Application of green manure for tomatoes
When planting siderats in the process of cultivation of vegetables, gardeners receive a number of advantages:
- Organic fertilizers give a boost to vegetables for rapid growth. Green manure attracts beneficial bacteria for plants that release nitrogen in the process of their vital activity. This component has a positive effect on the development of plants, stimulating their active growth.
- Plant residues are stored for a long time in the soil, they are not washed out by water.
- The root system of organic fertilizers in the process of their growth becomes an obstacle to the growth of weeds.
- Left over the side of the garden, the siderata for tomatoes cut off under the root protect against the sun during the day and frost at night.
- Green manure accumulates in the soil, making it fertile for the cultivation of subsequent vegetable crops.
The method of feeding the earth with organic matter is relatively cheap, but no less effective compared to the use of modern drugs.
Types of sideratov
The best sideratami for tomatoes are legumes and grains, but gardeners are planted and other plant crops that have beneficial properties for tomatoes.
Alfalfa accumulates nitrogen in the upper layers of the soil, improving their structural composition.
Lupine through the active development of the root system effectively loosens the upper layers of the earth, saturating it with oxygen. Due to its aroma, it repels harmful insects from planting tomatoes.
Shrovetide radish has developed roots that are able to reach useful substances at a depth and bring them to the surface. Roots growing in breadth and in depth loosen the ground, providing air access to the culture.
Planting white mustard is an excellent method of combating various pests and infectious fungal diseases. Also mustard can saturate the earth with sulfur and phosphorus, increase its fertility and prevent erosion.
Phacelia will saturate the soil with nitrogen
Siderat called phacelia neutralizes the excessive acidity of the soil and resists fungi and viruses. This plant saturates the earth with nitrogen and potassium, and also attracts pollinators to the dacha, which are necessary at the flowering stage of tomatoes.
Siderat Vika proved itself the ability to increase the yield of tomatoes by 40-45% due to the accumulation of nitrogen-containing components in the soil layers.
Siderata can be planted in advance or simultaneously with the planting of vegetables, that is, with the onset of spring heat and until the autumn frosts. It is possible to sow them also for the winter, so that by spring they will come to life and quickly grow.
Many gardeners prefer to plant organic fertilizers in advance, so that plants can grow before planting vegetables.
Cultures suitable for planting in the spring can withstand the sudden frosts and grow at low temperatures. Mustard and phacelia are well suited for this purpose. They mow as they grow, making room for tomato planting, or leave until summer, until they begin to bloom.
The parallel cultivation of organics and tomatoes is a very laborious method that requires constant care at the same time for tomato bushes and green manure vegetation, which is cut once a week so that it does not interfere with the flow of sunlight. However, it is quite effective, it allows you to get the largest number of useful elements from organic matter and resist weeds.
Advantages and disadvantages of sideratov
- in the rapid growth of green mass. This is possible because the roots of plants attract bacteria that produce nitrogen. As you know, this element contributes to the intensive growth of stems and leaves,
- organic compounds obtained in this way are more stable than chemical preparations.
- plant nitrogen is harmless to plants and the environment
- the root system of sideratov suppresses the growth of weeds,
- the way of cultivation of useful crops is borrowed from nature.
The use of siderats is a labor-intensive agronomical method of growing crops; it is this feature that some gardeners consider a minus. The disadvantage is the complexity. Green fertilizers must be constantly cut and watered with organic solutions. This should be done weekly. Nevertheless, there is a choice, using siderats for growing tomatoes you can resort to such methods:
- Sow siderats in advance, and before planting a tomato, dig a plot, covering up the green mass. The disadvantage is that the useful microflora is destroyed, which has been moved from its usual place, which leads to its death, therefore, it stops the synthesis of nitrogen.
- Organic farming rejects the earthen layer revolution. All layers must remain in place.
- Cut plants watered with effective microorganisms. Due to this, the synthesis process is much faster.
- The most effective way - planting a tomato, among the growing sideratov. .
The soil is loosened using a Fokin flat-cutter to a depth of 10 cm together with siderats.
