Fruit trees, including plums, attract the attention of a wide variety of insects. Descriptions of how pests of plums look like and control of them, photos of potential enemies and a schedule of necessary measures will help the gardener to be fully armed and preserve the harvest.
The main and most visible damage to the crop is caused by the plum moth, or rather the caterpillars of small silver-gray or brownish butterflies no more than one and a half centimeters long.
Layed on flower buds and egg buds, turning into pinkish-red caterpillars, they move inside the ovary and grow, feeding on the flesh of ripening plum. As a result, the ground under the tree is littered with immature fruits, and those that have time to fill themselves are spoiled by the voracious pest inside.
The harvest spoiled by the plum moth crop is much worse in quality, it is not stored and practically suitable for culinary processing.
The caterpillars which have left the fruits winter in the clefts of the bark, and already in June they turn into a new generation of butterflies.
Although only caterpillars bring tangible harm, the fight against the pest of a plum, in the photo, is carried out comprehensively and throughout the warm period of the year:
- In early spring and at the green cone stage, trees are treated with insecticides.
- From the veins and before the onset of cold weather they regularly clean and loosen the pristvolny circles. Remove weeds and cut basal shoots.
- To caterpillars could not comfortably spend the winter, they carry out sanitary pruning, clean the dead bark, whitewash the stumps.
- Fallen ovary is collected and burned.
If the presence of pests is detected when the plums are already poured, the means of protection should be applied very carefully, referring to the instructions and the timing of the breakdown of the active chemical.
Ringed and Gypsy Moth
Caterpillars of these species of moths with appetite destroy foliage, buds and buds. With the mass appearance of a pest, the damage from it can be overwhelming. Therefore, the struggle begins in advance when the butterflies lay eggs, or in early spring before the leaves bloom, until the caterpillars themselves appear.
From the second half of summer, the caterpillars turn into pupae hiding in the crevices of the bark or in the drying up, curled leaves. Preventing the spring spread of the plum pest depicted in the photo, will help simplify the fight against it:
- collection and destruction of fallen leaves,
- barrel sanitization and pruning,
- manual collection of spider nests with caterpillars,
- the destruction of eggs
- large-scale processing of fruit trees with plant and chemical preparations.
An inconspicuous winged insect that is no more than a centimeter long does not seem to be a formidable enemy of a plum, but its 5 mm white larvae can cause a significant decrease in yield.
The female lays the eggs in the newly formed ovary, after which the larva actively grows inside the stone, feeding on it and causing the immature fruits to fall off towards the middle of summer. If the drop is left under the tree, the plum thistle will spend the winter well. And with the beginning of flowering in the spring will begin the years of young insect eggs ready for laying.
To prevent an attack, the fallen ovary is destroyed, and also as an effective method of struggle, plum treatment after flowering is used, 7–10 days after the petals have subsided. The rest of the prevention and control of this pest plum has no features.
Shchitovka on plum: methods of struggle
When confronted with a shield or a spade shield, beginning gardeners often cannot identify these pests on time, taking dangerous insects as frozen gum drops or growths on the bark.
The fact is that both species are distinguished by low mobility and excellent masking. Sucking on young shoots and leaf stalks, shchitovki literally grow into the surface and harm, actively feeding on the sap of the plant. Only males and juveniles can move.
With a massive defeat of plums, especially still fragile seedlings weaken, their foliage dries and falls, and sometimes the trees lose fruit and even die. If time does not take all measures to combat the shield on the discharge, the situation is complicated. The pest multiplies rapidly and produces a sticky drop, on which soot fungus willingly settles, making it difficult to breathe and interferes with growth.
In contrast to the shield with a flattened shield, the false shield is more like a hemisphere. However, it does not grow together with the bark, that is, it can be separated mechanically, and does not emit dew acid.
Measures to combat fraying on the sink are not much different from those taken when infecting with scythes. Insects should be removed with a brush and the treatment of the shoots with a solution based on kerosene and soap or soap-alcohol liquid.
If large areas are covered with pests and household methods do not help, they turn to chemical protection means by conducting several treatments from the scute with a weekly interval.
Green plum aphid is a sucking pest that weakens plants and slows the growth of trees. First of all, insects settle on young foliage and new, non-ligneous shoots, creating a silvery-green swarming layer. The fight against the pest plum, as in the photo, complicates:
- fast reproduction
- the ability of females to fly from tree to tree,
- spawning aphids by ants.
In order to prevent crop losses, in spring and autumn they are pruning the crown, regularly removing root shoots and fattening shoots, as well as installing trapping belts and whitening the stumps of fruit trees.
Insecticides also play a significant role. However, the processing of plums from aphids after flowering is best done using natural products based on tobacco or soap infusion, mustard water or decoction of tomato tops.
Black and yellow plum sawfly
All cultivated plum varieties are susceptible to plum sawfly. Harm caused by insect larvae, damaging the leaf plate and ovary.
The black sawfly is activated during the bud swelling phase. In an unopened flower, an adult female lays eggs, turning into larvae. In the early stages of development, the pest feeds on the pulp of the ovary, and then infects the leaves, literally turning them into openwork, green skeletons.
The yellow plum sawfly, besides the plum itself, does not disdain other types of stone-seed crops. Traces of insect activity are visible on the leaves and fruits. If you do not take urgent measures and do not engage in prevention, the defeat will be widespread.
As a preventive measure, soil loosening is used around a trunk under the whole tree crown. It is especially important not to neglect this in early spring and before the onset of cold weather. Before flowering, in addition to spraying with insecticides, mechanical removal of pests that are shaken onto a spread canvas or nonwoven material will help. In the summer it is necessary to mercilessly remove and destroy the affected fruit.
Caterpillars moth also give gardeners a lot of trouble. They damage leaves and ripening fruits. This is the most common plum parasite. Also this pest parasitizes on other stone fruit and pome crops. It can be found on rose, raspberry and even birch.
To combat the caterpillars of the leafworm, it is necessary to spray the trees with “Kemifos” or “Fufanon” before flowering. Particular attention should be paid to the buds.
It is a small sucking pest whose body is colored yellow or pale yellow. This kind of cicadas is very good jumping and able to fly. Larvae winter in the branches. The female lays them at the base of the kidney. After hatching, the worms suck the juice from the leaves. In early July, they turn into nymphs with wings. After 10 days, the nymphs turn into adult cicadas.
With a large population of tree parasites, you need to destroy all the affected areas of the plant. Therefore, with a strong defeat, often the plum cannot be saved and it must be uprooted and burned. Otherwise, the control measures are similar to those used against aphids.
Knowing how to deal with pests on the plum, you can not only save the tree and the crop, but also effectively protect the plantations by carrying out high-quality preventive treatment.