They are grown in order to obtain as much as possible the young. Not everything in this matter is determined by genetics. Much depends on the technology and proper organization of the growing process. In particular, balanced, sustained in all parameters nutrition.
Factors on which feed rates depend
- the weight of the uterus,
- her age (up to 2 years, the sow is considered to be growing)
- fat deposition
- periods of productive phases.
- single pigs,
- pregnant (pregnant) - in the first two thirds of this condition,
- last third of pregnancy
Therefore, in different periods of gestation, their own requirements for the nutritional value of feed. They are presented in the table below at the rate of 88% dry matter.
Catering single queen
The task of the first two or three days to stop the formation of milk in the udder. Therefore, they are fed a limited - no more than one and a half kilograms of standard feed. And then gradually bring them to full-nutrition.
The diet is determined by the type of feeding. It consists:
- from two or three types of cereals and legumes,
- from waste oil extraction production (cakes, cakes), bran. Oilcake is obtained when the oil is squeezed out of the seeds by pressing. Meal is when the oil is extracted from the seeds with organic solvents. Therefore, there is more fat in the cake than in the meal. Oilcakes are pressed tiles. Before putting them into the feed, they need to be crushed,
- from grass meal - half a kilogram (in the summer instead of it - green weight up to nine kilograms),
- from root and tuber crops - three or four kilograms,
- from the combined silo - two kilograms,
- from animal feed - from three to five percent,
- from obligatory mineral, and also vitamin inclusions,
- It is permissible to use concentrated feeds of the KK-53 brand, complete feeds of the PK-53 brand, and SK-1 special feeds for pig farms. In one day, one pig eats them from two and a half to three kilograms,
Feed is carried out in the form of a wet mash (70-75%). The frequency of feeding - twice a day in equal shares.
Eating pregnant (pregnant) gilts
All time pregnant is divided into two periods:
- low gum (first 84 days or 12 weeks),
- tall (from the 13th to the 16th week).
In the first period, the embryos are still poorly developed, there is no milk, therefore, sows have a rather limited amount of feed. Only to maintain vital needs. But it must contain a lot of fiber. It creates a feeling of fullness.
In the second period, the fruits begin to grow rapidly, and the uterus needs more nutritious food.
Important! During the entire period of gestation, gilts should be restricted in feed consumption. Then during lactation, they are more likely to absorb their food.
The change in the level of feeding during gestation compared with the lactating period is indicated in the table below (Kirschgersner).
Thus, the feeding of pregnant pigs is determined
For pregnant sows, it is important to introduce essential amino acids in the diet. They are found in animal feed.
Pregnant gilts also need fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins. They can extract them from grass meal, green and animal feed.
Do not forget about the enrichment of feed minerals and balancing them on the macro and micronutrients.
You can use two methods:
In the first method of feeding in addition to feed used the main feed. That is, they are fed
- green mass
- corn and grass silage,
The main feed should be of high quality and not moldy. Thanks to him, there is a good and fast saturation. As a consequence, in the feed do not need to enter the crude fiber contained in bran and dry pulp.
In the second method they feed only compound feed, excluding the main one. It requires less physical effort from pet owners. But with it, saturation is more difficult. And because of this, the pigs can develop a hungry stress, characterized by their restless and aggressive behavior. Therefore, feed must necessarily be enriched
- dry pulp,
- wheat bran,
- chopped hay or straw.
Feeding patterns are shown in the following figure.
In the first period of gestation the feed is formed.
- concentrated feeds - from forty to sixty percent,
- juicy - from thirty to forty percent
- rough - from ten to thirty-five,
- animal feed - from five to eight percent,
- salt and mineral supplements.
Calcium supplement is very important - chalk. Since in concentrated feed five times more phosphorus than calcium. Consequently, there is a lack of calcium. Therefore, the diet is balanced with calcium supplements. The best of them is chalk.
The percentage of feed raw materials for the formation of feed for sows that are in different productive phases is given in the table.
In the first period of pregnancy, the compound feeds KK-53 and PK-53 are used, and in the second period - KK-54 and PK-54. At industrial enterprises use a special feed brand SK-1.
Food set wet mash in a ratio of one to three, that is, three parts of water. Feeding frequency
- in the first period - twice a day,
- and in the second - three times.
