The hybrid of cherry and sweet cherry is known to many modern gardeners as Duke, or the cherry variety Miracle Cherry. The most suitable for growing under the conditions of the middle duke was taken by L. I. Taranenko, who is working on the creation of this plant by combining the best qualities of the Griot cherries and cherry varieties Valery Chkalov. Why is this plant wonderful and for what reasons has it won the love of a huge number of gardeners? All the details below.
The main characteristics of the variety
Cherry Variety Wonderful Cherry is a tree-like plant that resembles its ancestors in structure: the shape of the crown is comparable in shape to the tree-known cherry, and the branching is from the cherry tree. Flower buds Miracle Cherry is capable of planting on a one-year increase, so it enters fruiting very early: a massive collection of large, gathered in the brush 4-8 pieces of berries begins in the third year from the beginning of fruiting. Duke fruits have a cherry aroma, but, unlike cherry, are devoid of the characteristic acid.
The shoots of the plant are straight and smooth, have sufficient thickness, covered with even and smooth bark of dark brown color. Flower buds are large, similar to cherry. Duke flowering begins with the onset of sustained heat, around mid or early May. In colder conditions, it blooms by the end of the month. Fruiting in a developed plant begins by the end of June. Each tree can be harvested at least 7-10 kg of large, weighing from 7 g, berries.
Features of Wonderful Cherry as a Garden Plant
Having absorbed all the best from cherry and sweet cherry parental lines, Wonderful Cherry, the photo of which is presented here, is considered to be much more winter-hardy and disease-resistant than other plants belonging to the same family. All this allows you to grow Duke in conditions where there are frosty winters and occasional outbreaks of moniliosis and coccomycosis.
Planting Wonderful Cherries and caring for her
Before landing, special attention should be paid to the choice of location. Cherry variety Wonderful Cherry is most well developed in well-lit areas that are sheltered from the winds, especially the north. Planting material is necessary in the prepared pits filled with fertile mixture. The distance between the planted plants should be not less than 5 m, since the Miracle Cherry, the description of the variety of which indicates the large size of the tree, can suffer from close proximity, which will certainly affect both the development and the yield. Deepening the root neck of a plant can lead to its death, so it is better to leave it above the soil surface. In order to form a tree, immediately after planting the sapling is cut, leaving about 60 cm of the central shoot, and the side ones are shortened by a third.
Fertilizers and feeding in the first 5-6 years of growth and development are not required. This is especially true for nitrogen fertilizers, because they can cause active growth of the aboveground part of the tree to the detriment of fruit bearing. In addition, top dressing can provoke the death of a plant in winter due to immaturity of tissues. But from the irrigation, the cherry variety Miracle Cherry only wins. After planting, it should be carried out once a week, pouring at least 20 liters of water under each sapling. In subsequent months, watering can be carried out less frequently, about 2 times a month.
The secret of great harvest
Wonderful cherry, a description of the variety of which mentions the need to form a tree, is capable of producing great yields. In order to guarantee to collect more than one bucket of berries from one plant, you need to take care of the formation of a tree:
- Regularly pruning young shoots by 1/3, and thickening the crown cut at all on the ring.
- Since the branches of this variety have a tendency to stretch upwards, it is important to take care of their proper growth. To do this, first of all, you need to set the growth direction to the side with weights suspended from them, or, tying them to the stem, to give a horizontal position.
- For successful fertilization, the neighborhood of Miracle Cherry and Cherry will be necessary. Due to this, the yield will always be high.
Older, thickening and diseased branches on the tree must be removed in early spring before the start of sap flow, as delayed pruning can cause the plant to dry out.
The most popular among gardeners enjoys "Miracle Cherry". Let's see what a “Duke” cherry is. Variety - the result of crossing certain varieties of cherries and cherries. The berry was obtained as a result of the work of the breeder and agronomist from Ukraine Liliya Taranenko. The variety is a combination of the Valery Chkalov cherry variety and the Griot cherry variety.
