This week an exhibition devoted to mushrooms, which can be found on the territory of our region, opened in the History and Art Museum of Kaliningrad. "Your Bro" pecked at the announced map of mushroom places and visited the opening of the exhibition. As a result, we not only learned which forests to go with a basket, but also brought out our favorite recipes from an inveterate mycelium, which opened this map to Kaliningraders. In order not to repeat the fate of the greedy fraer, we share all the useful information with you
The mushroom map of the Kaliningrad region, which every visitor to the Mushrooms Twin can see until October 31, according to Maria Alekseevna Popova, Head of the Nature Sector at the History and Art Museum, has been around for a long time. She restored it according to the notes of her father, who was well versed in mushrooms and instilled this love in her daughter. There is a relic in their family: the book "Mushrooms and their use in food", in 1942 sent to Alexey Konstantinovich by his teacher. This book became the basis of interest in the collection and harvesting of mushrooms. Maria Alekseevna herself, it seems, whom you want to “make” in mushroom matters: at the opening of the exhibition, people approach her with different appeals and even photos from the forest, and she gives everyone detailed information plus something new to boot.
Types of mushrooms and their description
Noble mushrooms of the Kaliningrad region are found along with other, less refined. The most common edibles:
- Ryzhiki - have a unique taste. There are spruce and pine. They have orange legs and caps with a diameter of about 17 cm, funnel-shaped. Grow on the hills near spruce and pine trees. Massively they are collected in August.
- White or borovik are the kings of mushroom places in the Kaliningrad region, due to the exquisite taste and rich aroma. Have a brown hat and a thick white leg. Occur in birch forests, spruce forests, pine forests.
- Milk whites and blacks are the best for salting. Small, milky white with a yellowish sheen (white) or dark olive (black), with a concave cap and characteristic rings. They love the edges of coniferous forests, under fallen leaves or needles.
- Brownberries and aspen mushrooms. Brownish cap is white, brown or yellowish. The leg is white. In aspen aspirants - the hat is bright orange, it can also be brown, and the gray leg. Grow at the beginning of the forest, along the paths and in the open.
- Maslata on the map of mushroom places of the Kaliningrad region are often found. Hats in edible species - from gray-yellow to red-brown, in wet weather - with a touch of mucus. Prefer glades with tall grasses, forest trails.
- Mushrooms Mokhovikov grow in the Kaliningrad region of several species: green, yellow-brown and chestnut or Polish mushroom. Most often grow in conifers and thickets of deciduous trees. The best is the Polish mushroom, which has a smooth brown color hat and a powerful yellowish leg.
- Chanterelles - bright mushrooms on a high stem, having a wavy cap of a concave shape. Collect them in coniferous and mixed forests.
- Russulae have hats of various colors. Suitable for eating raw with salt. However, some of the species have a hot taste. That is why they are soaked before cooking. Prefer mixed forests and moorland.
- Honey mushrooms growing in groups have many similar inedible twins. Inedible distinguishes unpleasant smell and bright color of the cap with greenish plates. Edibles are of two types - summer and autumn. Most often grow near stumps and weak, diseased trees.
Mushrooms grow in the Kaliningrad region and poisonous. The brightest representative is the red mushroom. This is a known poisonous fungus that causes severe food poisoning. Mushroom pickers know: if the whites went, it means that there are mushroomers nearby. In these places they also find dangerous pale toadstool, which is similar in description to russula.
How to choose a mushroom place
To choose the mushroom places of the Kaliningrad region for the upcoming "quiet hunt", you should decide on personal preferences. Choose places in which the natural conditions - the soil, forest density, tree species contribute to the growth of the selected species. The boletus will be where conifers prevail and on the edges.
Mushroom yield is affected by weather conditions.
Aspen and boletus mushrooms - on the contrary, prefer light-weight dense thickets of birch and aspen, where the width between the trees does not exceed a meter, otherwise the mushrooms will not receive the necessary portions of light and moisture. Maslata and mushrooms prefer pine forests, and chanterelles, honey agarics and milk mushrooms are found everywhere.