The amount of water the sows need is shown in the table.
Pigs are provided with good, clean, fresh water. If there are no auto drinkers, then they are watered two or three times a day. You can check the water pressure in the auto drinker as follows: you need to collect two liters of water within one minute. In this case, the water pressure is considered sufficient.
Salt and chalk are thoroughly mixed with bulk feed to prevent poisoning. Mixed with concentrated feeds because they are rich in easily digestible carbohydrates, and this contributes to better absorption of supplements.
Concentrates are better for steaming, and cooking meat. If the sow consumes raw meat waste, she will develop carnivorous. It is likely that after farrowing she will eat her offspring.
Before farrowing, the nutritional rate is reduced by half, and the diet is enriched with laxative feed raw materials:
After farrowing, all metabolic processes in the body of a pig increase. The increase in milk secretion occurs gradually, depending on the activity of pigs when sucking milk. By the third week, 5-7 kilograms of milk are released from the sow. Feeding rates are determined
- age - up to two years and older than two years,
- weight - from one hundred and twenty kilograms with an interval of twenty kilograms,
- the number of piglets in the litter
- the duration of the suction period, which can last 26 or 35— 45, or 60 days.
The formation of one kilogram of milk consumes about 0.85 EEC. Per one ECE, sow requires from one hundred to one hundred and ten grams of digestible protein.
The diet of lactating gilts is formed
- from a concentrated mixture, as well as ready-made feeds of the brands PK-54, KK-54, SK-2 - four to five kilograms. It is set in thick mash (three to one, more feed),
- from succulent fodder - five to eight kilograms per day, and the potatoes are boiled with drained water. Since green potatoes and eyes in it contain a glucoside harmful substance corned beef. When cooking, the corned beef goes into the water. If it is left to cool in this water, then the corned beef will turn into potatoes again. As a result, sows can be poisoned.
- from grass meal - up to one kilogram per day,
- up to six pounds a day
- from the premix - ten grams per kilogram of dry matter.
Types of feeding
As a rule, three types of feeding are used in pig diets.
- Concentrated potato.
- Root concentrate.
In the third type (concentrated), the greatest amount of feed is consumed up to 85 percent. In the second and first types of feeding, the amount of concentrate can be reduced to 50 percent at certain times.
The suckling sows can be fed with the fully-fed mixed feeds of the PK-54 brand, also with mixed feeds with concentrates of the KK-54 grade, and SK-2 feedstuffs are used on pig-breeding complexes.
Immediately after farrowing, fresh water is given to the pigs in abundance. After five to six hours you can feed:
- five hundred to six hundred grams of concentrate,
- necessarily in chalk - twenty to thirty grams,
- and table salt - twenty to thirty grams.
For feeding this cook mash up.
On the second or fourth day, the amount of concentrate is adjusted to two kilograms.
By the fifth day, the rate of concentrate reaches three kilograms per day.
By the second week lactating sows go on a full diet.
The change of diet is carried out gradually. On the fourth or fifth day, you can begin to introduce succulent feed.
The feeding frequency is twice a day. They need about eight to ten liters of drinking water per day.
Before weaning the pigs, the amount of food is halved, and refuse from succulent feed. Such tricks will reduce the production of milk in the udder.
On the day of weaning, the daily rate is reduced by half, and then they are transferred to the feeding mode of idle, pregnant sows.
As a result, it can be said that compliance with the rules of balanced nutrition of sows guarantees you the success of achieving the goal of obtaining the largest number of healthy young pigs.
Features of the diet at different stages of pregnancy
The period of pregnancy (pregnancy) of pigs lasts 112-115 days. Animals at different stages of pregnancy require a special composition of the diet.
In the so-called low gum period (first 12 weeks of pregnancy) embryos are poorly developed, therefore, it is not necessary to significantly increase the amount of food consumed.
Immediately after conception, it is necessary to slightly reduce the amount of feed. At the initial stage of pregnancy, pigs should eat moderately. The daily allowance of feed for them should not exceed 2-3 kg.
AT sportier period (from 13 to 16 weeks of pregnancy) the fruits begin to develop rapidly, because the animals need a much larger amount of feed compared with the usual diet.
