire space. If the vascular system is not visible in the second week, the embryo has died. In the third week, when viewed with an ovoscope, the embryo should be completely dark.
When the quail hatch, on what day of incubation?
Starting from the 16th day of incubation, the first brood begins to appear. It is not necessary that all chicks appear on the same day. They may still appear on the 17-20 day. It is not necessary to immediately remove them from the incubator. You need to let them dry and get used to the environment.
One hour is enough, and then they can be pulled out. Independent chicks hatch from the eggs, so you need to take care of them in advance and prepare food and water.
The first brood weighing no more than 8 grams, but they are already in the gun, they can eat and drink water. From the second week, the chicks begin to increase in weight and turn into adults.
Common mistakes newbies
It is not always possible to get a healthy brood with a high percentage of survival from the first time. There are several reasons why a brood may not work.
- Malnutrition. In the process of incubation, the embryos do not have enough moisture, which is why the protein does not feed the yolk and dries out. This leads to the fact that the embryo dies. It is important to pay attention to the diet of the hen, so that she has enough vitamins and trace elements, and she was able to endure a healthy egg, and from it came strong offspring.
- Disruption of incubation. A common reason why healthy offspring cannot be obtained is the wrong temperature in the chamber and low humidity. Violation of these important criteria leads to the fact that embryos die or do not have time to form at all.
- Bad airing. Despite the fact that most modern incubators are equipped with an airing system, it is necessary to remember to open the lid of the chamber and allow fresh air to go inside.
- Turning eggs. If it is wrong to turn a bookmark or to do it rarely, the germ can stick to the shell and die. Also, the protein can not be used in full, which is also the cause of death of the young.
To avoid failures, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the functionality of the incubator and take into account all the recommendations for the removal of quails. Incubation of quails is a difficult process that requires patience, so it is important to follow all the rules and mode of breeding, and then you can get excellent results.
Having understood the theory of quailing in artificial conditions, you can begin the process of incubation. The success of the process will depend on the feeding of adults, the quality of the incubation raw materials and the implementation by the poultry breeder of all recommendations for storage and breeding quail.
Stage 4: 14-18 days
From the 14th day of the egg, if they were laid vertically, laid out horizontally, the coup is turned off. Humidity is again increased to 75%, it is necessary to soften the inner shell of the egg. If she is dry, the diaper will not be able to get out and die!
In foam incubators (such as "Cinderella", "Laying", etc.), from the second week we reduce the temperature to 37.2-37.4 ° C, because due to the fact that the embryos begin to actively release heat, in them due to imperfections in the structure, overheating may occur. In models equipped with high-precision thermostats (R-Com, Brinsea, etc.), you can not touch the heating settings.
The incubation period for quails lasts 16 days, almost an hour per hour. This means that if you have made a bookmark early in the morning, then on the 16th day, closer to dinner, the chicks will hatch.
For example, if on Thursday, June 15, 2017, at 13 o'clock, you laid an incubation egg, then the first batch will be ready for transfer to a brooder on Saturday, July 1, at about 19 o'clock. The second wave will arrive in time for Sunday morning, the third - in the evening, and the last on Monday morning.
The incubator makes sense to keep working for three days after the first quail.
A few additional recommendations on quail egg incubation will help beginners to get consistently positive results.
- Do not often open the lid of the incubator to "just see how things are." Even for a few seconds, the humidity inside decreases.
- Additional calcium evaporation during wetting makes the shell harder. Therefore, water for wetting is better to use soft or boiled.
- It is necessary to remove newly hatched chicks no more than once every 3-4 hours. Babies need to dry out so that their feathers will dry properly. After that, it is useful to sprinkle warm water from the spray gun onto the walls of the incubator in order to restore the humidity inside.
- At home, Japanese, Estonian and other egg-bearing breeds are the least demanding for incubation conditions. Broiler Texas quails are more capricious and require precise compliance with all parameters, from the table at the beginning of the article.
- It is very convenient to create reminders on your phone or computer, which will not allow you to miss key points: 10 and 15 days.
Criteria for choosing quail eggs for incubation
The average hatchability quail during artificial incubation is 70%.
Many factors affect the results of incubation, the main ones are: the quality of eggs (weight, shape, age of laying females and males), ventilation, pressure, temperature, humidity in the incubator, density of planting eggs.
The quality of eggs for incubation largely depends on the content of broodstock, feeding of males and females, the age of the parents, the ratio in the broodstock of the sexes.
To obtain hatching eggs it is rational to contain the so-called incubation livestock (or herd).
Tribal males should be chosen from other herds, as these birds are extremely sensitive to related mating. Productivity with “closely related” mating is reduced to 50%, and the mortality rate of young animals significantly increases.
Females for fertilization are selected at the age of 2 to 8 months. In the future, their egg production is preserved, but the percentage of fertilized eggs decreases, so the eggs of females older than eight months are better used as food.
The peak performance of males lasts for three months (starting from two months of age), after which it is desirable to change them for young.