Alternative replacement sideratam
With all the effectiveness of sideratov, their cultivation remains a method that takes a lot of time and effort from the gardener. Supporters of organic farming offer biological products that quickly and effectively enrich the soil with nutrients without growing green manure. Food waste is suitable as a raw material, preferably without meat scraps. Plant residues are also used - weedless weeds, mowed grass, shredded branches, all that is suitable for compost.
Tip # 1. Do not use compost plants that contain toxic and specific substances.
Can not be used as fertilizer:
- Walnut (all kinds),
- Common Hornbeam,
- English oak,
- Poplar (all species),
- Willow (all species).
It is undesirable to use hogweed, dope, nightshade and other plants with toxins. The use of recycled waste takes less time - no need to sow the green manure in advance. Saves money - do not have to spend money on the purchase of seeds of green fertilizer.
Unwanted tomato precursors
The most effective neighbors and predecessors for tomatoes, green mans from the legume family and clover. Good results are obtained by combining tomatoes with crucifers: mustard and rape. It is necessary to avoid planting a tomato after potatoes, eggplant, pepper, or solanaceous ornamental crops such as datura or physalis. .
Comparative features of seasonal use
When choosing green fertilizers for tomatoes, it is important to remember about the biological features of growth, at different times of the year. For the preliminary preparation of the soil for planting tomatoes, winterized siderats are used, which are sown in late August and early September. Seeds sprout in 3 - 4 weeks, depending on weather conditions. Before the onset of cold weather, the green mass grows freely.
Tip # 2. Note! Mustard enters the winter without digging, and rye needs to be cut before spike formation and removed into compost.
Winter rye, sown in the fall, dig.
Sowing of early sideratov, mustard and phacelia is carried out at the establishment of a positive temperature. These crops are cold-resistant and not afraid of spring frosts. Sowing of heat-loving green fertilizers begins later - at the end of April. At this time they plant vika, clover, and rape.
Siderata can be used throughout the warm season. The best results are obtained by the cultivation of useful crops in areas that “rest” from gardening. Their positive feature is the rapid regrowth after cutting. The cut green mass is placed between the rows of a tomato, watered with organic EM preparations. For this purpose, use annuals:
Combination of sideratny cultures, comparison of methods of agrotechnology
The main problem that siderats solve is the structuring of the soil, without which full-fledged soil-forming processes are impossible. The best results are given by complex application of target cultures. Their combination increases the desired effect.
In the spring on winter rye, after loosening, sow mustard.
After picking the tomatoes, replace with lupine.
A mixture of sideratov well enriches the soil with substances of different chemical composition.
The recommendation is this: you should not use a plant of the same species as a siderata, in the same area. It is desirable to alternate and combine crops that belong to different families, for example, rye belongs to cereals, and mustard to cruciferous. Their biological features exclude competition for nutrients between themselves and the main crop - tomatoes.
What is important is not only the choice of siderata, but also the method of its cultivation. For example, rye has a strong root system that quickly dries the soil. Therefore, this grass is recommended to be sown in the fall and cut for the winter. In this case plowing is the best way out.
Plants with surface roots give good results, with surface loosening, which is used both in autumn and spring. This method is treated with lupine, sweet clover, alfalfa. Scientists have shown that the greatest effect is achieved by growing vetch with tomatoes, the crop is increased by 45%. Proponents of organic farming, rejecting a coup of an earth layer, have shown that most siderarates work better without digging (or perepashki), with the use of drugs EM.
Differences of sideratov for open ground and for greenhouses
One of the most common problems in the greenhouse cultivation of tomatoes, it is harmful pathogens. This is explained by the fact that the culture is always in one place, which is not possible to change it. Then the siderats come to the rescue. They replace the crop rotation, adjacent to the tomatoes. At the same time, it effectively disinfects the soil, producing nitrogen-containing bacteria that inhibit harmful microorganisms.