Change the proportions of feed should be gradually, avoiding stress. Change of diet should be made in 3-5 days. An abrupt change in food can cause spontaneous abortion and impaired labor.
The amount of food consumed must be controlled, because the farmer’s goal is to avoid obesity, which increases the risk of complications during and after childbirth.
4 days before farrowing, the rate of all feeds consumed by a pregnant sow is reduced by exactly 2 times. This action will reduce the load on the digestive organs, as well as reduce premature milk formation. A decrease in the rate of food intake also has a beneficial effect on the appetite of the animal during the feeding period of the pigs.
During the second period of pregnancy, a pregnant sow must gain from 25 to 40 kg of weight.
In the first period of pregnancy, the pig must eat:
- concentrated feed (40-60%),
- succulent feed (30-40%),
- rough feeds (10-35%),
- animal feed (5-8%).
At the first stage of pregnancy, the sow should be given more fiber so that it is more quickly saturated and does not feel hunger. Products should be slightly moistened with clean water. Also to the main feed add mineral supplements and salt.
In the first stage of pregnancy, calcium supplementation is important. In this case, the chalk gives a good effect.
In the low spongy period, such feeds as KK-53 and PK-53 are used. The feed is issued in the form of wet mash. One part of the feed takes 3 parts of water.
The frequency of feeding - 2 times a day.
Highly supra-supine feeding
In the second period of pregnancy, the diet of sows includes concentrated feed (40%) and coarse as well as juicy food (the remaining amount of the general norm). The second type includes:
During the second stage, KK-54 and PK-54 feeds are used.
Part of the concentrated feed in the period before the farrowing reaches 75%, juicy and coarse - 25%. Also, before farrowing, dairy and fermented milk products, fish and meat waste are introduced into the ration of pigs.
Immediately before the farrowing sow, it is necessary to fully produce products that contain vitamin A (silage, wheat bran, carrots). Also, hay or grass meal of legumes should be added to the diet of animals at this stage.
The frequency of feeding - 3 times a day.
At this stage of pregnancy, pigs are also given chalk (20-30 g per day), limestone (20-30 g) and table salt (40-45 g). In addition, fish oil, ground shell rock, protein-vitamin concentrates (Procorm) are added to the diet.
Features feeding by season
In the summer, the diet of pregnant pigs is enriched with various greens. Also at this time of year they can be fed with fresh beans, peas and lupine. They contain a lot of protein, which is necessary for the pigs that expect offspring.
In summer, the diet looks like this:
- hay flour - from 800 g to 1.5 kg,
- succulent feeds - from 2 to 3 kg,
- meat or fish waste - 150-300 g,
- serum - from 2 to 3 liters,
- various concentrates.
In the summer, pregnant sows can be walked in the fresh air, so that they can easily eat root vegetables and fresh green grass.
In the fall, pregnant sows are given a lot of vegetables in a processed form. Potatoes must be boiled. In no case should not give the pigs frozen or rotten feed, hard cake, sunflower husk.
In winter, carrots, wheat bran, and silage must be introduced into the diet to compensate for vitamin A deficiency.
Feed must be fresh, not frozen, not rotted, not moldy: the mushrooms present in the fermented mixtures damage the placental layer of the fetus and can provoke an abortion in sows.
The danger of overfeeding and feeding features of pregnant sows with obesity
Excessive feeding of pigs, which will soon give birth to pigs, is dangerous by such consequences as:
- complication of the process of childbirth due to weak labor
- loss of piglets due to the large weight of the sow, which presses them down with their own body,
- low fecundity
- loss of appetite in a sow, which affects its weight and lactation ability.
In order to “unload” the digestive tract of sows, one should increase the proportion of plant components and slightly reduce carbohydrates. Care must be taken not to achieve the opposite effect - exhaustion.
Low-energy feed can cause low birth weight piglets, as well as lead to infertility of young females.
The daily requirement of feed for sows
The rates of the various components that are present in the diet of pregnant sows depend on their weight and age.
For pigs under the age of 2 years, the daily rate of feed is as follows:
- A mixture of concentrates. In winter - 1.3 kg in the first half of pregnancy and 2.2 kg in the second. In summer, for the first half of pregnancy, this figure will be 1.6 kg, for the second - 2.5 kg.