Also important is the season in which they go to collect mushrooms. The periods of mass gathering vary slightly. In addition, the weather conditions of a specific period are taken into account. In the dry summer, there will be more of them in shady ravines, lowlands and thicker grasses, where nighttime moisture lasts longer. And on wet rainy days they are searched for in glades, open, rare oak forests and glades, where the sun warms more strongly.
It is necessary to start picking mushrooms in the early morning when there is not a large influx of mushroom pickers, preferably after a rainy wet period, in order to give young fruit bodies to grow.
Mushroom map of the Kaliningrad region
The map of the mushroom sites of the Kaliningrad region includes 4 main areas:
- The Neman lowland is known for black alder, which is favorable for cap-bearing species. In addition, in forestry zones there are wetland, peat-bog, and podzolic soils contributing to the development of mycelium.
- Krasnoznamensk lespromkhoz and Nesterovsky mekhleskhoz, with a diverse topography of the soil containing sand, gravel and boulders, is predominantly pine. In the lowlands common mixed forests, in which a variety of mushrooms will please even the experienced lover.
- The Curonian and Baltic leshoz with sandy soils are located near the Baltic Sea. Frequent sea winds contributed to the growth of pines, birches and black alder. Go here for mushrooms, chanterelles and zelenushkami.
- Other forests of the Kaliningrad region, which consist of mixed spruce-birch lands, belong to the fourth zone, including ash and oak trees growing here.
Mushrooms go to collect also in Novoderevensky and Bolshakovsky forests. The Baltic Spit and the Ladushkinsky Forest enjoy a good reputation. Lovers of moorheads go there. Shipovskiy forest near Kaliningrad, will please by browns and strong aspen mushrooms. And for lovers of long journeys, Vyshtynetsky Lake is suitable - they promise the presence of boletus mushrooms.
Mushroom season in the Kaliningrad region lasts more than six months, starting in April and ending with the last days of November. Here, mushrooms grow almost everywhere - they do not necessarily go into the woods, because a couple can be found even in their garden.
There are four main areas in this region where a special abundance of “forest gifts” is marked:
- The Neman lowland, which includes the Slavskoye timber industry, the Illichivsk and Polesskoe forest ranges. The region is characterized by the presence of podzolic, peaty, marsh and silt-marshy soils, on which black alder lives in large quantities.
- Baltic and Curonian forestry, which differ sandy soils. Together with constant winds from the sea, they form suitable conditions for the growth of fungi. In most cases, you can meet a pine. Birch and black alder grow in the lowlands, occasionally you can find oak, ash and hornbeam.
- Another region, especially favorable for the growth of fungi, are considered to be the plots of the Nesterovsky forestry and the Krasnoznamensk forestry, which are distinguished by a variety of relief. In Nesterovsky district dominated area with numerous hills. Pine grows well on stony soil. Spruce and deciduous forests thrive in loamy land.
- The remaining regions constitute the fourth zone, which is rich in spruce-birch forests. Here, hornbeam, ash and oak trees are most common, and black alder grows in the lowlands.
Mushrooms are divided into edible, conditionally edible and inedible, as well as poisonous. However, inedible species is not always possible to be poisoned, at the same time, edible mushrooms can also lead to health problems, the rules of assembly, preparation or storage of which have been violated.
There is no clear difference between edible and poisonous species. Nevertheless, many poisonous species - for example, amanita - are difficult to confuse with others.
The most obvious sign of a toadstool and toadstools is the presence of a volvo, remnants of the outer shell, which at an early age covers the entire body as a whole, and later forms a “pot” from which the stem grows. Mushrooms suitable for use, differ spongy structure of the cap, but most of the inedible, it is lamellar.
In the Kaliningrad region you can find a huge number of mushrooms, both traditional and original. They are used for cooking soups, side dishes, appetizers, salads, sauces. Mushrooms fry, boil, stew, dry, pickle, make all kinds of preparations for the winter. Moreover, they are used in folk healing for the treatment and prevention of many ailments.
