Care and maintenance of the sundew (Drosera)
Sundews are perennial grasses, sometimes with a tuber-like thickened stem, with rounded, or oblong, petiole or sessile leaves, in most species collected in a thick basal rosette. The edge and the upper surface of the leaf are covered with large glandular hairs that are irritable when touched and produce mucus that serves to trap insects.
The genus of sundew includes about 160 species. The name of the plant is associated with droplets of sticky liquid that appear on the leaves. Sundew is a small insectivorous plant with leaves collected in a rosette. Leaf sizes range from 5 mm in a dwarf (Drosera pygmaea) growing in Australia to 60 cm in a royal dewberry (Drosera regia) and Drosera binata. Small or large, bright (white or pink) flowers are collected in a spike inflorescence. The flower has a double perianth: a five-part (rarely four or eight-divided) calyx, a rim of five (less often of four to eight) petals. The number of stamens is equal to the number of petals, the pollen in the tetrad. Pistil with superior ovoid or spherical, single-knotted, multi-seeded ovary, with a simple and split column. The fruit is a box with numerous small seeds, a protein seed. Flowers on long peduncles, collected in spike inflorescences, medium-sized (about 1 cm), pink or white. Live sundews from two to ten years. Droplets are formed due to the work of glandular cells and contain various enzymes that attract insects and participate in the digestive process. One of the components of the droplets is a substance that paralyzes insects caught - konyin. An insect adhering to the droplets of the sundew begins to pull out and the neighboring leaf hairs reach for it, the leaf begins to curl. Digestion of a medium-sized victim takes several days. After the digestion process is over, the leaf unfolds. Feed the sundews "human products" (meat, sausages, etc.) can not be! If she does not catch insects herself (she grows in an apartment where there is a grid on the windows), then you still need to catch the insect yourself and feed her once or twice a month.
The abundance of droplets on the sundew leaves indicates its well-being.
Growing Drosera (Rosyanka) step by step:
Watering. Watering Rosyanka is carried out only in the pan (through the bottom). Water for irrigation should only be distilled (H20), or reverse osmosis (super purified without mineralization).
Water from the tap, boiled, frozen, from the usual filter, cooler, etc. - can not be used in any case - because of this, the plant will die. Distilled water can be purchased on tap in pharmacies that prepare their own drugs. Also this water can be found in chemical and medical laboratories. Distilled water is sold in car shops, gas stations, but keep in mind that the quality of water is somewhat worse than pharmacy, so if possible try to use the pharmacy.
Sundew is a marsh plant, and it does not tolerate drying out of the soil. Do not be afraid to pour the plant - it will happily survive it. Be careful not to dry the plant - it will not tolerate drought. But there is an exception to this rule - this is the sundew "Paradoxa". She likes moderate watering.
For watering it is necessary to use high pallets in which a large amount of water is placed. In summer, watering should be intense. The water level in the pan can reach two thirds of the height of the pot (ground level in the pot). In the cool season - in the autumn, in winter and spring, watering should be reduced a little, and fill the pan one third of the pot (one third of the ground level). Sundew does not like sprinkle on top. Adhesive droplets that serve as its trap - the plant produces itself and dewiness depends on the quality of lighting, water quality and irrigation. If the sundew is sprayed on top, then its own dew will be washed off, and the plant will spend a lot of energy on its formation for nothing.
The soil. The substrate should be prepared on the basis of acid peat with an acidity of 3.0-4.0 pH. Perlite, before preparing the substrate, must be soaked in distilled water for one and a half to two weeks, draining and replacing water 3-4 times a week. The substrate is prepared in a ratio of 2: 1 or 1: 1 (sour peat: perlite). Perlite very well passes water and air, also does not allow to develop a mold. If you do not have the opportunity to prepare such a substrate yourself, then you can purchase it from us. You can also add dry sphagnum to the substrate. Sphagnum will help the substrate to retain moisture longer and will prevent drying, and it also acts as an antiseptic, disinfecting the soil.
Flowerpot. For growing Rosyanka, you only need to use a plastic pot or a glass pot with holes in the bottom so that water can easily circulate. Planting in ceramic pots is prohibited. The basis of the substrate for the Sundew is high sour peat. Ceramics interacting with such peat allocates harmful salts, which are very detrimental to the plant. Therefore, use only plastic or glass pots. The diameter of the plastic pot is 5-15 cm and depends on the size and variety of the plant. The diameter of the flowerpot for florarium is limited only by the size of the plant and your imagination.