- Tubers or melons. In winter - 8 kg for the first half of pregnancy and 6 kg for the second. In the summer, this food is not necessarily included in the diet.
- Hay flour In winter - 1 kg in the first and second periods of pregnancy. In the summer, it is not included in the diet.
- Legumes In winter, the diet of pregnant sows is not included. In the summer in the first half of pregnancy the rate will be 10 kg, in the second - 7 kg.
- Meat or fish waste in the diet in winter and in summer for any period of pregnancy is 100 g.
- Milk waste in the winter and summer in the first half of pregnancy reaches 1 kg, in the second - 500 g
- Protein. For young sows in the first half of pregnancy, the amount of digestible protein should be 405-415 g in winter and 490-495 g in summer.
Sows older than 2 years require a slightly different composition of the diet:
- A mixture of concentrates. In winter, 700 g in the first half of pregnancy and 1.2 kg in the second. In summer, for the first half of pregnancy, this figure will be 1.2 kg, for the second - 2 kg.
- Tubers or melons. In winter - 9 kg for the first half of pregnancy and 7 kg for the second. In the summer, this food is not necessarily included in the diet.
- Hay flour In winter - 1.3 kg in the first and second periods of pregnancy. In the summer, it is not included in the diet.
- Legumes In winter, the diet of pregnant sows is not included. In the summer, in the low-supernuminal period, the norm will be 10 kg, in the high-superarium period - 8 kg.
- Meat or fish waste in the diet in winter and in summer for any period of pregnancy is 100 g.
- Milk waste in the winter and summer in the first half of pregnancy reaches 1 kg, in the second - 500 g
If we determine the energy threshold of the feed, then in the first 84 days of gestation, sows are given products at the rate of 1.2 units of feed per 100 kg of live weight. In the last month before fertility give 1.5-1.7 feed units for the same weight.
Соблюдение всех суточных норм при построении рациона супоросной свиноматки позволит избежать истощения и ожирения, а также обеспечит нормальные роды свиньи.
Витамины и минералы
Пища супоросных свиноматок должна быть обогащена различными минеральными добавками и витаминами, дефицит которых они могут испытывать в период беременности.
Свиньям необходимы такие добавки (количество определено для 100 кг живого веса):
- calcium - 12 g in the first 84 days and 13-14 g last 30 days,
- Vitamin B1 - 2.6 mg,
- Vitamin E - 41 mg,
- sodium - 2 g,
- crude cellulose - 40 g,
- Vitamin B5 - 81 mg,
- Vitamin B3 - 2.3 mg.
Low and short sows weighing 120–150 kg have different water needs. One head of low-supra-queen sows per day requires 8–12 l per day, for one deep-sulphate sow you need 10–15 l.
Water must have a certain temperature and not exceed 10 degrees. Cold water can cause spontaneous abortion.
On large pig farms, it is required to regularly monitor the water pressure in drinking bowls. Optimally, if in a minute typed 2 liters.
Pregnant pigs should have constant direct access to water so that they can drink whenever they want.
Pregnant sows require a special, orderly diet. The food must contain the required amount of nutrients. Also be sure to be organized direct access of pigs to clean water. When feeding a pregnant pig, neither depletion nor obesity should be allowed.
Feeding sows during preparation for mating
To get strong and healthy piglets from sows, you must first prepare them for mating. Proper feeding of the mumps, a month before mating, is important because feed, which includes the necessary amount of minerals, vitamins and protein, has a beneficial effect on the formation of eggs, as well as their fragmentation and of course on the development of embryos.
It is worth noting that feeding sows with a balanced feed affects the increase in egg size, which accelerates the growth rate and biological maturity of embryos. It also affects the reduction of resorption of the embryo.
Immediately 14 days before mating, the amount of feed increases by 30%, that is, the feed rate should be 3 feed units per day. It is necessary to feed three times a day and at the same time. Violations of this condition can trigger an abortion. After feeding, the pig should be drunk with clean water, with a temperature not lower than + 15 ° C.
Feeding the sows during embryo development
From fertilization to 90 days of gestation, the daily rate of feeding is reduced to 2.4 feed units. This can be done, since during this period the growth rate of the embryos is small.
Also, a decrease in the rate of feeding of a pregnant sow will have a positive effect on the appetite of the animal during the lactation period.