The use of green manures in the greenhouse differs from the use in open ground in the ways and terms of planting. Rye is sown shortly after full harvest, in September. Green mass enriches the soil until April. Before planting, the grass is removed to compost.
Sowing mustard in a greenhouse does not interfere with planting a tomato.
Mustard and vetch can serve as a feed at any time of the year. . Tomatoes are planted in the sowing carpet, forming holes among the siderats. When mustard or vetch grows to 20 cm, it is cut into compost. Safely adjacent to tomatoes, bush beans, which enriches the soil with nitrogen and is located at different levels of the roots with tomatoes. This eliminates competition for nutrients.
Green mans for shady areas
It would seem, what does the shade-tolerant siderats have to photo-light tomatoes. Moreover, many green fertilizers also love the sun, because they bloom. It turns out they can be grown not only next to tomatoes, but also on any shady area. The arguments in favor of this method are as follows:
- firstly, flowers are not needed for top dressing of the soil, and the green mass grows well in the shade, stretching towards the light,
- secondly, cut stalks serve as siderats not only where they grow. To tomatoes they can be delivered as compost,
- Third, the process is significantly accelerated under the action of organic EM drugs.
- In shady places they grow successfully: vetch, white gooseberry, yellow mustard, oily radish, phacelia.
The recommended assortment of sideratov for the Moscow region, the Volga region, the Urals, Siberia in terms of sowing:
When and why plant siderats
In the greenhouse, siderats can be sown in late autumn or in early spring, although the latter option is considered more effective - all substances remain in the ground and are not washed out when the snow melts. Most of the green manures grown in front of the tomatoes have a high resistance to cold, so they will have time to grow in early spring sowing, and when they are mown and added to the ground they decompose.
Siderates in the greenhouse in the spring under the tomatoes are sown with the aim of improving the composition of the soil, saturating the soil with nutrients. As a result, there is no need to introduce any other fertilizers before planting the crop - in the land ennobled by sideratami, tomatoes feel great, grow well, grow and are almost not affected by common pests and diseases.
Important! Siderativnye culture drowns and squeezes the weeds, which also applies to the list of their virtues.
Green mans for tomatoes in the greenhouse
Greenhouses in the greenhouse
When deciding which siderates it is best to sow in the spring for tomatoes, it is necessary to take into account the acidity of the soil, the type (light / heavy) and the lack of a specific element that needs to be filled. Recommended siderata for tomatoes belong to the cruciferous, cereal, legume families.
Cruciferous. This group of sideratov is considered the most popular among Russian gardeners. Most often sown:
- oil radish. This green manure is considered one of the most effective for fighting the soil pest by the nematode, characterized by rapid growth and unpretentiousness. Radish displaces even the most enduring weeds. Enriches the earth with a large amount of potassium,
- white mustard. The most common siderat. The plant gives fast and friendly shoots, rapidly gaining green mass. Structures the earth to a depth of several meters. Mustard seeds are white, compared to the planting material of other sideratov, inexpensive.
Cereal. Representatives of this family have a good root system, therefore, when it is decomposed after cutting, loosening and aeration of the soil is provided. For tomatoes, it is recommended to sow oats as a siderata - it enriches the soil mainly with potassium, consumed by the crop throughout its entire life cycle in large quantities.
Legumes The siderates, belonging to the legume family, saturate the soil with nitrogen, necessary for tomatoes to grow and gain green mass. In the greenhouse in front of the tomatoes can be planted:
- Vika. This climbing plant is often sown with oats (it supports the wiki stalks). Grows well in neutral soils
- lupine. Due to the deep root system, lupine in a short time can restore soil fertility. It grows well on any soil. It is sown 2 months before planting tomatoes in the greenhouse. The seeds of this siderata are quite expensive,
- alfalfa. This green manure is considered to be the most fastidious, therefore it is used less frequently: alfalfa requires constant soil moisture, it grows poorly and blooms quickly during droughts. The type of soil is also important - it will not grow on heavy, acidic and marshy soils.