Lighting. Sundew loves sunshine very much. Therefore, a flower pot should be placed on the south window, south balcony, on the south side of the house. For sundew very good when she has a long sunny day. In the summer, when the sun becomes very intense, it is possible to make dissected lighting for the plant, that is, to use mesh material so that the sun's rays are dissected. For this you can use light pritenyayuschie nets, gauze, mosquito nets and the like. With a lack of light, the sundew can lose dew and stop forming new leaves. Allowed dissected sunlight, but not the shadow. The more sunlight will fall on your plant, the better it will be for him. The minimum plant per day should receive 4-5 hours of direct sunlight and the rest of the daylight - diffused bright light. But there is sundew - a special lover of very bright sunlight - Drosera "Paradoxa". Growing this type of sundews should not apply any sun-cutting nets. The more sunlight will fall on it, the more beautiful and healthier the plant will be. Predatory plants do not like when they are twisted around the axis, so it is advisable to make some marks on the pot relative to the direction of the world and always try to stick to this direction.
Artificial lighting is also suitable. The plant can be illuminated with very bright lamps, daylight or flora, with the power
36 W and more - full light day - 12-16 hours with a lamp, 8 hours - night, without a lamp. The distance of the lamp from the plant is 10-25 cm. The lamp for the plant should not be heated!
Feeding. For any predatory plants, insects are fertilizers. For Rosyanka to live well and develop, it needs to eat not so much, only 3-4 insects per year. If there is a desire to feed the plant, then you need to remember that it can not be overnourished, because it can be over-fertilized with insects. You can feed him no more than once every 3-4 weeks - just one insect per leaf! If the insects are very small, for example - Drosophila or mosquitoes, the sundew can eat them more. The prey is usually digested from 2 days to a month, depending on the size and density of the insect. The plant from the insect sucks the necessary nutrients, and chitin remains.
In no case can predatory plants feed anything other than insects. It is detrimental to the plant. Sundews live remarkably for several months in a row without feeding at all. So in the winter you can not take care of feeding. And in spring, summer and autumn the plant will independently find its prey. When buying a sundew, many believe that it always wraps its leaves around the victim. But this is not entirely true. In fact, to roll the sheet, the plant takes a lot of energy. But the plant is not so stupid to waste your energy at random. If the victim is very large and there are enough nutrients in it to replenish the spent energy, for folding, and the whole plant will get for good growth, then the sundew will twist a leaf around the insect. But if the insect is very small, the sundew will only turn all its nearest antennae with dew to the victim. Each leaf sundew can roll up to 4 times. But there are sundews that do not fold the leaves at all, but only pull their dewy mustaches to the victim. This, for example, Drosera Adelae, as well as filiform sundews (Drosera Filiformis, "Hybrida", etc.).
Humidity and air temperature. Humidity 45-70%, as well as for most houseplants. Home conditions are acceptable. Air temperature in the summer of 25-35 ° C.
Wintering. Most dews are representatives of tropical or subtropical flora. They do not need a rest period (wintering), but they definitely need to be illuminated during the autumn-winter period. The time of additional lighting is determined by a simple calculation: the length of the light day + so much time of artificial illumination, so that the total amount is 12 hours. For example, on December 20, we have a light day of 8 hours, which means that it is necessary to light up 4 hours.