The diet of the pig during this period may have the following composition:
40% concentrated (cereal) feed and 60% succulent and coarse (hay) feed. Excellent protein feed additives are: reverse, buttermilk and whey, as well as fish and meat waste.
In the spring and autumn period, it is possible to enrich sow rations with green and succulent fodder. Before feeding, these feeds should be chopped. The resulting mass must be fed no later than 2 hours after preparation, because after that the carotene content sharply decreases, due to which vitamin A is produced in the body.
Green succulent feed can be obtained from alfalfa and clover, wheat germ and other cereals. You can also feed the beet tops and cabbage leaves. The diet should be constantly changed.
During this period of pregnancy, the mumps can be given up to 8 kg of succulent feed per day. By the end of this period, the share of succulent feed in the diet of a pig should be gradually reduced. It has been proven that fresh green food in a volume of about 5-7 kg is quite capable of replacing 1 kg of grain. Productivity in this case is not reduced.
Feeding the sows before the farrowing
From the 90th day of pregnancy, the daily feeding rate is increased by 20%, to 3.0 feed units. During this period there is a rapid development of the fetus, and an increase in feeding will have a positive effect on this process. Therefore, in the diet of the concentrated feed rises to 75%, and coarse and juicy adjusted to 25%.
The amount of digestible protein should reach 100 g per day. The total weight of the sow for the gestation period should increase by 35-40 kg. With feed, you need to give up to 40 g of table salt and up to 15 g of fodder chalk.
All food that must be given to the pig should be in the form of thick porridge. Over time, the amount of fluid in the porridge increase, and four days before farrowing food is prepared in the form of talker. The pig is transferred to four times feeding, leaving the daily rate of feed unchanged.
Immediately four days before farrowing, the rate of all feed is reduced by half. This should be done to reduce the load from the digestive organs of the sow, as well as to reduce milk formation.
During this period, feed sows are given in a semi-liquid state, which has a laxative effect. Loose feeds include wheat bran and flax flour.
Preparation of feed for feeding pregnant sows
Of no small importance is the preparation of feed for feeding pregnant sows. The quality of feed preparation directly affects the increase in feed consumption and its assimilation for subsequent use by the sow.
- Grain grinding and concentrated feed is performed up to size from 0.2 mm to 1 mm.
- Koroblubneplody before feeding, it must be thoroughly cleaned of the remnants of the earth and the parts unsuitable for feeding.
- Succulent feed two hours before feeding you need to grind. These foods must be given raw. Potatoes must first be boiled.
The main indicator of the development of any branch of animal husbandry is the constancy of a high number of high-quality offspring.
Numerous and viable offspring - the main indicator of future income, and it primarily depends on the feeding of animals, if it is properly organized, then the offspring will be planned. In the pig industry - the most important branch of modern agriculture, specialists pay special attention to feeding pregnant sows. Proper organization of the regime and the diet of their food allows you to achieve high rates of offspring (consistently high numbers and viability), while maintaining optimal breeding condition of the animals.
How to do it? The leading domestic experts share their secrets in this article.
Feeding Pregnant Sows
The main goal of this process is to provide offspring from each individual at least 10 (maximum 12) piglets that are not lighter than 1.2 kg. At the same time it is important:
- prevent the decline of breeding condition,
- Maintain excellent physical condition of the mother
- eliminate obesity or female depletion,
- to ensure the full development of babies and mothers.
Contain pregnant animals in groups. In one group, individuals of approximately the same age, weight, with approximately equal periods of gestation are selected. The state of being fed should be approximately the same for everyone, the character is calm and peaceful. Handle them gently and carefully. The mother liquor must be dry and lukewarm, the place of farrowing (machines) carefully cleaned, washed (using a hot meadow) and bleached lime. Pre-prepare and lay a fresh litter, and also stock up exclusively fresh feed. All communications (ventilation, sewage, heating) are required to function without interruption.
10-15 days before farrowing, the sow is driven into a specially organized place (machine), for 3-4 days they are no longer being walked and the necessary exercise is stopped, and also the feed supply is reduced gradually (by 50%), while all its components reduce evenly . This is necessary so that the intestines of the future mother will not be overloaded and the milk will not be allocated in advance. In recent days, they are being watched, for this set of duty.