In appearance, the sapling is very similar to sweet cherry - it has the same tree type, averaged growth force, branching. If you do not plan to form a crown, it will have a narrow pyramidal shape, stretching upwards.
The tree has large leaves, very similar to the leaves of cherries. It has thick, smooth, powerful, straight branches with a brown color. The buds are large, differ in density.
The fruits are quite large, the weight of one berry is 10 g. They have a flat-rounded shape, dark red in color, with a dense skin.
For high yield, cross-pollination is used. The best result will be achieved if the pollination is made with cherries.
This is due to the ultra early flowering of the hybrid, which coincides with the early varieties of sweet cherries. Greater yields can be achieved using the following pollinators for Wonder Cherry:
- Donetsk Donets,
The beginning of the flowering period coincides with the establishment of stable warm weather. Most often it falls in the middle of May. However, if the variety is planted in regions with a more severe climate, the flowering period may slightly shift and begins at the end of June.
Application of fruits
Due to the excellent taste of the berries, they can be used to freeze, process and cook from them jam, juice, stewed fruit.
Of the cherries are often made marmalade, dried fruits.
Advantages and disadvantages
Like any variety, this plant has its advantages and disadvantages.
Here are the pluses of the plant:
- the possibility of obtaining an early and rich harvest,
- good winter hardiness
- immunity to many diseases that often infect other plants,
- nice sweet taste.
The cons of the tree include:
- the need to use trees pollinators, as the variety is not self-fertile,
- the need to continuously perform crown formation.
Description of cherry varieties Miracle
Hybrids of cherry and cherry, or duck, appeared in England in the 17th century. The first variety of domestic breeding was bred in 1888 by I.V. Michurin, and is still considered one of the most winter-hardy.
Cherry Miracle is the most popular variety of cherry-cherry, although it appeared in the gardens relatively recently. The tree is medium. The shape of the crown is more like a cherry tree, and the growing shoots with thickness, power and location give similarity to cherries. Branches upright. The bark on them is smooth and painted in dark brown.
Large leaves are shaped like cherry, but dense like a cherry. Attached to the branch with long petioles. The kidney, large and dense, is also more characteristic of sweet cherries.
Flowering begins with the onset of sustainably warm weather, so the process in each region falls on different months. In the south - the end of April or the beginning of May, in the more northern areas the Miracle Cherry blooms only by mid-June. The flowers are large, white, collected in bunches of 5 - 8 pieces.
Fruits of flat-rounded shape are quite impressive. The mass of one cherry reaches 9 - 10 g. Dark reddened, dense skin protects very juicy and tender flesh. The taste of the fruit is simply gorgeous, it is very sweet, because it lacks the characteristic cherry sourness. According to the five-point system, it is estimated at 4.9 - 5 points. The stone is not very big, it lags badly behind the pulp.
The precociousness of the cherry is a miracle at a very high level. The first fruits, however, in very small quantities, appear on saplings of 2–3 years of life. For 4 year comes full fruiting.
The birthplace of Miracle cherries is Ukraine - Donetsk Horticultural Research Station. Date of birth - 1980. The authors are breeders L.I. Taranenko and A.I. Sychov. The cherry forms of V. Chkalov and the cherry Griot Ostgeimsky served as parental forms. From their parents, the Cherry Miracle inherited only positive qualities.
For the growth of a healthy tree, bringing stable yields, it is necessary to take into account the features of planting.
It is possible to plant cherries of the Miracle variety in spring and autumn. Depending on the climate of the region, each season can find both positive and negative sides.
In the south, of course, the best season for planting is autumn. And not only because at this particular time there is a large selection of high-quality planting material. The advantage is the ease of care for the seedling - it does not need to be watered often and take care of the tree trunks. In addition, before the onset of the rest period, small trees already have time to build up small, absorbent roots.
But, apart from the pros, there are also disadvantages. Natural troubles are possible in terms of very cold and snowless winters with strong winds. Such combinations can destroy the seedling, if you do not take measures to warming.
In the spring, trees are traditionally planted in regions with a cooler climate. Such a fit will help to adapt to the coming winter. But the care of spring plantings is much more difficult and labor intensive.