Cep, he is a boletus - one of the most beloved and popular among the people. He gained wide fame not only because of his noticeable, well-recognized appearance, but also because of his excellent taste. The boletus differs in rather large sizes: the cap is up to 25-30 cm in diameter, the leg is thick, the bottom is thickened. The color of the cap will depend on the area where it grows. In birch forests, the hat has a light brown tint, in pine forests it acquires a purple tint, in spruce forests - a reddish brown. The flesh is firm, elastic, white, does not change its color when cut.
The most comfortable habitat for white fungus are birch, pine forests and spruce forests.
There are many mixed forests in the Kaliningrad region, which are favorable for smooth living. Their collection starts from the last month of summer to October. Smoothys can be recognized by the characteristic purple-gray color of the cap. With age, the rings on the cap disappear, and she becomes yellow-red. The leg is long and thin, thickened at the bottom or in the middle. The white flesh is fragile and fragile; when pressed, acrid juice is released, which turns yellow on contact with air. Smoothies are great for pickling. However, before this they need to soak in salted water and boil.
Milk whites are black
Milkworms are eagerly collected only in Russia - in the West they are classified as inedible. However, with proper cooking (especially salting), the milk mushrooms are not only edible, but also tasty. In the Kaliningrad region, they are found everywhere: in birch, pine, spruce forests, on glades, forest edges, etc.
The main varieties of moorie are white and black.
- The distinctive feature of whites is a milky white, sometimes yellowish color of the cap with small specks and unique rings. Cap up to 8 cm in diameter. Mushrooms are short, dense, grow in groups. The pulp has a dense structure, when pressed, the milky juice is separated, which turns yellow in the air.
- Dark black or black is characteristic of black salmon. Sometimes they are also nicknamed chernushki. The leg is short, the cap has slightly curved edges, the plates are of a dirty green color. Favorite habitat Chernushkas - mixed forests. They can also be found in old foliage, mosses, under branches.
An excellent place for the growth of greenfinches is dry pine forests, where they are settled by whole families. They begin to collect at the end of the mushroom season in the fall. They got their name due to the yellow-green color of the cap - this color is retained even during heat treatment.
Zelenushka has a dense, slightly stiff pulp of white color, which soon turns into yellow. Under the cap are delicate plates of different colors. Zelenushki is recommended to boil, fry or pickle. The main thing - before any cooking they need to be peeled
The goat is an ugly fungus, which at the same time has a rather pleasant taste. Cap with a diameter of 4-12 cm has a pale light brown color. In young representatives, it takes a rounded shape, later almost completely straightened, becoming flat.
Leg - thin, curved, of the same color as the cap. During rainy weather the goat is covered with a thick layer of mucus, which makes it look even more unpleasant. The flesh is quite dense and has a pleasant aroma.
Goats should be sought in swampy, wet places, in damp pine forests. In the food should use young mushrooms. They are recommended to fry, boil, pickle or dry.
Small, bright and beautiful chanterelles inhabit mixed, deciduous and pine forests, in glades with grass or moss. Because of their remarkable appearance, they are difficult to confuse with other types of mushrooms.
Chanterelles are characterized by a funnel-shaped, wavy cap, covered with fan-shaped plates below, and a thin leg up to 12 cm tall. They have a bright, yellow-orange color. The flesh is dense, juicy, keeps freshness for a long time and, in rare cases, is wormy.
Chanterelles taste similar to mushrooms and porcini mushrooms. They are tasty in any form: fried, boiled, stewed, pickled. Often they become a tool for the treatment of various diseases.
Oil can be found almost everywhere: in forests, glades, edges, fields, paths, among the grass. The first harvest is collected by mushroom pickers during the flowering of the pine, the second - by the flowering of the linden. However, the maximum yield is manifested during the grain harvest period.
Maslata have a hat of different shades, depending on the habitat: from yellow and light brown to red-brown. Diameter 2-10 cm. The tubular layer, located under the head, is covered with a white film, which is subsequently converted into a ring. The flesh is tender, yellowish, has a pleasant aroma with notes of fruit.
Maslata are appreciated for their excellent taste, thanks to which they are widely used in cooking. They can be cooked and fried, pickled and pickled. Boiled butter stewed in milk has an especially savory taste.
In the CIS, 7 species of moth are common; in this area, green and yellow-brown (chestnut) are most common. Habitat habitat - sandy soil, coniferous forests, thickets of deciduous trees, edges, meadows.