The productivity of sows only slightly depends on genetics, mainly it directly depends on the quality of their nutrition and maintenance.
Ration summer / winter
The diet of pregnant sows is not the same at different critical periods of their condition. Experts identify two main periods:
This period, which is associated with the sting of a fertilized sow egg. The negative influence of environmental factors on the blood and other physiological body fluids of the animal can lead to the death of the egg, because at this stage the placenta has not yet formed. After the formation of the placenta, the probability of intoxication sharply decreases, but is not completely excluded.
The cause of intoxication can be poor-quality food (rotten, moldy, sour), as well as an excess (hypervitaminosis) or deficiency (vitamin deficiency) of vitamins and microelements. It can both underfeed and overfeeding, as well as the monotony of the diet. During this period, the amount of feed increased to 4-5 kg per head per day (g / d), this helps to prepare the body for fertilization and can speed up the process of conception. Young females require 110 g of protein per 1 feed unit, which is well digested; 105 g is enough for adults. Lowering the rate is possible if lysine, methionine, tryptophan are introduced into the food.
After fertilization, the female is better not to disturb and reduce the amount of feed to 2.5 kg per g / d. Studies have shown that excessive food consumption minimizes the size of the nest, especially for those females who are experiencing pregnancy for the first time.
second period of gestation,
Active growth of the fetus takes place in the last 2/3 of the period of gestation. This stage is characterized by exhaustion of the whole body of the future mother, because she quickly loses such minerals as phosphorus and calcium. In addition, there is often a lack of vitamin A. All this leads to the fact that babies are born weak or inferior. This period is divided into two stages:
Low-speed sows should be fed at a rate not exceeding the rate necessary to maintain life. At this time, the fruit is still small and milk is not yet produced. Experts recommend feeding the females with food rich in fiber, because it quickly creates a feeling of satiety.
The stern volume of high-sperm sows is increased, because their fetus has already become larger and continues to grow rapidly, for this it needs more nutrients. In general, experts reduce the amount of feed during pregnancy, and increase it during lactation. Young mothers need 140-150 g of digestible protein per 1 feed unit, and adults need 115 grams.
The main characteristic of good nutrition during this period is a steady increase in the weight of the female from cycle to cycle. If this does not occur in the period from the first to the second mating, then feeding was insufficient. This will necessarily reduce the fecundity of the individual in the future. At the same time, an excessive increase in weight (1.5 times or even twice) leads to an overrun of feed and does not give the expected offspring.
Acceptable economic profit provides:
weight gain of 12 kg or 15 kg from cycle to cycle,
weight gain in the period of gestation about 30 kg.
Feline breeders tend to get healthy viable offspring, which is actively developing. It is important that they suck up the milk vigorously, giving away the mother, while rapidly gaining weight.
Mineral protection of the fetus occurs due to the trace elements of the skeleton of the mother. The larger the fruit, the more it needs minerals. The last 7 days of pregnancy increase metabolism, and energy and protein deposits increase 8-10 times.
In order for the process of mineralization of the fetal skeleton to be optimal, it is necessary to provide the expectant mother with enough fluoride, vitamin A and D. At this time, the females need to be given products that do not provoke constipation.
Currently, there are norms for feeding pregnant sows. At this stage, the female should recover by about 40 kg, of which 25 kg is amniotic fluid. At the same time, it is noted that the animal before the 3rd pregnancy should gain 20% -30% more. If you follow these rules and regulations, then the mother and the offspring will be healthy and develop normally in the future.
Overfeeding can be dangerous and cause:
- complications in the survey and provoke the weakness of labor,
- low fecundity
- loss of appetite in lactating females, which entails a sharp weight loss and a decrease in its lactational capabilities,
- loss of piglets (heavy and awkward mother crushes them with her own weight).
Feeding females carry out 2 times a day. Products are slightly moisturized. Often abroad, in order to reduce labor costs, organize a one-time feeding. But such nutrition is recognized as irrational, because the sow cannot eat all the daily norm in one or two doses, the remnants of greens dry up, and juicy feeds grow moldy (especially in summer). Animals refuse to eat them.
Food is best given in portions three times a day at a fixed time. If food is delayed, it causes nervousness in females, they run, push and often get injured. This can cause abortions or premature farrowing.