- phacelia The second most popular after mustard is siderat for tomatoes. It brings into the ground three of the most important elements - nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus. The plant itself can change the acidity of the soil, making it neutral. Phacelia growing in the same greenhouse with tomatoes protects the culture against common viral and fungal diseases.
Important! Siderats sowed in spring for tomatoes, cucumbers and peppers growing in the same greenhouse may be different. The main thing is that the preceding (siderative) cultures should not be related to the subsequent ones.
Phacelia is considered to be a universal siderat, it is suitable for all vegetables.
Planting tomatoes in mustard
In areas with an unfavorable climate, even such cold-resistant siderat as mustard is not always possible to sow in greenhouses. Therefore, it can be sown later and not embedded in the ground, and planting tomatoes directly in mustard. Below is a detailed instruction of planting tomatoes with mustard.
In early spring, as soon as the soil in the greenhouse is thawed out (end of February - mid-March), mustard seeds should be planted. There are two ways of seeding: solid and ordinary. To determine the choice of method, you need to consider each of them separately.
- The continuous sowing of mustard seeds consists in mixing the planting material with sand in equal proportions and dense distribution over the bed surface. They can be loosened shallowly in the ground with a rake or simply sprinkled with a thin layer of soil or peat.
- For an ordinary sowing, the land must be loosened beforehand, then with a chopper, planting furrows, sow mustard and sprinkle with soil or mulch.
Technically it is much easier to perform a continuous sowing of mustard.
Mustard in the greenhouse
Tomato seedlings are planted in accordance with the mustard plantation between the mustard (with its ordinary sowing) or in the previously prepared areas (with continuous sowing, it will be necessary to pry the green manure in the seats).
Within 2-3 weeks, these two cultures grow together. Mustard must be cut in a timely manner so that it does not produce seeds, this happens within a month after planting. When cutting sideratov need to retreat from the ground about 5 cm. After that, the mustard starts to grow again.
During the season, it is necessary to periodically cut the newly growing mustard when the culture reaches a height of 20-30 cm.
Tip! You can mulch the soil under the tomatoes with mowed residues throughout the season.
You can use siderat one-time, cut before flowering after planting tomatoes using a flat cutter. In this case, the mustard roots remain in the ground and decompose, turning into excellent dressing and loosening the soil. Скошенной зеленой массой мульчируют грядки.
Important! The ability to grow after cutting has not all siderates, for example, phacelia is not used for growing tomatoes in a similar way.
This technology of planting and growing greenhouse tomatoes in mustard plantations is considered quite laborious, but the end results are worth it.
- Tomatoes receive all the necessary nutrients for nutrition, which are easily absorbed by the root system, therefore they take root well after planting, quickly adapt to new conditions and start to grow.
- The soil after cutting mustard becomes loose, air-and moisture-permeable - there is no waterlogging of the soil during irrigation.
- Mulching of tomato bushes with beveled mustard greens helps to reduce the air humidity in the greenhouse.
- Mustard sown around tomatoes protects the garden crop from pests and diseases - the phytoncides that make up this siderata prevent phytophthora from occurring, and the essential oils scare off harmful insects.
Tips and tricks gardeners
It is easy to plant and grow unpretentious siderats in a greenhouse - they do not even need to be watered, there is enough water after the snow melts. Proper mowing of greenhouse crops tops is very important. Below are a few tips and recommendations for the event.
- Siderates in the spring under the tomatoes must be cut in advance - 2 weeks before planting.
- Excess nitrogen in the soil will negatively affect the yield of tomatoes, so the growth of legume green manure must be carefully monitored and not allowed to grow to large sizes.
- The timely mowing of the tops is important for another reason - siderats, overgrowths decompose more slowly in the soil, as their stems become more dense as they grow.
- After cutting the tops, it is recommended not to plow into the soil, but simply to spread it on the beds. The fact is that when plant residues are embedded in the soil, many nutrients are lost.
- When mowing siderats, it is important not to damage their root system; therefore, the flat cutter is not buried more than 5 cm into the ground.