Before planting a seedling, be sure to analyze your climatic conditions and choose only zoned plants.
Choosing a landing site
Immediately exclude areas located in the lowlands. There are possible flooding and accumulation of cold air masses. These factors are completely undesirable. In the first case, there is a threat of poor development or death of the root system. In the second - the late start of flowering. Wind-blown areas also do not fit. Groundwater should not be higher than 1.5 m to the soil surface.
You should also consider the personal space of the seedling. Do not plant cherries Miracle in the dense environment of other fruit trees. The close proximity weakens the development of the seedling and negatively affects the fruiting. The distance to the nearest tree is 4 - 5 m.
For planting a heat-loving variety, a well-lit place is more suitable, protected from the north by buildings. In such conditions, the miracle cherry will be unavailable to the north wind, and the snow cover will not be blown out. The neighborhood with the brick wall, which, having absorbed the sun's heat, will warm the cherry longer, will be very successful.
Soil, site preparation and planting pit
The best option for planting cherries Miracle - loose nutrient soil with neutral acidity. On heavy clay soils, they dig holes of larger diameter and bring in soil diluted with coarse sand in 1/1 proportions. Acidic soils alkalify by adding up to 1.5 kg of lime to the pit and mixing thoroughly to eliminate the burning of the roots.
Site preparation includes the digging of the soil with the removal of all weeds, especially perennials. If the soil is not very fertile, it is necessary to bring manure or humus into it.
For spring planting pit, it is desirable to prepare and fill the fall. If planting a cherry is scheduled for autumn, a month before the event, you need to dig a hole.
- The parameters of the landing pit are as follows: depth 60 cm, width - 70 - 80 cm.
- The fertile land laid aside is mixed with 1 bucket of humus (if the land is depleted), 2–3 cups of ash, 250 g of potassium sulfate and 300 g of superphosphate. Everything is thoroughly mixed and laid at the bottom of the pit. In order for the soil mixture to acquire the desired structure, it should be watered.
Within a month, the land will settle and acquire the necessary structure. Thanks to this, the seedling will not settle after planting.
Selection of seedlings
In order not to be mistaken with the choice of variety (Cherry Miracle seedlings are very similar to cherry), you need to make a purchase only in centers specializing in the cultivation and sale of planting material. Or have verified sellers.
What you should pay attention when choosing planting material.
- Sapling age. The greatest survival rate have 1 or 2 summer trees. Their height will be from 1 to 1.5 m.
- Trunk. Smooth, with no lateral branches and visible damage. The bark is evenly colored.
- Roots. Well developed and elastic root system, without damages, swellings and rotten sites. The root of the cut should be white.
- The branches of the crown. Up to 12 branches, length from 10 to 20 cm.
Stepwise landing process
- Before planting, the root system of the tree must be processed by dipping into a clay talker. To increase survival rate, heteroauxin can be added to the solution.
- The soil in the pit need to collect a shovel in the likeness of a hill. On the south side, closer to the center, drive a support that will serve as protection from the sun's rays.
- In a vertically installed sapling, spread the roots along the slopes of the knoll so that there are no twists and creases.
- Leave the rest of the soil to fill the roots, trying not to leave voids between them. Carefully tamp the ground around the seedling.
- Build a watering circle to build in the form of a girdling roller. Pour 2 - 3 buckets of water into it.
- When moisture is absorbed by the soil, cover with a layer of mulch, which will help retain moisture for a long period.
- Tie the seedling to the support with a soft rope.
- After planting, the root collar should remain 3–5 cm above the soil level.
Cherry Miracle is a self-productive variety. To obtain consistently high yields, it is necessary to choose the right pollinator varieties. The best pollinator for a duck is a sweet cherry, an early flowering period. The following varieties will cope with the task: Iput, Annushka, Donchanka, Yaroslavna and Kitaevskaya black.
Sweet cherry varieties recognized as the best cherry pollinators Miracle - photo gallery
Absolutely not whimsical cherry varieties Miracle requires increased attention only at a young age. It is very simple to look after an adult tree.