In order for the female and the fetus to provide proteins with basic cereal feeds, they enrich with leguminous plants, for example, in a mixture of oats, barley or wheat, they add peas, vetch, beans, cakes, cakes, and other feeds.
Deeply pregnant uterus must be fed grass or hay flour of legumes. They are rich in protein, minerals and vitamins. To optimize digestion they give juicy food. To meet the need for minerals, they are necessarily fed crushed:
To enrich the diet with vitamin A in the winter, carrots, silage and wheat bran are introduced, and in the summer - green mixtures from various fodder crops are introduced.
Summer ration consists of:
- hay flour 0.8-1.5 kg
- juicy feed 2-3 kg,
- fish or meat waste 150-300g,
- haul or cheeseworm 2-3 liters.,
Experts recommend not to use universal feed for feeding animals and during fertilization, and during pregnancy, and at the stage of lactation. The dietary requirements during these periods are different, therefore it is necessary to use special foods or supplement the main food with special additives for pregnant females.
Currently, there are two types of feeding such females:
As a rule, the main ones are green fodder (grass and corn silage, hay). They must be fresh, not overheated, without mold. This is a satisfying feed, the volume of use of feed will depend on its qualitative and quantitative characteristics.
food compound feed.
Corn, barley, wheat, oats, as well as soybean meal - the basis of feed. They are supplemented with mineral feeds with 5-8% lysine content. Specialists monitor the content of amino acids in them, because the amount of milk in the mother depends on them, and therefore the health of the babies.
The nutritional rates of individuals are calculated based on their age and weight. For fat or lean queens, the feed rate is adjusted on the basis of 0.34 feed. units for every 100 g average daily gain. In order for animals to grow normally to 2 years of age, regardless of weight, they are fed according to the norms established for females weighing 201-240 kg.
Energy threshold feed For the first 84 days, the uterus is given products at the rate of 1.2 fodder units for every 100 kg of body weight, and in the last 30 days - 1.5 or 1.7 feed units.
Females younger than 2 years old should receive not less than 1.8 kg of products and not more than 2.4 kg. There is a rule according to which, the more a female is, the less food she needs per 100 kg of body weight.
Biennial animals and older individuals should consume from 1.2 kg to 1.6 kg of dry food, in the event that the concentration of feed units in it is about 1.0 kg, and the fiber content is about 12%.
The consumption of protein and essential fatty acids in females is different in different periods of time. In the first 84 days, 100 g of well-digested protein give them per 100 kg of weight, and from the 30th day, 170 g. In the dry matter should be 15% crude protein and 11% digestible, and 0.6% lysine, methionine and cystine - 0.42%.
Energetically poor food causes the birth of piglets with low weight, and also does not allow the mother to create a reserve supply in the body before lactation, this can lead to the fact that females with large nests can become infertile.
Excessive metabolic energy in food leads to a decrease in the survival rate of embryos by 25-40 days in comparison with the embryos of mothers who were fed moderately (about 5000 kcl.)
The diet during this period should be moderately energetic, otherwise the mobility of sows is reduced, the farrowings are inhibited, excessive fat accumulation occurs and apathy to mating occurs. The same result can lead and low-energy feed. Because of it, the number of piglets in the nest may be slightly reduced, while their vitality will be weaker. They can react painfully to worsening conditions and even die before weaning from the mother.
The main characteristic of the feed is the optimal supply of the individual with vitamins and microelements. The main norms of their consumption are listed below. On average, based on 100 kg of live weight.
- кальций 84 дня -12-13г, последние 30 дней 13-14г
- фосфор 80% нормы кальция
- натрий 0.12% от сухого вещества (СВ)
- хлор 0.15% от СВ
- соль (кухонная) 0,58% от СВ
- каротин (провитамин А) 1.6 тыс МО
- ретинол 5,8 тыс МО
- Витамин Д 0.6 тыс МО
- Токоферол (витамин Е) 41 мг
- В1 2.6 мг
- В2 7.0 мг
- В3 2.3 мг
- В4 1.16 мг
- В5 81 мг
- В12 29 мкг
Выводя на пастбище, таких маток очень медленно гоняют, выпускают из загона по одной, чтоб не возникало давки во время выхода. It is important to tuck the floor in the pens with sawdust, or lime, or peat (it absorbs moisture well) so that it always remains dry and does not slip.