The right choice, early sowing and timely cutting of green manure will naturally prepare greenhouse tomato beds in the spring before planting the crop without the use of agrochemicals.
A mixture of crops for planting tomatoes should consist of:
The basis of the sideral mixture are cereal ones; oats or rye may be preferred.
In simultaneous crops, these cultures behave restrained and tolerant. Those who practice snow falling asleep in a greenhouse are not worth refusing; cereals will take it as it should.
In spring, the grass will continue to grow until the planting of tomato seedlings. Mowing grass can not be removed, and used as mulch. If compacted plantings of vegetable green crops are practiced, then the grains are harvested in the compost or dug.
Particularly well cereal cultures transform potassium into available forms. This element plays a major role in carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism. Potassium affects the strength of tomato stems and the accumulation of sugar content of fruits. With a lack of this element, the formation of buds is delayed.
If there is a shortage of nitrogen, then legumes can not do. Assimilating nitrogen from the air, and fixing it with the help of nodule bacteria, and giving it to the soil, the plants of this group carry out work on the nitrogenous feeding of tomato bushes. The utilization rate of plant-based nitrogen in tomatoes is almost two times higher than that of mineral origin.
As an additive as the best siderat for tomatoes use Vika. This culture gets along well with oats and enriches the soil with nitrogen, and tomatoes are very favorable to it, increasing the yield by half.
The cruciferous sideratov root system is abundantly “hung” with bacteria. For their livelihood, you need iron. This element is very much in the soil, but it is in an inaccessible form, but microorganisms translate it into affordable and cruciferous with pleasure consume it. Iron, in turn, is also necessary for pathogenic fungi, but the cruciferous plants so skillfully “take away” it that the fungus simply does not have time to consume it. The mechanism of cruciferous crops fungicidal action for protecting tomatoes from phytophthora is based on this.
One of the best crops is mustard. In the summer it is sown in a mixture with other cultures. Some growers practice mustard crops in February-March; dotted, sparse sowing allows planting seedlings of tomatoes between these plantations without destroying the green manure.
During the entire vegetative period, mustard is pruned, avoiding the budding phase.
Sometimes, growers find out: “What are the best siderats for tomatoes to sow in the fall - mustard or rape?” However, experience shows that these are not mutually replacing crops, but complementary to each other.
Rapeseed belongs to the cabbage family. Its plant tissues are very delicate and, after mowing, after being mowed down, they are quickly decomposed by microorganisms and turn into nutritive elements for tomato.
Make up the proportion
Deciding to resort to a mixture of sideratov, and not to any particular, you need to find out which part will belong to one or another. Experienced vegetable growers who cultivate tomatoes in a greenhouse in a monoculture without crop rotation have come to the conclusion that this is possible without turning the soil, but using the services of green manure.
The composition of the mixture is introduced:
- oats - 100 parts,
- Vika - 30,
- mustard - 30,
- canola 30.
Crop seeds are mixed together and sown with a fairly generous hand. The mixture has proven itself on light soils, as well as on heavy, requiring improvement of the structure.
Those who carry out crops such a mixture from year to year, recommend it as a universal, not requiring additional adjustments.
If sowing is carried out in the period when tomatoes continue to bear fruit, after its completion, the tomato plant is not dug up by the roots, but is cut at ground level. By the fall, the siderats form a solid green carpet. Even if during severe frosts the bottom of the crop leaves, the rest will pick up the baton and take its place.
Phacelia in the greenhouse
Many vegetable growers have fallen in love with this not capricious culture, while she herself is both beautiful and useful.
If the greenhouse is used at 100% and the vegetable grower alternates crops and grows early green crops such as spinach and radishes, and then tomato crops are planted, then the phacelia becomes indispensable.
Sow phacelia in August September. It forms a wonderful carpet, and leaves before winter, without forming self-seeding. Some growers practice mowing, but this is not necessary.
In early spring, everything is carefully digged and buried. Early crops are planted, and after they are harvested, tomatoes are planted.
In this case, phacelia:
- enriches the soil with potassium and nitrogen,
- helps to eliminate wireworms,
- lowers acidity
- makes the soil breathable and loose.