- Green Moss it is distinguished by a large (3-12 cm), slightly convex hat of greenish or olive shades, which is covered with small scales from above. Leg straight, long, slightly expands upwards. The flesh is white.
- Chestnut flywheel It has a dark brown, chocolate or brown color, a dense and fleshy bonnet with scales, a cylindrical leg of solid structure and a yellowish color. The flesh is yellow.
In both species, the flesh on the cut acquires a bluish tint, but this is not a sign of danger. It is noteworthy that poisonous mokhovikov or mushrooms similar to them do not exist. Mokhoviki have a pleasant taste, used for pickling, drying, salting. Perfectly heat-treated as frying, stewing or boiling.
The main advantage of the experience is that they grow in families, large groups. Summer mushrooms - or linden mushrooms, as they are also called - settle on rotted wood and trees.
The honeycomb has a small size, the cap reaches 3-6 cm, has a convex shape with a tubercle in the middle, around which circles are visible in wet weather. The leg is thin, up to 7 cm long, in the upper part it is light, smooth, dotted with scales at the bottom. It is located ring in the form of a skirt, which can later disappear.
Autumn mushrooms larger in size. Their leg can reach 10 cm, and the cap at the girth is up to 17 cm. The hat has a convex shape, but becomes flat with age. Its base is covered with a layer of scales. Under the hat itself is a skirt, white in color with a yellow border.
Coloring of the honeycomb depends on the type of tree where he settled: the oak is brown, the poplar is yellow with honey, the pine is brown-red.
During the flowering period of viburnum, during haymaking, mushroom pickers go in search of boletus that grows most in open areas, forest edges, field edges and in birch forests.
Boletus differs in rather large sizes: the cap can reach 15 cm, the leg is long, dense, covered with dark scales. There are mushrooms of white, yellow or brown color. Boletus mushrooms are ideal for pickling. They are dried, fried or boiled.
It is not difficult to notice an orange-cap boletus in the woods. Он отличается большой круглой шляпкой оранжевого, бурого или белого цвета, а также плотной и длинной ножкой, утолщенной книзу, поверхность которой покрыта чешуйками. При срезе мякоть становится синего оттенка. Подосиновики предпочитают селиться в смешанных, березовых лесах и черничниках.
Aspen collection begins in July and ends with the first frost. These mushrooms are used for cooking soups, stews, they are added to vegetables. Also pickled and dried.
Chestnut Mohovik is known in the Kaliningrad region as “Polish mushroom”. The favorite place of its habitat are pine forests with a swamp, conifers, thickets of trees. It can also be found on sandy soils.
The Polish mushroom has a light brown, brown chestnut or dark brown color hat with a non-separating skin. After precipitation, the cap becomes sticky and slippery to the touch. The leg has a wrinkled surface of a yellow shade and dense structure. When cut, the flesh turns blue. Since chestnut flywheel has a pleasant taste, it is suitable for any kind of processing: pickles, pickling, frying, etc.
Ryzhiki, although they do not have a remarkable "appearance", have been loved by many mushroom pickers for their unique taste. Collect them on elevated sites among the pines and spruce trees, starting in mid-August. Ginger differs bright orange color and the presence of green blotches on the cap.
The redbird or, as the locals called it, the plantain is a mushroom that grows in mixed and birch forests, along roads, on trails. Its distinctive features are: a tight, gray-purple hat 4-10 cm with rings, the same color as a thin leg, fleshy flesh, releasing milky sap when pressed.
Russula were so named due to the fact that some of their varieties can be eaten raw. Mushrooms are distinguished by a variety of colors: their cap is able to acquire all the colors of the rainbow. But the leg is white and strong.
At an early age, the cap is convex, rounded, later becomes flat or even funnel-shaped. The pulp is dense, spongy, white at the cut. Russulae inhabit swampy areas in spruce-pine, deciduous forests. They grow in groups, do not hide in the grass or leaves, so they are easy to find even for inexperienced mushroom pickers.
However, they are not very popular because of their fragile structure. Some types of russules have a bitter, burning taste, so before cooking they must be soaked in cold water for two days.