Drinking should be no colder than 10 ° C (consumption, cold drinking water provokes abortions). It is necessary to organize direct access to drinking water. An animal can drink as much as it wants, the need for water in each individual is different. During the lactation period in all individuals the need for water increases. Usually it is not lower than 15 liters per day and not higher than 40 liters per day. Pig milk is 80% or 90% water.
It is important to check the water pressure in drinking bowls in time. It is considered normal to have a pressure head when 2 liters are collected in 1 minute. Shelves should be cleaned periodically.
The reason for poor appetite of an animal is often a lack of water. Pigs willingly drink only fresh water, low-quality water provokes the development of a number of ailments.
Preparing for mating
For mating, the most healthy parenting pairs are usually taken to be at least nine months old and weighing at least one hundred and ten kilograms. Up to this point, pigs should be kept in a standard balanced feeding mode, the diet of which should be based on animal feed, greens, cereals, dairy products.
In order to speed up hunting in the female, the feed is enriched with protein-rich phosphorus, calcium, vitamins A, C, D and E products. During the hunting period, more feed is required (up to five kilograms per day). It is important to accelerate conception and maintain sufficient energy.
About the frequency of hunting in pigs can be found in this article.
Lengthening daylight hours, maintaining a comfortable temperature and good lighting in the pig houses accelerates and maintains the hunt of sows.
First period of pregnancy
Immediately after mating, the amount of feed per head per day should be reduced to two to three kilograms and from the first to the twelfth week the females should eat moderately. During this period, there is no particular need for overfeeding, because the fruits are still too small. Food must be enriched with fiber for good digestion and a feeling of fullness.
Before farrowingFrom the thirteenth week of gestation to the farrowing of pigs, high-grade females should receive more balanced feed. However, this amount should be limited to avoid obesity and complications during childbirth. According to the norms for this period, the sow should gain from twenty-five to forty kilograms of live weight.
Forty percent of the diet should be concentrated feed, the rest - coarse and juicy food. The second type of product can be:
- root vegetables (potatoes, beets, carrots),
- hay legumes,
- cereals (especially maize and barley).
It is also recommended to dilute the food with milk and dairy products, whey, as well as meat and fish waste.
For feeding piglets after sowing, see this article.
As the date of farrowing is near, the proportion of rough and succulent fodder should be gradually reduced to twenty-five percent. The rest of the diet should have to feed.
The diet of a pregnant pig should be made rationally in order to prevent both exhaustion and obesity.
Good food for pigs and sows is potatoes. It must be cooked before serving. In addition, based on it, you can prepare mash bags with the addition of broth, skim milk or whey, as well as cereals and combined feed. Food is also enriched with meal, barley, oats, grass flour and greens, other root vegetables.. At the first stage, feed pigs should be twice a day, but closer to the farrowing, the number of feedings is recommended to be reduced to one.
About how much grain you need to feed a pig read here.
Most often, all the necessary vitamin complexes are already added by manufacturers of concentrated and combined feed. However, if they are not indicated in the composition or are added in insufficient quantity, it is recommended to additionally purchase vitamin-mineral premix (for example, “Borka”). In this supplement should be vitamins C, A, D, E, K, PP). A sufficient amount of B vitamins are present in cereal products.
In the diet of sows, there must be two main additional components: chalk (about twenty to thirty grams per day) and table salt (ten to twenty grams). It is also recommended to add in a spoonful of fish oil, limestone, tricalcium phosphate, phosphates, fish and bone meal, ground shell rock. It is also possible to use protein-vitamin concentrate (for example, “Procorm”). Effective as an additive "Felutsen", "Mixvit". When using, you must strictly follow the instructions and do not exceed the recommended dosage.
For feeding, you can use both specialized pig feed and general purpose feed, including for cattle. Full-grown products contain from six to twelve ingredients, among which are:
- wholemeal flour of cereals (corn, wheat, oats, barley),
- grass meal
- meat and bone meal and fish meal,
- salt and chalk
- feed yeast,
- premix additive.
How to make do-it-yourself pig feeders here.
Concentrates usually consist of premix, protein and carbohydrate components, so they require enrichment using a standard set of feeds.