Phacelia itself is durable, tolerates drought, is unpretentious to the soil, as the precursor is suitable for all crops except cucumber.
By applying a green manure mixture under the tomatoes in the greenhouse, it is possible not only to improve the structure of the soil, but also to carry out sanitization without the expense of effort and money. Siderates become more and more popular for a reason, they will help to enrich the soil, without resorting to the mineralization of the soil, which will affect both the quantity of the crop and the quality. Growing a tomato, you want to taste its sweetness and to know the true enjoyment of taste, which can be achieved only with the balance of nutrients.
The benefits of using sideratov
Over the use of natural feeding will have to sweat, but it's worth it.
- These fertilizers help tomatoes grow green mass much faster. This happens due to the involvement of bacteria that produce nitrogen, which stimulates growth.
- Siderates in the form of top dressing are organic compounds whose duration of action exceeds the effect of chemical preparations.
- The roots of such fertilizers do not allow weeds to sprout.
- Plant nitrogen in their composition is harmless to both the tomato and the environment.
- This is a natural way of feeding, because it is from the plants of previous generations that the nutrient soil and the basis for the growth of a new culture are formed.
- Such natural fertilizers are much cheaper than commercial products, and their effect will delight in the first season.
The best green mans for tomatoes
It is difficult to answer unequivocally which siderrate is best for tomatoes, because each plant has strengths:
- white mustard effectively resists pests and soil erosion, does not allow weeds to grow, and also saturates the soil with nutrients: phosphorus and sulfur, which are responsible for fertility,
- Vika - One of the best options for tomatoes. The roots accumulate nitrogen, and the green mass turns into excellent organic matter, which increases tomato yields by 30-40%,
- phacelia neutralizes soil acidity, eliminates weeds, prevents the appearance of fungi and viruses. As a fertilizer, it increases the concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium in the soil,
- alfalfa from the legume family, improves soil structure, enriching it with useful trace elements and promotes nitrogen accumulation,
- lupine due to the loosening of the earth increases the level of oxygen in it, and also effectively eliminates pests.
What crops it is not desirable to use under tomatoes
Having understood that it is better to use as a green fertilizer for tomatoes, you should also pay attention to the plants, which absolutely can not be used as a siderat for tomatoes.
In the first place, plants with toxins should be avoided: datura, hogweed, nightshade, etc. Also, do not plant tomatoes after eggplants, potatoes, peppers and other nightshade.
Landing features: time and methods
An important aspect of the choice of natural fertilizers will be the time of their disembarkation. Green manure tomatoes are planted throughout the season, from early spring to late autumn. For spring, it is better to select crops that are not afraid of sudden frosts, can grow at relatively low temperatures. Sprouted future fertilizers are mown early to make room for tomatoes.
Planting in this case is carried out after harvesting, and sprouted plants overwinter under snow in the form of green grass. Green manures for tomatoes, which are planted in autumn, are mown in spring right before planting the tomatoes themselves. In addition to mowing, when the green mass is removed and the green manure roots remain in the ground, there are two more methods of using these natural fertilizers:
- plowing. The method is quite fast, but many farmers consider it to be ineffective, because as a result of digging the soil, beneficial bacteria in its composition and fertilizer quality deteriorate,
- simultaneous cultivation of fertilizers and tomatoes. Quite a laborious process, but dressing in this case also does not allow weeds to interfere with the growth of tomatoes.
The main differences in the use of green mans in the greenhouse and open ground
Green mans for tomatoes are used not only in the open field, but also in greenhouses. They do an excellent job with one of the most important problems of greenhouse tomatoes - harmful pathogens.
After all, natural fertilizers in this case replace crop rotation, feed the soil with nitrogen and destroy pests. However, the use of green manure in greenhouses has its own nuances associated with the timing and methods of planting. For example, rye is sown in September, after harvesting, so that by mid-spring the green mass will nourish the soil with useful substances.