Pale toadstool - the most dangerous among poisonous mushrooms. Its consumption ends in paralysis, and then death. A small fungus can be enough to poison four adults.
The configuration of the cap is hemisphere, but at an early age it has a more round, egg-shaped shape. The cap with a diameter of 5-15 cm, has an olive color (can vary from white to grayish), the surface is fibrous with smooth edges. Leg thin - about 2.5 cm, with a white scaly surface.
The flesh is friable, tender, white in color, with a neutral taste and a slightly sweet, but unpleasant smell. A distinctive feature of the toadstool is the presence of a wide volva at the base of the leg.
Most often, the gall fungus is found in coniferous and deciduous forests, on acidic, fertile soils. Outwardly, it resembles a white mushroom, but it can be easily recognized by a unique mesh pattern located on the stem. The cap has a hemispherical shape, can reach sizes from 4 to 15 cm, its surface is dry, slightly velvety, and in wet weather it becomes sticky. The color of the cap is different: from yellow-brown to dark brown. The leg is tall and thin, cylindrical, swollen downwards.
The flesh is white, with a cut pink, has an unpleasant bitter taste, is not wormy and does not have a pronounced smell. Symptoms of poisoning by this organism are similar to eating a toadstool or satanic fungus. In the elderly, 85% of cases of poisoning end in death.
Amanita - the most colorful representative of poisonous mushrooms, which is difficult to confuse with others. Its bright red hemispherical cap has a characteristic white spot. Leg dense, short and rather thick. The fly agaric grows mainly on acidic soils, in mixed forests. In most cases, the use of red mushroom does not cause death, but leads to the appearance of hallucinations, loss of hearing and vision. In small quantities extracts from the fungus are used in medicine for the production of drugs that have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer effect.
Less vivid, but no less poisonous, is the close relative of the red mushroom - the mushroom mushroom. Its distinctive characteristics are considered to be a pale yellow lemon color and a thick, clean, spherical at first, and then a flat cap, covered with large whitish flakes on top. The stem is rather long, up to 12 cm, of a cylindrical shape, thickened at the end with grooves above the ring. The flesh is soft, loose, with the aroma of potatoes and a bitter, unpleasant taste.
Symptoms of a fungal mushroom poisoning are similar to red poisoning: shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting occurs, and convulsions, hallucinations, and loss of consciousness can develop with strong concentrations of poison.
Satanic mushroom looks similar to white. It can be found in mixed and deciduous forests in areas with calcareous soil. It is rather large in size: the cap reaches 8–20 cm, the leg is up to 15 cm high, and the width is up to 10 cm. Cap colors range from pale gray to lead gray. Leg swollen, has the shape of a tuber. The flesh is distinguished by a yellowish tinge, on the cut it becomes moderately blue.
The difference between the satanic fungus and white is the presence on the leg of a characteristic grid of olive or red color. Also from the fungus is an unpleasant odor. Satanic fungus, when consumed, provokes disorders of the nervous system, affects the liver and spleen.
A distinctive feature of the false champignon is a persistent iodized odor or aroma of carbolic acid. The cap is white, has a smooth base with small scales. The flesh is white, but when pressed yellow. False white mushroom stem, thickened at base.
When cut, the leg flesh turns yellow, gradually turns orange, and then brown. When cooking false champignons, their peculiar smell increases, and the water turns yellow.
Mushroom places of the Kaliningrad region
The “Mushroom Hunt” in the Kaliningrad region starts from April and ends with the first frosts.
To campaign for mushrooms was successful, you should know the "mushroom places":
- mushrooms most often found on the territories of the Curonian and Baltic forest enterprises, near the town of Nesterov, in the northeastern region of the region, the Novoderevensky forest, Bolshie Gorki, Bolshakovsky Forest,
- favorite places chanterelles are Seaside and Povarovka environs,
- Zelenushkas mushroom pickers are looking for about the dunes on the Curonian Spit,
- in search of muzzle you can go to the Baltic braid, Kumachevo, Kruglovo, visit the south-western regions - Ladushkinsky forest, Chertov Most, Ushakovo,
- fulfill the dream of mushroom pickers and find a large clearing borovikov, you can go to the village Kosmodemyanskaya, Big Village, in the Soviet forest range, also a good area for white mushrooms are considered to be the neighborhood of Vishtynetsky lake.