But there are sundews that grow in nature in a temperate climate, i.e., where there is a change of seasons, there is spring, warm summer, autumn and cool winter. In winter, these sundews rest, can partially or completely shed the leaves and form a wintering bud on the surface of the substrate, from which new beautiful dewy leaves will grow in spring. Drosera moderate climate include, for example: Drosera Filiformis Red, Drosera Filiformis, Drosera "Hybrida", etc. Without this period of rest, the plant will be weak and may die. It is best to wintering took place on the shortest sunny days. You can also be guided by the weather - with the arrival of cold, you can prepare for the winter. Up to this point, all these plants can live remarkably in the open air for the whole season (on the street in the yard, on the balcony, on the window). When the temperature drops to +7. +5, and even light frost on the ground can happen at night - it means it's time to winter. This is usually November. We treat the plant with a fungicide so that no mold is formed - Fitosporin M paste or Fundazol works very well. To do this, it is enough to sprinkle the plant intensively with an atomizer. A pot with a plant without a pallet can be packed in a plastic bag, a zip-bag or in a plastic bag, you must leave or make small holes for oxygen to flow a little. About once every 2 weeks, it is necessary to check the condition of the soil for moisture and for the absence of mold. Substrate in the pot should be slightly wet. Do not dry out. If the moisture becomes not enough - a little pour some water on top directly below the root. Plants that require a dormant period can be placed in a refrigerator, cellar, basement, on a glazed balcony, etc., for wintering. The main condition for wintering is a low temperature ranging from +2 to +7 degrees. Higher temperatures are not suitable, since at high temperatures the plant does not slow down the growing season and it does not fully rest. The fridge is usually stable at +5, so this is the ideal temperature. Lighting during the wintering period for Rosyanka is not necessary at all. The baby and the teenager spend the winter 2.5-3 months, the adult Rosyanka spends the winter 3-4 months.
Getting out of the wintering area - as soon as the plants have stayed for the required period at rest, we get them into heat, put them in a pan with water to a bright light and continue to care as usual.
Transfer. Predatory plant must be replanted once a year. It is most convenient to do this immediately after a period of rest, or in the spring and autumn period. Transplanting is needed in order to update the soil with the necessary acidity. If over the past year the plant has given children, then you can deposit them in separate pots.
Bloom. Many sundews bloom quite intensively. They grow a long peduncle, and in the end you can get a lot of seeds, which are more like dust. Growing sundews from seeds is not difficult. Just need to follow all the rules. Flowering takes a lot of power from the sundew, so it can produce a little less dew during the flowering period, it can stop growing somewhat. This is absolutely normal. When flowering is over - the plant will return to normal again. If you are not interested in flowering, but you need a strong powerful plant, covered with large droplets of dew - cut off the appeared peduncle, leaving 3-5 mm from the beginning of its growth.
Change sheet. In Rosyanka there is a constant change of leaf. Old leaves die off from below, and new ones grow from the center. When the leaves die off, they turn black and dry out. You don't have to cut them, but you can do it so that the plant looks more aesthetically pleasing. It is important to know that you can not tear off the blackened leaves, because You can damage the plant or tear it from the base. Blackened leaves must be precisely cut, leaving 2-5 mm from the beginning of growth.
The color of a healthy leaf in sundews can range from completely green to completely red. It depends on the season, the lighting, the composition of the substrate and the temperature, in some cases, on the Rosyanka variety. The temperature regime in this case is the fluctuation of day and night temperatures. The greater the temperature drops, the greater the likelihood of sundew coloring, if this variety is inherent.
Pests. Very rarely, but sometimes it happens that the dews are attacked by aphid. She is very small, white. To successfully combat this aphids, it is enough to treat the plant once with a spray gun (spray it) with any aphid preparation purchased at a garden store. The main thing is that on the packaging of the drug, in the list with which insects it fights, the aphid is also listed. Just from aphid effective "Aktara".
The sundew is constantly in a humid environment, therefore it is susceptible to various types of pests and fungi.
Means for treating plants from pests and diseases:
- Aktara - insecticide of intestinal contact action. Very effective against small insects that have settled in the substrate and aphids.
- Konfidor maxi very successfully fights with aphids, which can sometimes settle on sundews, Zhiryanka, etc. Yes, and with other insects, this tool is very effective.
- Fitosporin M paste - biofungicide for plant protection against fungal and bacterial diseases.
- Fundazol is a fungicide and disinfectant with a broad spectrum of action against a large number of fungal diseases.
If you grow Drosera in accordance with the above conditions, then you will have strong healthy plants that will please you for many years. With proper care, Drosera lives 5-7 years and during this time it multiplies many times.
Growing from seed
Plant seeds are very small, like dust, and require special care when working with them.
Dilute the fungicide in distilled water in the proportion of 1 g per 1 liter, respectively, 0.1 g per 0.1 l. Shake well until dissolved.
Lay out the substrate in the lower part of the mini-greenhouse. Spill with fungicide solution.
Place the seeds on the surface of the substrate, do not bury it on top. Seeds must see light. Close the mini-greenhouse with a lid and put it in a pan with distilled water on the southern sill, or under the fitolamp (minimum 36 watts) for 14-16 hours / day. Germinate at a temperature of 20-25 ° C, with high humidity and good lighting, in 3-4 weeks, germination can take up to several months. It is necessary to water only in the pallet. The plants are marsh, so it is necessary that there is always a little water in the pan, about 0.5-1.5 cm.