Young trees require good watering until they have a root system. In the month will require 3 watering of 15 liters each.
Mature trees do not need water so much and tolerate dry periods well. But what the miracle cherry does not tolerate is excessive watering, leading to stagnant water in the soil. Waterlogging causes cracks in the trunk and branches, leading to gamble.
The main watering should be done during the flowering period, and then at the time of ripening berries.
In order not to resort to frequent wetting during the dry period, you should use a simple but effective method - mulching the soil around the tree. Layed after watering a layer of mulch from dried grass or peat will help to preserve moisture for a long time. Also, this method enhances the microbiological processes in the soil, improves the nutrition of cherries and inhibits the growth of weeds.
2 - 3 weeks before the start of picking cherries need to completely stop watering. This prevents the cracking of the berries from excessive moisture.
Cherry Miracle is good because it does not require frequent fertilizing. If all relying fertilizers were applied to the soil during planting, then the first 4 to 5 years after planting do not need to fertilize.
A passion for fertilizing, especially nitrogen, can trigger a very fast tree growth. This can result in loss of harvest. In addition, nevzrevshaya tree tissue can simply not survive the cold.
If cherry Miracle grows on fertile soils, then adult trees do not fertilize. Organic mulch is enough to enrich the soil with nutrients and improve its structure.
On depleted soils in spring, you can feed the Duke with organic matter. For this, 1 bucket of mullein is diluted with 5 buckets of water and up to 1.5 kg of ash is added. Solution insist 4 - 6 days and filter. The rate of making the infusion of 0.5 buckets under the tree. Top dressing is brought only after watering, in the damp earth.
In the autumn you can make phosphate fertilizers - 200 g and potash fertilizers - 80 g. Mineral supplements are applied for digging, scattering them around the perimeter of the crown.
Cherry Miracle necessarily needs shaping and pruning, because without these procedures the plant is strongly drawn up, acquiring a narrow pyramidal shape. In addition, the varieties of the branches depart from the trunk at an acute angle, which makes them fragile. To control the growth of the tree and give it a crescent hemispherical shape, its branches are given a horizontal position. To do this, attach weights to the young shoots.
Begin to form the crown immediately after the spring planting. Если посадка производилась осенью, то к формированию приступают на следующую весну.
- Для формирования штамба все ветки на высоте 25 -30 см от уровня почвы обрезаются на кольцо.
- Чтобы сформировать крону, нужно выбрать от 3 до 7 веток. Они должны быть хорошо развиты и расти не из смежных почек, а в разные стороны. Расстояние между ветками должно быть от 8 до 15 см. The center conductor should rise 20 cm above the lateral.
- Shortening the branches by 1/3 pushes the sapling to the enhanced crown tab, which in turn will have a beneficial effect on the future harvest.
In an adult tree, young shoots are cut annually, which thicken the crown. The rest is shortened by 1/3. Before the growing season, old, diseased or damaged branches are cut out.
Shelter for the winter
In mature cherries of the Miracle cherries, frost resistance is higher than that of sweet cherries, but slightly lower than those of cherry trees. In the southern regions, with mild winters, special shelter is not required. Warming with a thick layer of mulch will completely protect the duck from freezing the roots.
As a mulching material, rotted manure, peat, humus, even fallen leaves (but from healthy trees) are perfect. If there is no one of the above on hand, then it is quite possible to build a mound of soil.
In cooler regions, it is worth taking care of not only the root system, but also the weatherization of the trunks, especially for saplings planted in the fall. To protect them from frost, the trunk is wrapped with covering materials that let air through freely. Special nonwoven material (for example, lutrasil), burlap, thick paper, nylon panty hoses, etc. will cope with this task.
Also, do not forget about the autumn whitewashing. It will not only become a preventive measure against diseases and pests, but also protects the bark of the trunk from frost and the bright spring sun.