The incubation livestock is formed by the principle of three - four females per male. These figures are the most optimal, because if the number of females per one male is more, then the fertility rate of eggs significantly decreases, and as a result, the overall hatchability indicator.
Free pairing also has not the highest rates.
The optimum weight of quail eggs for incubation
For breeding quail meat (for example, the breed of Pharaoh) should select eggs weighing 12-16 grams, and for breeding quail producers (egg direction) - 9-11 grams.
Eggs are larger, as well as smaller ones give the worst results during incubation and when growing young. Large eggs can have two yolks, and from small eggs, as a rule, quails hatch less viable.
The correct form of quail eggs for incubation
Do not incubate eggs too small or too large. Eggs must be selected correct, egg-shaped, not very elongated. Не допускается наличие на скорлупе большое количество известковых наростов. Скорлупа должна быть с небольшим количеством пигментации, не очень темного цвета. разведе Инкубационные яйца не должны быть грязными, поскольку они начинают портиться, как следствие происходит заражение соседних яиц и снижение вылупляемости молодняка.
If at the time of laying in the incubator there is no required number of clean eggs, then the dirty ones can be cleaned with a 3% solution of potassium permanganate and allowed to dry.
You can evaluate the quality of quail eggs for an incubator with the help of an ovoscope. This is a kind of X-ray, which gives more detailed information to the quails. With it, you can conduct the culling of eggs unsuitable for incubation. This group includes:
- eggs with two yolks,
the presence of various types of spots on the protein and yolk,
there are small cracks in the shell,
if the yolk stuck to the shell or dropped into the sharp end,
if air chambers are visible in the sharp end or side of the egg.
Eggs should be stored at 18 ° C. For successful incubation you should not keep more than seven days, despite the fact that eggs for human consumption, can be stored for about three months.
If eggs are stored for about ten days, before they are laid in the incubator, the hatchability percentage will not exceed 50%. It is inexpedient to collect the required quantity over a longer period, since the main part of the embryos will already perish in the egg, and the hatchability percentage rapidly decreases with each passing day.
But, there are some breeders who can boast of breeding chicks from the usual quail eggs bought from food stores.
It remains undeniable that hatchability, as well as the viability of the young stock, is very much dependent on the quality and usefulness of the nutrition of the incubation population. The composition of the eggs, the further formation and growth of embryos, the viability of the young are affected by the nutritional value of the feed fed to the brood stock. Embryonic development has defects with a lack of motor activity of birds in captivity, with a lack of green fodder and ultraviolet radiation, as a result of closely related matings.
Quail egg incubation regimes - peculiarities of hatching
If you find information on the Internet that quail hatchability is 100%, do not believe such sources.
It is very simple to disprove this kind of information, even in ideal conditions of detention, the fertility level of quail eggs is no more than 80-85%, and this is an indisputable fact of the biological activity of quails.
The result of artificial incubation rarely exceeds the barrier of 70-80%. These results, in addition to the above reasons, are influenced by such factors:
- the design features of the incubator,
The incubator can be of different designs and types, the main thing is that it is serviceable, well-insulated and equipped with a thermostat. It is desirable that it contains the function of automatic turning of eggs, but there is nothing terrible, if it does not exist, it is not difficult to do it yourself.
Embryonic development will be good, if you strictly adhere to the required mode.
Incubator Preparation - Necessary Nuances
The incubator itself, before laying it is necessary to prepare, this is primarily done in order to prevent diseases. To do this, rinse it with clean, warm water, and then disinfect with a quartz lamp or formaldehyde vapors, and then dry it thoroughly.
Further It is advisable to put the incubator for 2-3 hours to warm up, it is necessary to pre-configure it and make sure it is in good condition.
How is the laying of quail eggs in the incubator?
There are two ways of laying quail eggs in the incubator: vertical and horizontal.
The percentage of hatchability, with these two methods of bookmarking, is approximately equal. During the rolls, the eggs in the upright position bend slightly (by 30-40 ° C), and the horizontal ones roll from side to side.
The horizontal tab allows you to place more eggs in the incubator, and the vertical - less.
It makes no sense to describe in detail the horizontal tab, with this method it is enough just to spread the eggs on the net. But with vertical laying there are some nuances.
First, to bookmark need to prepare trays, because the egg just can not be put. If there are no trays in the incubator, they can be made from ordinary plastic trays for twenty quail eggs.
In each cell, make a three-millimeter hole (it is very easy to make a hot nail), then put the eggs with the pointed end down, if you put it the other way around, it will worsen hatchability.
How to lay the eggs in the incubator is up to you, if, of course, this aspect is not specified in the instructions of the incubator itself. It all depends on the presence or absence of a mechanism for turning, as well as the size and type of incubator.
Different temperatures for quail incubation at different times
The whole period of quail incubation can be divided into three stages: I - the warm-up period, II - the main one, III - the lead-out period. Below we will deal with each of them in more detail.