But just before planting tomatoes rye clean. What other siderats can be sown in a greenhouse under the tomatoes, it is easy to guess: these are all the same vetch and mustard.
Well nourishes the soil and beans with nitrogen. Its roots are located at different levels with tomatoes, so they do not have to compete for food.
Siderats are a great way to take care of the future harvest of tomatoes, because they not only nourish, but also disinfect the soil under the tomatoes. However, to obtain a rich harvest will have to work hard, picking up and growing natural fertilizers.
Green mans for tomatoes and cucumbers - greenhouse and open ground
Green manures for tomatoes are planted in autumn or spring. In the open ground, you can choose a landing site, alternating tomatoes with other cultures. But in the greenhouse it is problematic to do this, so the green manure for tomatoes in the greenhouse serves as an auxiliary crop, the purpose of which is to destroy the pathogenic flora that is always present in the soil and is transported through the air. When planting the same crop several times in one place leads to the incidence of plants and a decrease in yield, and even to the death of the fruit.
A suitable green manure greenhouse after tomatoes is white mustard, which has the property of disinfecting the soil with the help of phytoncides.
Nitrogen-containing plants are also beneficial in this regard, since nitrogen inhibits the development of microorganisms. If you plant several rows of mustard and legumes, the ground will not only be cleared of the fungus, but also filled with nitrogen, which tomatoes will gladly consume next season.
You can also mix the seeds and sow the entire greenhouse completely, and plant seedlings between them in the spring.
What siderata plant after tomatoes in open ground
If crop rotation is observed and there is no special need for disinfection, you can plant any green manure. In winter, winter rye or oat mixed with bean vetch goes well. By spring, the greens will rise two weeks earlier, so seedlings can be planted on time.
Phacelia, lupine or alfalfa - universal companion plants that grow everywhere - in the shade, in the sun, on sand, clay, black soil.
Lupine is not picky, but she likes wet areas.
The root system reaches a depth of 1.5 m, which makes it possible to plant it with tomatoes - the plants have no competition for nutrients and they get along well on the same bed.
Specific substances - alkaloids - prevent the growth of bacteria and wireworms. If the acidity of the soil is increased, and this can be determined using litmus paper, lupine alkalizes it and makes the nutrition of vegetable crops full.
Phacelia - reduces acidity and makes it possible to assimilate elements such as phosphorus and calcium, which is very important for tomatoes.
The rotting green mass and roots enrich the soil with nutrients and organic matter, increasing the access of oxygen to the roots.
Alfalfa contains a lot of calcium and trace elements.
It is even used in the manufacture of dietary supplements for human nutrition. Calcium accelerates the metabolism of tomatoes, making them dense and uniform in color, which improves the product characteristics.
Green manure for winter for tomatoes sown after harvest:
- Gathering tops and burning ash can be used as an additional fertilizer.
- The plot is cleared of weeds with a flat cut, slightly loosening the soil.
- Complex mineral fertilizers are introduced.
- The bed is moistened and the seeds are scattered throughout the area. It is desirable to mix the prepared seeds with sand - so they are evenly distributed in the soil.
- Seed material sprinkled on top a layer of soil in 1 - 2 cm.
Important! Seeds come out badly in the light, so it is imperative to embed them in the soil. On the other hand, it is important not to overdo it with depth, otherwise it will not grow well or the germination period will increase by two weeks.
Siderats for tomatoes are planted in the fall in August, if you plan to cut them and dig up them before the onset of cold weather. When the plants reach a height of 15 - 20 cm, the above-ground part is cut and laid on the soil in the form of mulch. Using a shovel or a flat-cutter, it is partially embedded in the ground.
There is another way that is considered more natural and useful:
- after mowing you need to put the green mass on the bed,
- pour Baikal EM1 solution,
- top cover with a layer of straw or sawdust.
The roots remain in the ground and rot. The upper part under the layer of sawdust is processed by beneficial bacteria and mixed with the soil during spring cultivation. A layer of sawdust or straw before digging clean. They serve to retain moisture while organic matter decomposes.