Diseases and pests
Cherry Miracle can boast of a good immunity to various diseases, including coccomycosis and moniliosis. But if a cherry does not receive proper care, its health may significantly deteriorate, and then problems cannot be avoided. This is especially true for regions with adverse climatic conditions.
Description of Cherry Miracle
Cherry Miracle - a hybrid of sweet cherry and cherry (duck), bred by L.I. Taranenko as a result of crossing cherries varieties of Valery Chkalov and Cherries Griot for planting in the southern regions. The hybrid differs in early fruiting, high yield.
The crown of a tree is like an ordinary cherry, and the branching is like that of a sweet cherry tree. Shoots are straight, thick, with dark brown bark. A distinctive feature of the cherry miracle is the ability to layflower buds on annual increments. Duck flowering begins immediately, as the warm weather sets in (usually until mid-May). It promotes early fruiting. The buds of cherries Miracle large, like cherries. The fruit has a sweet taste with a barely noticeable sourness and an amazing cherry-cherry aroma. Externally, the berries are more like cherries, and the size is similar to cherry (the average weight of each - 10 g). The skin is quite dense, the color of the berries is dark red, the flesh is juicy, the bone is larger than the average size, it separates well from the fruit.
Table: advantages and disadvantages of a hybrid
Like other fruit trees, the miracle cherries are recommended to be planted in early spring before the buds swell:
- in the central and southern regions - in the middle of March,
- in central Russia - in mid-April.
It is possible to plant a hybrid only at a positive temperature, even at 0 ° C. If the plant is planted in the fall, especially late, it may die - an immature tree will be too vulnerable to cold.
Cherry Blossom Miracle Guide:
- For a hybrid, it is very important to find a suitable place - protected from the wind and open to the sun. Do not plant a tree in the lowlands where water may collect, this is especially bad for plants in cold winter: firstly, water accumulates and turns into ice, secondly, in such places the air is colder.
- Pick a quality sapling. Young cherry tree Miracle should be:
- with a straight, straight trunk,
- with well-formed, thick and smooth dark brown branches, evenly colored bark,
- with thick and well developed roots without growths and deformities, which are a sign of disease. When buying a seedling you need to carefully inspect all parts of the plant.
- Dig holes (preferably even in the fall or a month) 60–65 cm deep, 75–80 cm in diameter. Before planting, fill the bottom with ash or superphosphate (30–40 g), potassium chloride (20 g) to saturate the soil.
- Place the seedling in the pit, straighten the root system. Make sure that the root neck (the place where the roots go to the ground part of the tree) rises 3–4 cm above the ground. In 1-2 months it will settle to the norm.
If the root neck is too low, the bark will begin to sweep, and the tree will grow poorly.
The distance between the Miracle Cherry and other trees should be at least 5 m. Otherwise they will interfere with each other, and this will adversely affect the yield.
Cherry care Miracle
In the middle of March, the near-stem circle is dug up and loosened so that the earth warms up and is saturated with oxygen. To loosen the soil should be systematically until August.
The first 5 years, the tree does not require additional feeding, as a powerful root system can independently provide the plant with nutrients. Nitrogen fertilizers, which lead to the rapid development of the above-ground part of the plant to the detriment of fruit bearing, are not particularly recommended. In addition, a large amount of nutrients can cause the death of a tree due to the immaturity of the tissues.
In the future, annual supplements should be made to the non-greasy soil:
- After the snow has melted, 200 g of urea is added to the tree circle. It is scattered around the trunk, loosened the earth to a depth of 10 cm and watered abundantly.
- In early August, superphosphate (300 g) with potassium sulphate (100 g) is introduced into the soil. To do this, remove the soil layer in the near-ground circle (10–30 cm), evenly distribute the fertilizer, cover it with soil and water it.
- In late autumn, they bring in only organic matter: 1-2 buckets of humus are scattered in the near-stem circle and dug up. You can also dilute 1 part of the mullein in 8 parts of water, make furrows around the trunk, pour fertilizing into them and sprinkle with soil.
After planting, the tree is watered once a week with 2 buckets of water. In subsequent months, you can reduce watering up to 2 times a month. Immediately after wetting the land, the plant is mulched with dry grass to preserve moisture.
Immediately after watering, the plant is mulched to keep moisture in the ground longer.
Abundant watering is required during the active growth of shoots. During the period of fruit ripening, water is restricted to prevent the berries from cracking. And after harvesting, the tree is poured, wetting the soil to a depth of 50–60 cm.
In the autumn, watering is stopped, the ground is only loosened. This will help the tree to grow the trunk tissues (parts of the tree trunk from the root collar to the first branch of the lower crown tier), preserve the supply of nutrients, and suspend the growth of roots.
- helps to increase yields
- reduces the likelihood of disease
- prolongs the life of the tree.
If the branches are cut wrong, the tree:
- gradually weakens
- the harvest goes down,
- fruit quality is deteriorating
- fertile soil for pests and diseases appears.
Cut the cherries in a dry cloudless weather, then the slices dry quickly. This should be done before the kidneys swell. The lateral branches are cut annually by 1/3, and the branches thickening the crown are cut out onto the ring.
What does cut into a ring mean? If you look at the tree, you can see at the base of the branch a light influx in the form of a ring, from which the branch comes out. This influx contains cells that can rapidly multiply. Thanks to them, sections quickly heal.
Pruning branches on the ring with a saw is carried out in several steps:
- Cut a branch from the bottom to one-third of the thickness, stepping back from the ring 20–30 cm. If this is not done, then the heavy branch, which has not yet been cut, will fall and tear the bark of the cherry tree, inflicting a wound on the tree. First branch file off the bottom
- Saw off the branch completely, making a hacksaw already on its top. The branch is sawed off completely, making a hacksaw on the top
- Remove the remaining stump by cutting it along the upper edge of the ring. Clean the ragged cut with a knife so that it becomes smooth. So he quickly delayed.
- Treat the place of pruning with a special paint, garden pitch, or Farmod.
Secateurs cut the branch immediately on the upper edge of the ring, and then treat the cut point with the same preparations as when cutting with a hacksaw. In either case, the branch should be cut parallel to the ring. Do not leave stump near the ring and do not touch the ring during cutting, otherwise hollows and cracks may appear, the branches will dry or rot.
Neither leaving hemp nor deep cut is conducive to the health of the tree.
Before the start of sap flow, old, damaged, dry branches should be cut off. Do not forget to clean the sections and cover them with garden pitch.
After 5–6 years, the crown is formed, but pruning is not stopped. Annually remove the branches growing inside the crown. Cherry shoots stretch upward, so they are given a horizontal position, hanging a small load.
Krone Duke needs annual pruning
Preparing for the winter
Every autumn, dig up the hole and mulch with mowed grass. In order for the young plant to safely winter, the tree trunk should be mulched with horse's humus (3-4 kg per 1 m 2). It is scattered in the circle of the tree and dug, and the tree is completely wrapped in polyethylene or burlap before the root collar.
Young trees can be wrapped completely
Diseases, pests and methods of dealing with them
By crossing the cherry with the cherry, the breeders achieved excellent results: such trees barely get sick, because the sweet cherry is resistant to pests and diseases and is the protector of the cherry with which it was crossed.
However, they have not yet brought out a perfect hybrid, about which one could say with full confidence that he will never get sick. Therefore, it is recommended that it is necessary to inspect the tree for prophylaxis in order to start treatment if necessary.
The first preventive treatment of wood is carried out in early spring before the start of sap flow, after pruning. Sections are treated with 1% solution of copper sulfate, then covered with garden pitch. The trunks of the trees are whitened with lime mortar. After that, the cherries are sprayed with urea (700 g should be dissolved in 10 liters of water). This will destroy the pests that wintered in the bark, as well as pathogens.
If you did not manage to process trees in time, and the buds have already appeared, do not use urea, it will cause them to burn. Spray better than Fitoverm or Akarin, following the instructions.
“Miracle Cherry”: variety description, advantages and disadvantages, the best pollinators
Cherry Wonderful Cherry (Duke) is an extraordinary hybrid fruit tree bred by the famous Ukrainian breeder of Chkalov and Cherry Griot cherries. Since Wonderful Cherry is a hybrid plant, it has the qualities of both “parents”, but the signs of cherry are still dominant: the shape and color of the leaves, the aroma and taste of fruits, and resistance to cold.
This variety is best cultivated in the southern regions, abundantly and begins to bear fruit quite early. Externally, the shape of the crown of a tree resembles the shape of a tree cherry, but its branching is akin to cherry.
The unusual variety is the early laying of flower buds (even in the first year of life). Harvest this cherry begins to give only after three years of its life. Her shoots are straight, covered with brown smooth bark. The buds resemble cherries externally: very dense, rather large, and bloom at the onset of consistently warm weather (tentatively by the end of April).
Attention! If you plan to grow Wonder Cherry in more severe climatic conditions, then do not wait for the first flowers before mid-June, and even at the end.
The harvest of this variety of cherries reaches 10 kg, the fruits grow of considerable size, dense and sweet (with almost no sourness typical of the usual varieties of cherries).
The advantages of Miracle Cherry include:
- early and generous harvest
- resistance to cold
- resistance to most diseases dangerous to cherries,
- excellent taste.
Among the shortcomings, perhaps, it is only the fear of severe frosts and the peculiarities of tree crown care during the growth period, but more on that later. The best pollinators for this variety of cherry trees are the cherry trees of such varieties: Donchanka, Sister, Annushka.
Features care and reviews of gardeners
With the right choice of plot for planting cherries of the Miracle Cherry variety, tree care will be much easier. This variety loves windless places with plenty of light, preferably northern ones.
Remember that the quality of the selected seedlings, as well as the plot for planting will largely depend on how long the duck will live and how rich the yield will be.
In the first few years of the life of a cherry, it will not need any additional feeding. In addition, great care should be taken with regard to nitrogen fertilizers, since they can provoke excessively active growth of the aerial part of the plant, which, in turn, can lead to a decrease in yield.
According to gardeners, most of them prefer to grow this kind of cherry in their summer cottages. And in the process of caring for him, several features were noticed, observing which, you will be able to get several harvest buckets every year:
If you put into practice a number of data in the article tips, you can grow a healthy strong tree, which will annually please you with a rich harvest. Good luck!
Choosing a landing site
The best soil for ducks is a powerful, well-drained weakly alkaline loam. Sandy light soils for these trees are not suitable. Since the flower buds and the flowers themselves are very sensitive to frost, and young trees are easily damaged by the winds, the place for the seedling should be chosen so that it is well lit by the sun and protected from the winds and free from stagnant cold air.
Remember that the tree is large enough and it needs a lot of space - the distance to neighboring trees should be 3.5–4 m.
Cherry is planted in a dormant period - in spring or autumn. Spring planting is considered preferable, especially in regions with early and severe winter.
Cherry should be planted with good heating of the soil, usually after planting apple and pear. However, it is also not worthwhile to postpone planting for a long time - the chances of normal rooting of the tree will decrease.
If you purchased a sapling grown in a pot or a tub, you can plant it even in summer.
In the fall (even when planning a landing in the spring), prepare a landing pit of such a size that it can freely accommodate fully straightened roots. In principle, the larger the pit, the better, but as a rule a pit is prepared about 1 m in diameter and 40–60 cm deep under a cherry sapling.
When digging a hole, fertile soil should be folded separately.
Hammer the peg into the bottom of the pit in such a way that later its tip does not reach the upper side branch a little. If you plan to grow a tree with a high stem, you will need 2 pegs connected by a crossbar.
Mix a layer of fertile land from above with fertilizers: 16–20 kg of rotted manure or humus, 200–250 g of double superphosphate, 500 g of ash (or 55–60 g of potassium salts. If necessary, reduce soil acidity, add a mixture of ground lime (0, 2–0.3 kg.) Pour the nutrient mixture into the pit to create a “pillow” for 2/3 of its depth.