Number of days: 1-3 days
Temperature: 37.5 -38.5 ° C
Overturning: Do not
Ventilation: Do not
Number of days: 3-15 days
Temperature: 37.7 ° C
Overturning: 3 to 6 times a day
Ventilation: there is
Number of days: 15-17 days
Temperature: 37.5 ° C
Humidity: 80 -90%
Ventilation: there is
The first period of incubation - warming
The duration of this period is the first three days. The temperature at this time in the incubator should not be below the mark of 37.5 ° C, the maximum is allowed 38.5 ° C.
Initially, the incubator will warm up slowly, as this happens after laying cold eggs. It is necessary to wait until the eggs are completely warm and only after that to regulate the thermoregulatory, it is not advisable to do this earlier.
During this period you need a very keep an eye on the temperature. If in the first hours you set 38.5 ° С on the regulator, then after a while the temperature can rise to 42 ° С, the main thing is that such jumps should be noticed by the poultry farmers on time and adjusted in time.
Such moments entirely depend on the chosen incubator. Based on this, in the first stages set the temperature that was adjusted during the test of the incubator without eggs. At this stage, there is no need to conduct airing and turning eggs.
The second, or main, stage of incubation of quail eggs
The beginning of the second stage of incubation falls on the third - fourth day, lasts until the fifteenth day. At this stage, regular turning over, spraying, and airing of eggs are foreseen (if there are no such automatic functions in the incubator, then you have to do everything yourself, manually).
Experienced poultry farmers recommend the second stage of incubation turn the eggs three to six times a day. Of course, if the incubator has an automatic function for turning the eggs, it will be easy to do, and if this is not the case, then this frequency will cause you to live near the incubator.
Negligently refers to the procedure of inversion is impossible, since it is necessary so that the embryo does not stick to the shell and later does not die.
It is necessary to ensure that the temperature does not exceed the mark of 37.7 ° С -38 ° С.
It is worth noting that from the sixth to the seventh day, the eggs will heat up independently and give heat to the incubator, for this reason the automatic shutdown of the incubator may increase at a temperature of 38 ° C, and the temperature may still rise to 40 ° C. Therefore, the temperature must be adjusted so that the automatic shutdown occurs at the level of 37.5 ° C, taking into account the possible increase in temperature.
If you are using the device for the first time, it may cause difficulties, further use will bring valuable experience and an understanding of all the features.
The hatchability percentage increases if the eggs are periodically cooled and ventilated during incubation. The process of turning over will also serve as cooling (if it is done manually).
After the third day the incubator should be opened several times a day for short periods of time. At first, for 2-3 minutes, smoothly, by the end of the incubation period, bringing such ventilation to 20 minutes. Do not be afraid of this natural process, because in nature wild females are forced to leave the nest to drink and eat.
Quail embryos, compared with embryos of other birds, are minimally susceptible to long interruptions to the supply of electricity to the incubator. In situations where the temperature in the incubator could go down to 18 ° C for long periods, the main amount of quail successfully hatched, only a little later than the expected string.
You can understand that somewhere in the process you made a mistake if the quail were not brought out after seventeen days. For complete reinsurance, do not turn off the incubator for another five days.
Output lines - the third incubation period
From the sixteenth to the seventeenth day begins the hatching period.
On the sixteenth day, from the beginning of the specified period, the eggs must be moved to the hatcher (depending on the design of the incubator).
These trays should not be open at the top, as quails can jump through the sides. At this time, the turning and spraying of eggs completely stop, and the temperature regime is set at 37.5 ° C.
Errorsadmitted during the period of adherence to the incubation regime are visible by the peculiarities of the shell pecking:
- If the curse occurred at the sharp end - this indicates a lack of air exchange.
The nestling will not be able to get rid of the shell on its own if there was a surplus of moisture.
The chick will not hatch out of the egg, if the humidity was at a low level, everything is explained by the dryness and hardness of the membrane.
If the quail incubation took place in optimal conditions, then the shell curse will be on the circumference of the blunt end. Do not try to help the chicks hatch, if they do not have enough strength to overcome the egg shells themselves, it is doubtful that such a chicken will survive in the future or will have good health.
Humidity level: we determine the optimal indicators for different incubation periods
In the first and second periods of incubation, it is necessary fill water tanksif any are provided in the incubator device. If they are not there, then you should retrofit such containers yourself.
During the first and second periods, make sure that there is always water in the trays, pour it regularly.
At the second stage it is necessary especially carefully monitor the humidity level in the incubator. The indicator should not fall below 60-70%. Eggs are preferably sprayed once or twice a day. This can be done during the next turn.
- spray so that water flows.
sprinkling almost immediately after opening the lid on hot eggs, this will be a shock for the embryo. We must wait until the eggs cool slightly. The turning period will serve as a slight cooling.
close the lid immediately after spraying, in order to avoid the formation of condensate, it is necessary to do it in a minute and a half, after a light haze.
It is important during the hatching period to ensure that the incubator has high humidity, about 90%. The presence of open containers with water during hatching can cause the death of chicks. Proceeding from this, make sure that quails cannot get into them.