Mushroom picking rules
Sometimes even edible mushrooms can become not harmless. And the whole thing here is in toxic substances - these organisms are able to absorb them like a sponge.
Therefore, going on a “quiet hunt, you need to follow some rules:
- The “golden rule” of mushroom pickers is to collect only familiar mushrooms. If there is even the slightest doubt about the origin and type of fungi - and even more so if there are tuber-like thickenings at the base of the mushroom stem - it is better to discard them immediately. Unfamiliar mushrooms can not be touched and even more tasted.
- Collect only healthy, young mushrooms. Do not put yourself at risk, paying attention to the wormy, dry, flabby, rotten mushrooms, which, at least, have lost their taste and useful substances.
- Do not disturb the mycelium. When collecting it is very important not to damage the mycelium, which will serve as the birth of a new crop. It is recommended that tubular-shaped mushrooms simply be “twisted” from the soil, and marsupials should be cut off with a sharp knife at the base.
- Collect mushrooms in environmentally friendly places. It is not necessary to "hunt" near the road, factories, in the industrial zone. It is better to visit the forest or go to the mountains.
- Put the mushrooms in baskets. For the collection of ideal packaging from materials of natural origin: wooden lubyanka, wicker box boxes. No need to take cellophane bags in which the mushrooms will simply “steam”.
- The best time for a "quiet hunt" are the morning hours. Mushrooms grow at night, so that in the morning they will be fresh, dense and persistent in transit.
- Extra time wasted is the search for "prey" in the tall grass and thick windbreaks. The maximum that can be hoped for is a few pieces per hour.
- Immediately after coming home, the “trophies” found should be cleared, as they quickly lose their properties. Peeled mushrooms are boiled without fail.
Kaliningrad region is rich in various types of mushrooms, which mushroom pickers gladly stock up from early spring to late autumn. But, going to the "quiet hunt" for tasty, fragrant and extremely useful trophies, we must not forget about the existence of poisonous species.
Just follow the main rules of collection and use - and then the process of preparation will be not only exciting, but also safe for health.
Forest land of the Kaliningrad region
All the forests of the Kaliningrad region, consisting of several hundred plots, are divided into four large zones, distinguished by relief, soils and fungi growing on them:
- Neman lowland. It is distinguished by podzolic, peat-bog and silt-marsh soils.
- Two forestry enterprises - Baltic and Curonian. Nearby is the sea, so there are sandy soils. Because of the coastal winds, trees grow poorly here. Mushrooms here are found mainly in pine forests.
- Lespromkhozy - Krasnoznamensky and Nesterovsky. Terrain with a variety of terrain. There are hills and boulders. Here mushrooms grow especially well.
- All other forests belong to the 4th zone. Here grows hornbeam, spruce, birch, ash, oak. Accordingly, the mushroom catch can be varied.
Beginning of the mushroom season
In the forests of the westernmost region of Russia, the mushroom season begins in late July and early August. It all depends on the weather. When the heat subsides, the rains begin and the humidity rises, the mushrooms grow. The first appear oyster mushroom, boletus, Russula, chanterelles, aspen, white, boletus.
In the Kaliningrad region introduced penalties for improper cutting of mushrooms. It is forbidden to pluck mushrooms with myceliums, roll moss and forest floor. Also prohibited the destruction of overripe mushrooms. The amount of the fine - within 2-3 thousand rubles.
The mushroom picker, when preparing for a “quiet hunt,” must take into account the “mushroom calendar” - each type has its own fruiting period. There are mushrooms that begin to grow in April-May, there are those that grow at the height of the season, and there are species that grow up to frosts.
Description. Austrian Sarkoscyt reaches 6 cm in diameter. The mushroom first has a cup-shaped, then saucer-shaped form. The inner part is red, matte, and the outer part is powdery, whitish.
Where is growing and when? Fruiting - from April to early June. In warm autumn can grow the second wave. It grows in deciduous and mixed forests, in parks. It grows on branches, moss, rotting wood, especially likes linden, maple, willow, oak, birch. She is one of the first among the mushrooms that appears on the Curonian Spit.
Twins. It is similar to its fellow Sakrsciths - Austrian, Dudley, Western.
Growing up. Pulp has no special taste and smell. Low taste. This mushroom ignores most mushroom pickers. Moreover, there is no interest in its artificial cultivation.
Description. Conditionally edible mushroom of the lamellar type, from the genus of the lamb. Is a kind of wave. Hat - yellowish-white. Fluffy edges - bent inward. Growing in groups. The height of the white legs - 3-6 cm.
Where is growing and when? Prefer deciduous and mixed forests. They are found along country roads, in meadows and forest edges. Growing condition - the presence of nearby birch trees. Fruiting - from early August to early October. In the area it is better to look for in birch.
Twins. Due to the specific type, it is difficult to confuse. The white-haired lady resembles only a windmill. But the latter has a pronounced pink color. And the confusion is not expensive - the winding is also edible.
Growing up. Mass production of whitefish is not practiced. But if you wish, you can grow a mushroom in the garden. The principle of sowing does not differ from the landing of other fungi — mycelium or mushroom spores collected in the forest are used.
Description. The hedgehog is little known and unpopular with mushroom pickers. It has a bitter taste. It looks like a chanterelle. Types of hedgehogs - dozens. Their distinctive feature is the “spikes” at the bottom of the cap.
Where is growing and when? It grows in forests of any type. It settles on wood - alive and dead. Prefers birch, oak, beech. They love high humidity and warm climate. Grow from mid-autumn to frost. In the Kaliningrad region does not enjoy success, especially for the Yezhoviki rarely go. Usually, mushroom pickers do not take them to the basket.
Twins. Even experienced mushroom pickers are not able to understand the diversity of ezhovikov. But there are no poisonous individuals among these fungi.
Growing up. Belongs to the fourth food category. Not of interest for mass production. In amateur mushroom production is also not in demand.
In the forests of the Kaliningrad region, along with edible mushrooms, many poisonous analogues lurked. The most dangerous moment in the collection of mushrooms - an error in determining the species.
In just one month last mushroom season, 25 people were poisoned. The main reason for poisoning is the inability to recognize mushrooms. The second reason is improper preparation of conditionally edible species.
Inedible mushrooms are half-bad, unless they spoil the soup, the maximum harm is indigestion. Poisonous species is another matter. Their use can be fatal. Since they are often disguised as edible individuals, it is important to know how they can be distinguished.
Description. Unlike edible champignons, false smells like iodine or carbolic acid. If the pulp is broken, it will turn yellow. The heads of false champignons are silky, finely flaked. The color of the plates is white at first, pink as it ripens. White and hollow legs at the bases swollen.
Where is growing and when? The time of appearance is the middle of summer. Unpretentious fungus that is found everywhere - in the forests of any type, in parks, near houses, in fields and in meadows.
Who can be confused? False champignons come in several varieties - flat-headed, reddish, yellow-skinned. To distinguish them from real champignons, just press on the flesh - it becomes yellow, and on the cut of the leg - bright yellow. If you press on the flesh of an edible mushroom, it will turn red or turn pink. When lowering the false fungus in hot water, yellowness appears, the smell of iodine increases.
Description. Previously, the pig was classified as conditionally edible mushrooms, now it is counted as poisonous. As it turned out, the fungus is able to accumulate poison - muscarin, which is not destroyed by temperature. After numerous poisonings, the swine were found to be toxic.
Where is growing and when? Prefers to settle on the twisted roots of trees. Rarely grows alone, often in groups. Loves wet soil. It grows from July to October. If you meet pigs in the forests of the Kaliningrad region, pass by.
Who can be confused? There is no antidote for swine. You can confuse them with russules, milk mushrooms, and just people may not know that svinushki are poisonous.
Kaliningrad region is a land rich in mushrooms of all kinds. Here, mushroom tourism is flourishing, and the markets during the quiet hunting season are overwhelmed with forest gifts. However, the demand for mushroom products is steadily increasing. Mushrooms - not only have excellent taste, but also serve as a generous source of protein, vitamins and minerals. That is why their breeding is an extremely profitable enterprise.
Where do mushrooms grow in the Kaliningrad region?
Conventionally, there are 4 zones of the Kaliningrad region, rich in mushrooms:
- The Neman lowland, on the territory of which the Polesskoe and Ilyichevsk forestry are located, as well as the Slavsky forestry enterprise. In the forest stands of these places mainly black alder grows,
- The Baltic and Curonian leshozes are characterized by sandy soils, which, together with strong sea breezes, create difficult conditions for native plants. In these leshozes, ordinary and mountain pines mainly grow, and black alder and birch dwell in the lowlands. Редко встречаются здесь граб, ясень и дуб,
- Участки Нестеровского мехлесхоза и Краснознаменского леспромхоза характеризуются многообразием рельефа. For Nesterovskiy district is characterized by hilly terrain, and the hills are quite high, of glacial origin, and the soil here consists of stones and pebbles. On such soils settles pine. And in heavy loamy soils, which are also characteristic of these areas, spruce-deciduous forests grow,
- All the remaining territories of the Kaliningrad region belong to the fourth zone, rich in spruce-birch forests. Hornbeam, ash and oak trees grow here, and in the lowlands there is a black alder tree.
The most unusual mushrooms of the Kaliningrad region
Then we will tell you about the most unusual mushrooms of the Kaliningrad region ...
Residents of the Kaliningrad region discuss unusual mushrooms found in local territories and share their photos. A PhD BFU them. I. Kant Alexander Volodin gives a professional assessment of these findings.
1. A married couple was driving along the Berlin highway of the Kaliningrad region and saw a very large white mushroom from the car. He stood out perfectly on the green grass. Spouses stopped and picked a mushroom. They thought they had found a ram mushroom. Anastasia cooked this big mushroom at home.
Curly Sparass - Sparassis crispa
A. Volodina Candidate of Biological Sciences states that this mushroom is not a ram mushroom at all. In fact, it is a very rare species of Sparassis crispa, it is in the Red Book. This mushroom is better known under the name "mushroom cabbage". It is not so much for the Kaliningrad region, but even for the whole of Russia, it is very rare. It is an edible mushroom, fruiting from August to September.
2. Mushroom pickers found in the center of Kaliningrad llechniki, which are also referred to as milk mushrooms. From Latin, this name translates as “milk-giving,” since the acrid milky juice is extracted from the fruit bodies. Alexandra Volodina strongly discourages picking mushrooms in the city, because they like a sponge soaked with toxic substances from the soil and air.
3. Large mushroom umbrella looks very colorful. This is not only attractive in appearance mushroom, it is also edible. Mushrooms umbrellas mostly settle under the pines, but they can be found under the birches.
Mushroom umbrella motley
Mushroom pickers use caps of mushroom umbrellas, cut them into slices, peel them off the skin, then dip them in an egg and fry them. The stem is also edible, but it is tough. Therefore, it is recommended to boil and scroll in a meat grinder.
The taste of mushroom umbrella is similar to fried chicken or fish in batter. If mushrooms are for someone heavy food, then it is recommended to boil umbrellas first, and then to fry.
4. Red Mokhoviki, found in the Kaliningrad region, belong to the edible category. Find them under broadleaf trees. They are listed in the Red Book of Lithuania. These small, but cute mushrooms have a pleasant aroma, but not too pronounced taste.
5. The golden flake is edible, but during cooking it produces a not very pleasant smell, similar to mold. This mushroom is not very famous, so beginners often do not put it in baskets, but experienced mushroom pickers know that these are good mushrooms. Scales are collected from spring to autumn.
6 Autumn mushrooms require pre-boiling. If these mushrooms do not provide good heat treatment, then an upset stomach is provided. Experienced mushroom pickers prefer to collect only hats of young mushrooms.
7. Podberovikov marsh among mushroom pickers is considered to be a not too valuable mushroom, unlike its fellow boletus ordinary. His hat is brown. The marshy boletus grows in deciduous forests and conifers. In the North, these mushrooms are accustomed to be called buffs.