When planting, place the seedling so that the root neck is above the soil surface
- We place the seedling on the soil cushion, straighten the roots.
- We cover the roots with soil, compacting it in layers.
- Finally we trample down the soil of the circle of the trunk, form an irrigation hole.
- Water 20-30 liters of water.
- We tie a seedling to a peg with a bunch of gasket.
Cherry-cherry hybrids need the same care as cherries.
Since strong growth and a narrow crown are characteristic of the Dukas, they are usually formed artificially. You can use a high or low stochastic form, or a fan shape, which is located at the fence (only the fence must be sufficiently high).
The first pruning is done on an annual sapling with the aim of forming a trunk and the main branches of the crown. The seedling is shortened to 3-4 well-located buds, from which by the end of summer first-order branches will be obtained. If flowers appear, they must be removed, and all shoots below the trunk shortened to 4 leaves. They will strengthen the trunk, and in 3-4 years they can be removed.
In the second year in the spring, all increments should be cut to the kidney, "looking" out.
By the third year pruning, 6–9 well-spaced branches should be formed. They are slightly cut, leaving 50-60 cm last year's growth. Side competitive shoots shorten to 3 buds. Vertically growing side branches in the central part of the crown are removed completely so that they do not grow and do not spoil the shape of the tree.
Для отгибания ветвей в горизонтальное положение можно применять растяжки или распорки
Для того, чтобы крона вишни Чудо стала круглой, как у обычных вишнёвых деревьев, необходимо приводить ветви в горизонтальное положение с помощью оттяжек и грузов. При этом рост дерева несколько замедляется, а урожайность увеличивается. In addition, the artificial expansion of the crown improves its illumination and ventilation.
In a fruit tree, if you are satisfied with its height and it has enough fruit formations, you can avoid further cutting of the conductors. It is necessary only every year in spring or autumn (during the period of rest) to perform sanitary and thinning pruning. For sanitary purposes, dried, broken and diseased branches are annually removed on the ring (to the ground). To prevent thickening of the crown, cut intertwining branches and excess growth. Slices should be treated immediately with a garden bar.
By reducing the fruiting need to strongly shorten the main branches
When the tree begins to age and its fruiting decreases, rejuvenating pruning is required. To this end, 1/3 of the uterine branches are shortened by about 1 m.
While the tree is being formed (the first 4–5 years), the soil should be maintained in a clean, weedy, friable state. After each watering, break the soil crust with a pitchfork and mulch the tree trunk. Loosen the soil so as not to damage the root system. Place the shovel with the blade along the radius of the trunk circle, and take the depth of loosening no more than 7–8 cm near the trunk, doubling it to the periphery.
Artificial sodding should keep a clean circle.
If the tree grows well and develops, you can sow the ground with grass for 5-6 years, but the tree trunk must remain clean.
If precipitation does not fall, the tree must be watered every 7 days at a rate of 2.5 l / m 2. Water should be evenly distributed in the soil, so it is best to feed it drip or in temporary grooves.
Parched soil should not be watered too much - the fruit may crack.
At the end of October - beginning of November, spend water irrigation. This increases the hardiness of the tree.
Fertilizers should be applied over the entire area of the root system (approximately equal to the crown projection area).
Young trees are useful for the first 4–5 years to be mulched with a 5–8 cm layer of organic fertilizer (humus, compost) within a radius of 0.5 m from the trunk. No additional fertilizing is required during this period.
Mulching with manure or compost helps retain moisture and nourishes wood
In the following years, trees are fed with organic fertilizers (15–20 kg), potassium salts (50–70 g) and phosphorus (100–150 g). Nitrogen is introduced in the form of ammonium nitrate (80-100 g), and it is better not to abuse them. The fact is that nitrogen compounds provoke active growth of the aerial part of the tree to the detriment of yield. In addition, the wood may not have time to ripen to frost and the tree will die. All nutrients contribute under the autumn digging of soil (except nitrogen, which is given in the spring).
Good results are obtained by foliar application of a solution of urea (50 g per 7 liters of water), especially after winter freezing. It is carried out after flowering.