After the seedlings reach a size of 1-2 cm, they must be transplanted into separate pots. Tweezers and a toothpick can be used for transplants.
1. Substrate thoroughly wet distilled water.
2. Place the moistened substrate in a plastic pot, filling it to the brim, to the top. It is not necessary to tamp the substrate very tightly.
3. Make a deep hole in the center.
4. If you are transplanting a plant from a pot or from a mini-greenhouse with tweezers, loosening the substrate, carefully remove the plant from the root. Carefully, the roots are thin and long.
5. Carefully lower the entire root system of the plant in the center of the pot into the hole in the substrate. Before the growth of leaves. It is very important that the roots of the plant are well buried. Try to touch the root of the plant as little as possible. For these purposes it is very convenient to use tweezers or medical gloves.
6. Bury the remaining hole near the root. Spud plant is not necessary. The substrate should be placed horizontally at the very edge of the pot.
7. Put the plant pot in a deep pan. Pour distilled water into the pan 4-6 cm.
8. In the summer, after planting, put the plant under ambient lighting for 3-4 days. After this time, put the plant on the dissected sunlight. Осенью, весной и зимой, когда солнце не сильно палящее, после посадки, растение сразу поставить на яркий свет.
Описание хищного растения
Побеги растения однолетние. Произрастают от самого лесного мха. По форме они удлиненные, тонкие, изящные. На мхе находится розетка из листочков. Они плотно прижаты к почве.
Одна росянка содержит 10-12 листочков. Листики миниатюрные. В диаметре достигают не более 1 см. Находятся на удлиненных черешках.The length of the stem is 4-7 cm.
Depending on the subspecies, the leaves may be emerald or burgundy. On the leaves grow thin hair burgundy shade. At the edges of the hairs are small droplets of liquid. Due to enzymes dew attracts a large number of insects.
Sundew is an insectivorous perennial. Latin name: Drosera. Informal titles: God's dewdrop, the eyes of the princess, sunny dewdrop, Rosychka. The plant contains a sticky substance that leaves produce.
Thanks to the drooping droplets of this liquid, similar to dew, it received such a name. The substance contains konyin alkaloid and various digestive enzymes. Thanks to him, insects falling into the trap instantly paralyzed. This is a predatory plant with external digestion.
After ant, fly or other insect was caught by the plant, the edges of the leaves are instantly closed. If the insect is small, it can crawl out of the gap. Large insects are covered entirely.
Flower habitat on the marshland. The number of plants is significantly reduced, due to human intervention in the wild.
In the gallery you can see how it looks in the photo:
In the cold season on the plant appear wintering buds. As they grow, they go deep into the forest moss. If you come to the marshland, where the sundew grows after frost, it will be impossible to see this plant. Rosyanka will completely hidden under the forest moss.
Due to this mode of growth, the moss protects the flower from frost, and the sundew successfully survives the cold.
In spring, when the temperature becomes stable and the first sun appears, the first shoots grow from the wintering buds of this representative flora.
Bloom later - in the middle of summer. Pollinating plants occurs insects. But they risk falling into the trap of a flower. Therefore, flowering shoots, on which flowers are located, reach a maximum length of 25-30 cm.
On each peduncle above bloom miniature flowers. They have a white or pale pink color. Inflorescences are collected in tassels or beautiful curls. Each flower contains 5 petals.
Against the backdrop of a gloomy swamp, they look like beautiful "clouds". Endowed sweet nectaries.
Growing from seed
In place of flowers in late summer - early autumn grow fruit. They are self-opening. Open with three doors. Inside the fruit are miniature seeds.
The shape of the seeds: fusiform. Seeds can be seen in the photo in the article. In early autumn, they spill onto the surface of forest moss. After that, they are buried in the soil surface. Growth occurs in the spring to next year.
When growing in gardens, the plant must be provided lots of moss. Otherwise, the procedure for growing the sundew from seeds will be meaningless.
What eats a plant?
Leaflets emerald hue. They contain a large amount of pigmented chlorophyll. Thanks to this substance, photosynthesis occurs.
In the video, the sundew caught a spider: