In order to properly plant the grapes, and he pleased with a bountiful harvest, it is necessary to prepare for this and take into account the following points:
- bushes should grow in a separate area from other plantations, in a sunny place, protected from drafts and wind,
- any type of soil is suitable for growing grapes, except for waterlogged, saline areas, as well as lands with a surface location of groundwater at a depth of less than 2 meters,
- depending on the type of trellis and grape varieties, the width of the aisle should be from 2 to 3 meters, and the distance between the bushes - from 1.3 to 2 meters,
- for planting are used annual and vegetative seedlings, as well as vine cuttings. The length of the seedling, suitable for planting, should be 10-15 cm, and the thickness - not less than 2 mm.
Planting Grape Saplings
Properly sowing grapes can be planted in the spring before the dissolution of the buds, as well as in the second half of autumn. The most common and simple is planting a seedling in the hole, which requires:
1. Prepare a hole with a diameter and depth up to 80 cm, while separating the removed topsoil, which is one third of the entire depth, and the rest of the soil, which is less fertile.
2. Mix the following components with the following components: a 2.5 manure bucket, 0.5 kg of mineral additives with the inclusion of phosphorus and potassium, 1.5 kg of ash obtained from burning plants.
3. The resulting mass is poured into the pit, evenly distributing a layer of 20 to 30 cm.
4. Before planting the grapes correctly, a wooden peg should be hammered into the hole, to which the installed seedling should be tied, evenly distributing the roots along the sprinkled mixture.
5. Cover the pit with the remaining mixture of soil and pour over 3 buckets of water.
6. Mix the rest of the ground from the lower layers of the pit with a small amount of sand and gently pour it into the pit.
When planting in autumn, grape saplings are spudding, making a small mound on them from 25 to 30 cm high. .
You can properly plant the grapes with vegetative seedlings in the spring, when a perennial bush beats off the first leaves. Preparation of holes for planting vegetative seedlings, the process of planting and watering is the same as for annuals. After the seedling has come and grows up, the two lower leaves should be removed and the additional amount of earth should be poured into the pit.
Planting grapes cuttings
The grapes are planted by cuttings in the spring, before the eyes on the vines begin to revive and swell. To properly plant the grapes by cuttings, you must do the following:
1. Cut the cutting with a sharp knife or razor, while the cut in the lower part should be near the eye, while in the upper part - at a height of 3 cm from the upper bud.
2. Put the cutting in water at room temperature and soak it for 1-2 days.
3. Remove the stem from the water, dip the upper cut into the melted paraffin for a few seconds, then put the lower end into a specially prepared solution consisting of 1 liter of water and 1 tsp for 24 hours. honey
4. Prepare a hole in the same way as for planting seedlings and pour plenty of water.
5. Make a hole in the ground covered with a rod and gently insert the cutting in such a way that the lower section reaches a depth of 50 cm.
6. Close the landing site with a piece of film, making a hole in it at the top of the cutting and threading it.
7. Dust the open top with a small amount of soil, so that the mound covers the upper peephole by 2-3 cm.
Planting cuttings allows you to independently grow grapes and increase the number of vineyards. If you plant the grapes properly and care for them, then the bushes that develop over the years will please you with a healthy look and a bountiful harvest.
Planting grapes is recommended in the spring, in extreme cases, in June. Also grapes saplings are allowed to be planted in autumn before the first frosts begin. It is rather difficult to determine the most optimal time, but most often this procedure is carried out in April.
If you plan to plant seedlings in April, the soil needs to be prepared in the fall.
Grapes are a sun-loving crop, so they should be planted in well-lit places. Before this procedure it is also necessary to equip the arch. Grapes grow quite hard among the trees, so for him it is necessary to allocate a separate open area.
It is also worth paying attention to the fact that selection of grape varieties and seedlings takes an important role. Therefore, it is necessary to become more familiar with the characteristics of varieties, their basic properties, and also to find out whether it is suitable for the area and soil. Pay attention also to the resistance to air temperature drops. It is recommended to select disease-resistant varieties.
Grapes will grow poorly and regularly hurt in the marshland, as well as on the limestone soil. The grapes need a moist, well-ventilated soil rich in phosphorus and nitrogen. These facts must be considered in order to choose the right location for the formation of the vineyard.
How to plant grapes in spring?
No gardener will give an exact answer at what time and time it is recommended to plant grapes. However, spring expulsion has its positive sides:
- You have enough time to plan your plot carefully, after harvesting,
- If you fertilize the soil in the fall, it will allow it to gain moisture and become rich over the winter,
- After planting, young grape cuttings do not need to be sheltered from frost and protected from hares.
If you plant cuttings in April, then you should pay attention to the fact that the soil contains little moisture after winter. Therefore, you need young seedlings water every day and often feed. This is the main drawback of spring planting.
How to plan the site?
Planning a site for a vineyard is one of the most important stages in planting. From this will depend on the amount of the crop. Gardeners, as a rule, plant grapes in rows on a vertical trellis. The soil on the site must be leveled and loosened rake. This will reduce the evaporation of moisture from the surface of the soil. During the breakdown of the soil, it is necessary to map out the exact landing sites for cuttings so that the rows are straight. Rows should be located at a distance of about 3 meters from each other. The gap between the bushes should be about 3.5 m. This will allow the cuttings to occupy a large area for growth and nutrition.
Main advantages The correct markings of the plot for growing this crop are as follows:
- All grape bushes will be uniformly and equally illuminated,
- The grapes will be well ventilated, which will protect the plants from various pests and diseases,
- Thus, it will be easier to take care of the site and grapes, as well as to carry out watering.
By the way, you should pay attention to the fact that low-growing garden plants can be planted in the ground between the rows of grapes.
How to prepare the soil?
If you plan to plant in the spring, it is necessary to work the soil in the fall. This will allow the soil to be enriched with minerals in winter and also to accumulate enough moisture.
If talk about soil types, the most optimal for growing grapes are the following:
Grapes saplings are allowed to be planted both according to plantazh, and in separate holes. The continuous trench method is the digging of the soil to a depth of about 70 cm. The soil from different layers is digging in time, and fertilizer must be applied all the way down. Planting grapes in the spring should be carried out in a long trench. It is worth paying attention to the fact that preparing a plantation for trenches requires a lot of time and effort, so you can use a more simple patching method of landing. It is necessary to carry out a deep digging of the soil, as well as fertilize the pits.
In addition, for each type of soil required specific processing and certain types of feeding. For example, chernozem soils and loams need to be provided with additional aeration. Therefore, it is necessary to bury drainage from gravel or broken brick into deep holes, and the top is mixed with sand. Phosphate must be added to the soil as a fertilizer.
Sandy soils predominate in the Kuban. Spits are well ventilated, but they are deficient in humus. At the same time, it is not necessary to introduce drainage, but special attention should be paid to fertilizers and top dressing. To do this, select mineral dressings, the composition of which is rich in nitrogen or organic matter in the form of humus or peat.
Autumn is the best time to prepare the soil for planting. If you do not have the opportunity to break the plot, as well as prepare the soil for planting seedlings in the fall, you need to prepare in the spring a couple of weeks before planting the grapes.
Selection of seedlings
In order to collect a good harvest from the vineyard, it is necessary to choose the material for planting. Stand out Three main types of planting material:
- Green seedlings in the form of seedlings.
The correct material should have at least 3 elastic roots, the length of which is about 10 cm. The roots should not be dry. On the matured upper shoot there should be 5 buds, and its normal length should be about 20 cm.
On good planting material you will not notice traces of diseases, fungal growths, as well as mechanical damage.
Properly selected planting material can bring following results:
- The main percentage of seedlings will take root,
- Fruiting grapes will start much earlier
- The overall yield percentage will increase,
- The life of the vineyard will be more.
Vegetative saplings of grapes will take root much easier, as they are in a state of active life. This kind of planting material must be handled with care, especially during transportation and planting.
General landing rules
If you plan to plant several types of grapes at once, then bushes of the 1st grade should be planted in one row with small intervals. Another variety is recommended to have away. Before planting, grape saplings must be prepared.
- The roots are updated at a distance of at least 10 cm,
- On the stem of the sapling must leave 5 packs,
- The root system of seedlings must be dipped in a liquid mixture of clay with a mullein and a stimulator of root formation.
If you have finished training, the material can be planted in trenches or in a separate hole. At the same time, saplings of grapes should be buried to a depth of about 40 cm. The root system of adult crops is usually located there. If a sapling or grape shank is shorter than the planting depth, it should still be planted according to the requirements, but leave a hole at the top of the pit.
Technique planting seedlings
In order for grape seedlings to quickly take root, give a good harvest and not hurt, you need to have some knowledge that implies the rules for planting grapes in spring. The technique of this procedure is not very difficult.
First of all, it is necessary to lay fertilized soil in the pit at the very bottom. In this case, the height of the embankment should be about 15 cm. After that, the roots gently straighten the seedling, and it is placed on the top of the embankment so that the roots fall down the hill. Further to the middle of the pit, it is necessary to fill in the fertilized soil. Lightly trample it and pour it with not cold water. Water for this will need about 2 buckets. When the soil is dry after irrigation, the hole must be completely buried. It is not worth compacting the soil.
The length of the seedlings above the soil will depend on the number of shoots. If there are two shoots on a seedling, it should be cut so that each of them has two buds. On a seedling with one shoot, you must leave 4 buds. The upper sprout is necessarily tied up.
Adding an article to a new collection
In the spring, you can plant grapes as seedlings and cuttings. It is quite simple to do this: our advice will help even a beginner grower to grow a spreading and well-fruiting shrub.
Despite the fact that grapes are a rather heat-loving crop, they can be successfully grown in the middle lane. There are several components of success - it is necessary to choose the appropriate variety and correctly, and most importantly - plant a sapling or cutting on time.
When is it best to plant grapes in spring?
If you use green cuttings or seedlings with a closed root system, then it is better to plant at the very end of spring - early summer. And seedlings with an open root system can be planted earlier: in late April - early May. But by this time the ground should already be warm.
Preparation for planting grapes need to start in the fall. On the southern side of the plot, a landing hole should be dug wide, 80 cm long and deep.
At the bottom put a drainage layer of rubble or broken brick (about 10 cm). Then pour fertile soil (for this, use the top layer of earth dug out of the planting pit and mixed with humus, superphosphate and ash - approximately 1 kg each), pour it well, so that the pit settles.
If you do not have time to prepare the pit in the fall, do it in early spring, 4-8 weeks before planting. Of course, if this has a climate in your region, and the snow has already melted.
Planting grapes in spring seedlings
1. In the planting pit, on the side, insert a plastic tube with a diameter of 5 cm. It will be convenient to water the young grapes through it.
2. Add so much fertile soil so that 50 cm is left to the edges of the pit and water well.
3. When water is absorbed, plant a seedling, evenly straightening its roots.
4. Cover the landing pit with earth to the brim. To do this, you can use less fertile soil: the lower layer of the earth, which you dug out of the pit for a grape seedling in the fall, will do.
Saplings pritenite and water every day through a tube. It is also necessary to loosen the ground and mulch it with sawdust or straw. This will preserve the moisture that young grapes need in summer.
By the end of August, the vine should grow by about 2 meters, and next year you will be able to enjoy the first harvest of berries.
Planting spring grapes cuttings
For planting use green cuttings (chubuki) with a length of at least 45 cm, which are cut about 2 weeks before flowering or at the very beginning. Remove the lower leaves from the cuttings, make an oblique cut from the bottom and place in a container with room temperature water for 2 days.
After this time, the upper (flat) cut for 2-3 seconds is dipped into the melted paraffin and the cuttings are put into the solution of any growth stimulator (for example, Appin) for 20-24 hours.
The pit should be prepared in the same way as for planting grapes with seedlings. Insert a long peg or stick in the center of the planting pit - it will subsequently serve as a support for the vine. Then near the peg with a crowbar, make a hole 50-55 cm deep, 10 cm in diameter, and plant a cutting there. The lower peephole should be 5 cm below the ground.
After that, fill the hole with earth and tightly tamp. Water the stalk so that the soil settles. When the water is absorbed, top it with the still wet earth and make a mound 15 cm above the spike.
The scheme of planting cuttings of grapes
In one pit is better to plant 2 cuttings. If both chubuk get accustomed, one of them (weaker) can then be dug up.
Planting grapes is an easy task. The main thing is to follow the necessary rules, and then the saplings or cuttings will take root well, and a rich harvest will not take long to wait.
Where is the best place to plant grapes?
Choosing the most suitable place for planting grapes, you should focus not only on the aesthetic look of the garden, but also on the needs of the plant for its most comfortable development, and most importantly - yield. Therefore, before you buy seedlings for the future of the vineyard is to learn about it a few facts.
- Grapes - a perennial plant, so you need very responsibly, and most importantly in advance, to choose a landing site for it. It is important to take into account the biological characteristics of the selected variety, for further obtaining maximum yield.
- Another fact worth knowing about grapes is the rejection of shaded places. With this in mind, you need to choose the southern or western side of the site, as well as to avoid planting near tall trees.
- Almost all grape varieties are thermophilic and do not tolerate temperature fluctuations in the winter season. Therefore, it is necessary to select the place where it will be protected from strong wind and low temperatures as carefully as possible. The most suitable, in this case, for the plant will be located near the walls of the main building or homestead buildings. Все дело в том, что за день стены в определенной мере прогреваются от солнца, что позволяет им отдавать излишки тепла виноградной лозе в ночное время. Кроме того, подобное расположение в значительной мере ускоряет сроки созревания ягод. Если стоит вопрос, какой виноград лучше посадить, то выбор надо отдавать районированным саженцам.
- As for the need for a particular type of soil, in this regard, the grapes are completely unpretentious. But nevertheless there is a certain nuance - the yields are different for saplings planted in the fertile, but rocky form of the soil. The drainage qualities of this soil prevent stagnation of moisture, which contributes to the soil oversaturation with lime and salts. All this can have a negative impact on the grapes.
The most suitable time for planting grapes
- The autumn and spring season are equally suitable for planting young saplings of grapes in the ground. From late April until mid-May, annual seedlings are planted with an already woody trunk. But from the end of May and all of June, green vegetative grapes can be planted.
- As for the autumn planting of saplings, it is usually made in the period from October until the first frosts. The technique has practically no differences from the spring season, with the exception of careful protection of young grapes from sudden temperature changes. As a rule, for this, grapes are covered with peat, needles or sawdust.
Preparation of seedlings for planting
Of course, only healthy grape saplings are suitable for planting. How to check it? There are several factors that indicate quality.
- Bottom slice young sapling must necessarily have a white color. Its brown tint indicates the unsuitability of escape.
- The one-year appendix must be matured with a bright green cut.
- A suitable seedling is distinguished by dense buds, which do not fall away with a light touch.
These rules are suitable for planting girlish grapes, although he is more unpretentious.
Before planting the grapes by cuttings, it is necessary to prepare them for planting:
- from the bottom the cutting is cut so as to leave 1 cm to the first bud and about 2 cm above the top,
- for the next 24 hours, seedlings should be soaked in an aqueous solution with a tablespoon of honey to further enhance growth,
- after the soaking process, the cuttings are thoroughly dried and paraffin-coated. To do this, you need a liter capacity, which mixes 15 grams of wax and resin, 300 grams of paraffin and water. The mixture must be heated, stirring well. Cuttings can be waxed separately or in several pieces; for this, they dip the upper part into the prepared mixture, and then into a container with cold water. During the procedure, no more than 6 cm of grape seedlings are processed,
- In addition to proper pruning and processing, young grape saplings need a preliminary hardening procedure, before direct planting in the ground. Otherwise, they can receive significant damage in direct sunlight,
- for one week, the vegetative seedlings are kept under a canopy or in the dense shade of trees. Then about 10 days in natural sunlight. As for the seedlings that were grown in conditions of insufficient lighting and with violation of the temperature regime - for them the acclimatization period is extended by 1.5 times. Their appearance is more elongated shoots, and the leaves are pale green in color,
- young grape saplings that have not undergone a proper hardening procedure and are planted in open ground in early spring, respond to such conditions as the early onset of autumn. The result is a stunted growth, and the growth takes on a woody shape - in this way the sapling prepares for the intended winter. This is not critical for the plant. As closer to the middle of June, these seedlings resume active growth and development.
Planting grapes in black earth and clay
The order of planting grapes in black soil and clay.
- A recess is prepared under the woody sapling: 80 cm deep and 80 wide.
- The bottom is covered with a nutrient layer, the thickness is 25 cm. Its composition includes 10 buckets of humus mixed with fertile soil. After thorough tamping, this layer is covered with mineral fertilizers in the ratio: 300 grams of potash fertilizers, the same amount of superphosphate per 3 liters of wood ash. This layer also mixes with the soil and is lined in thickness - 10 cm. The next 5 cm is lined only with soil. Upon completion of all manipulations, a recess of 50 cm should remain.
- The next step is to form a small mound in the center of the dimple. A sapling is inserted in the middle and the roots are evenly distributed. Grapes are filled with fertile soil (black earth or clay) to the level of growth. Seedlings sprouted from shortened cuttings are laid vertically, but specimens longer than 25 cm should be planted at a slight inclination.
- After the seedling has been installed, and all the previous layers have been carefully tamped, the soil is watered with two to three buckets of water. After partial drying, the top layer is slightly loosened to a depth of about 10 cm.
- In the future, the grapes are watered two more times with an interval of two weeks. Then the soil is loosened again and mulch.
Tip: if you want to plant wild grapes (girlish), then everything is much easier. Best of all, he takes root in the fall. It is enough to cut off a vine of any length without roots. Lay it horizontally on the ground and prikopat fertile land so that all the processes (leaves) were on the surface. In the future, from each such leaflet, an independent vine will start growing. It is quite enough rains in autumn, so watering should be done only as needed.
Planting seedlings in sandy soil
What is the difference of planting grapes in sandy soil, if we compare this process, for example with clay or black soil?
- The thing is that at low temperatures, the sandy soil freezes faster and stronger, and in summer, respectively, it gets too warm. In addition, this type of soil practically does not retain moisture and nutrients, unlike fertile land.
- All these factors must be considered in the process of planting grapes. Thus, the recess under the sapling should reach a meter in depth. And to maintain moisture and to avoid the loss of nutrients at the bottom of the pit is placed especially dense layer. It is formed from clay soil at a height of not less than 20 cm. Fertilizers and nutrient mixture are poured over it (height - 25 cm).
- The most acceptable depth of planting seedlings in sandy soil is 60 cm. Taking care of the grapes will consist of regular watering, which will need to be done at intervals of seven days, with 4 full buckets of water.
Planting vegetative seedlings
- The deepening of the soil is prepared in the same way as when planting a woody seedling. The difference lies in the depth of the fossa, it should be 25 cm in clay and chernozem soil and about 20 cm in sand. All layers are thoroughly compacted and watered with 2-4 buckets of water at weekly intervals.
- After the soil shrinks, it is necessary to make a recess of 55 cm on clay or black soil and 65 cm on sand. The sapling that has undergone the hardening procedure is carefully removed from the planting container, and together with the earth is placed on the prepared depth of planting. The intermediate distance is filled with fertile soil, compacted and watered with one bucket of water.
- After planting, a woody peg is installed next to a growing seedling to further support the grape seedling.
Important: the plants which did not pass acclimatization are recommended to be shaded by means of a protective screen. To do this, it will be sufficient to place for 10 days on the south side of the planting - tree branches or sheets of plywood.
- In the first year, only one shoot should be left on the seedling, carefully remove the rest and tie the grapes to the peg.
Plant grapes in spring
- The spring planting of grapes ensures that by the beginning of the cold weather, he will gain the necessary power and is enough to get enough nutrients. This ensures the young seedling resistance to low temperatures.
- The preliminary preparation of the soil has a favorable effect on the development of young saplings. Thus, if the pits for grapes to prepare in advance - in the fall, then by the spring will be ready the ideal basis for planting, rich in natural fertilizers.
- Many grape varieties are able to produce a small crop in the second year. But this is only in the case of spring planting. Fruiting autumn seedlings, as a rule, is delayed by one year.
- Another positive point is the favorable temperature regime of the spring season. After autumn, the first frosts can not only damage the young shoots, but also freeze the soil.
But among such a number of advantages, there are a number of nuances that should be taken into account when choosing the spring season for planting grapes:
- lack of moisture. During this period, additional watering is required, which is provided in the autumn period in a natural way,
- lack of nutrients in the soil. This is especially true in early spring, when they need to be compensated by additional flooring of moss, sawdust and humus,
- high-quality grapes saplings go on sale in the autumn period, so the probability of acquiring frozen samples in spring is so great.
And yet spring is considered a favorable season for planting grape seedlings. There is only one question: is it possible to land at any time at any time? No, indeed, the planting period must be chosen, taking into account both the needs of the seedling and the temperature regime.
- The most optimal temperature is above 15 ° C. In addition, the indicators of soil temperature are also important, because they must reach at least 10 ° C. It is during this period that the best growing season occurs. Monthly this time interval will depend on the region. Since in one last frosts end until the end of March, and in the other night temperature drops occur until mid-April.
- In addition to the temperature regime, it is important to take into account the type of seedling: vegetative or stiff. The first option is available for sale in small containers with soil. These seedlings are characterized by the presence of a young shoot with leaves. Favorable landing period: from mid-May to the end of June. But the stiffened sapling is particularly viable, as it has a decorated root structure and buds. Therefore, even with early disembarkation, for example, in mid-April, he will already be able to withstand a change in climatic conditions.
How to plant grapes in autumn
In the planting of grapes in the autumn, there are also a lot of features. The advantages include the following factors.
- The humidity level at this time of the year has a positive effect on the growth and formation of young shoots of grapes. Additional watering is required only in the first few weeks after planting.
- Autumn seedlings tend to earlier development and the beginning of fruiting.
- But the main disadvantage can be attributed to the fact that young seedlings do not just move the frost and gusty wind, even with proper shelter.
- When choosing a period for planting grape seedlings in the ground, it is necessary to consider not only the advantages and disadvantages of each of them, but also the features of the selected variety.
Plant grapes video
How to plant grapes. Common mistakes
- Planting seedlings with a weak root system - they can either not take root at all, or be delayed in development. In addition, such shoots are unlikely to give a good harvest.
- The purchase of seedlings of unknown varieties may result in the need to raskorchevki and purchase a new one. In saplings that do not correspond to the climatic zone, the fruits do not have time to ripen during the season, therefore in the future also need to be replaced.
- A common mistake is planting grapes near trees and on the north side of buildings on the site. In this case, the plant will spend all the power to grow, the crop will be low and it will be located on the upper shoots.
- Forming a shallow pit for planting, you need to know that this will limit the seedling in nutrients and affect its development.
- Excessive deepening will slow growth due to the effects of low temperatures in the deep layers of the soil.
- But the shallow deepening will affect the consumption of water by the seedling, and will make it impossible to shelter the vine for the winter.
- The thickening of the grape planting will lead to an increase in the number of fungal diseases, besides the seedlings will fight for water consumption and lighting.
- Planting only female varieties without potential pollinating varieties may result in shredding of the crop. It is recommended to plant one pollinating on six “female” bushes.
Planting young grape saplings is a rather laborious process. Not only is the choice of shoots capable of withstanding climatic conditions and soil properties, but also a high-quality preparation for planting. Observance of all nuances guarantees good indicators of development and fruiting of the future vineyard.
Advantages and disadvantages of spring planting
The autumn period is the most preferable for planting all garden crops, but usually it is carried out in the spring. The right of the decisive vote is still yours, and we will analyze whether it is worth planting grapes in the ground in spring. And we proceed immediately to the positive and negative aspects of this event.
The main advantage is that the bush during the summer season has time to get accustomed perfectly to a permanent place, it is enough to get stronger in order to easily survive the first wintering. You do not have to worry about the sapling and think about how to hide it from frost. It is necessary to carry out preparatory work before planting the grapes. Dig and fertilize the soil and prepare a hole for the future seedling in the fall. So you will help the soil significantly increase its fertility, and this will positively affect the survival rate of grapes. Most of the grapes after the first growing season, in the form of seedlings are ready to bear fruit in the second year. When planting in the fall it will happen a year later. Spring is such a time of the year when it is easier to calculate the landing time. In the autumn, early frosts can hit very unexpectedly, which can not only damage the seedlings, but also freeze the soil, which will soon become unsuitable for cultivation. Many winegrowers who are just beginning to comprehend the basics of craftsmanship, plant grapes in the spring. It is easier to take care of seedlings, and guarantees of survival at a high level.
However, planting grapes in spring with seedlings has some nuances that can affect the change in your decision in favor of the autumn planting. Usually in the spring, the grapes that have not yet become stronger do not have enough moisture, so you will have additional troubles in frequent and abundant watering. A newly planted plant still absorbs water poorly, and without it it can dry out.
In spring, it will be necessary to dig up the soil well and grind it with old sawdust, moss or humus. Late planting can adversely affect the seedlings of grapes, leading to the defeat of various fungal diseases. The best seedlings can be purchased only in the fall, and in the spring there is an option not to find a suitable variety or to get on frost-bitten or dried-up seedlings.
How to choose seedlings for planting grapes in springWhen purchasing seedlings, carefully inspect them for the absence of diseases and signs of pest activity, especially phylloxera. The most suitable planting material is a one-year sapling. It should have more than three roots up to 12 cm long and 3-4 mm thick. Before planting in the ground, the seedling should be disinfected in a special solution. It is prepared from 10 liters of water, 400 g of clay and 200 g of hexachlorane. If the planting material is dried, soak it in water for 48 hours.
Before planting, once again carefully inspect the seedlings and remove the damaged roots, as well as those located above the two lower nodes. The roots that are below should be trimmed. Leave 4-5 eyes on the shoot, remove the rest. Before planting, lower the seedling roots into a mixture of manure - 1 part, ground - 2 parts and a growth stimulator. Dilute everything with water to obtain a smooth homogeneous mass.
Choosing a landing site
Not everyone has the opportunity to take 5-10 acres of land under the vineyard. Immediately, a dilemma arises as to how to plant grapes in the spring - cuttings or saplings. Therefore, we have to look for a free plot of land, where one could grow at least a couple of bushes. The first and main condition for good growth and fruiting of grapes is light. This plant is very thermophilic, as historically it has developed that it grows best in southern countries. Despite the efforts of breeders, even specially bred for the northern regions of the grape variety can not stand the shaded places. Therefore, planting in the shade is unacceptable.The most comfortable grapes will be if its rays of the sun will illuminate throughout the day. Of course, it will not be easy to carve out such a place, but you need to try. Otherwise, the plant will not give intensive growth and good harvest. Достаточное накопление сахаров и полное созревание урожая невозможны при произрастании в тени. В крайнем случае можно убрать другие мешающие деревья.
Второе – это рельеф местности. Избегайте низин, в которых может накапливаться и надолго застаиваться вода. Подыскивайте более высокое место или сами создайте его. Зона, в которой залегает основная масса корней виноградного дерева, не должна находиться в длительном водном застое. Последнее – это грунт. Здесь уже выбирать не приходится. If the soil is not suitable for the composition of the grapes, then when planting seedlings the only way out is the planting pit. We must strive to obtain a fertile layer, rich in humus and mineral salts, with neutral acidity, good ventilation and moisture-holding capacity.
Certain terms when planting grapes in the open ground in the spring, it is difficult to call. After all, this should be done in warm weather, when the air temperature is not lower than 15 ºС, and the soil has managed to warm up to at least 10 ºС. Under such conditions, the vegetation of seedlings occurs best, which means that the grapes can be deposited from the end of March right up to the beginning of June.
Much will also depend on the selected seedling. Few people know that planting material is of two types: vegetative and stiffened seedlings. The only difference is that the first ones are younger, because they were planted in the spring and only had time to blossom. They are usually sold in small containers with soil mixture. Be sure to attend the first escape with leaves. They should be planted in the period from May 20 to June 15, for it has been in the container since February. The stiffened material is a sapling already grown in open ground, but dug out for the winter. It already has a sufficiently developed root system and has its own kidneys. It is better to plant it early - from mid-April to mid-May, focusing on weather conditions with a margin of several days ahead.
Landing pit preparation
The landing pit for the future cultivation of grapes is prepared long enough and not easy. In addition, to dig, it must also fertilize. The dimensions of the pit should be 80 cu. see that there is enough space not only for the root system of an adult plant, but also for fertilizer for the next 4 years.
When digging a hole, divide the soil layers into two heaps: in one - the upper one, and in the other - the lower one. The first layer is considered the most fertile, so it will go first to a fully dug hole. The layer should be at least 10 cm. After that, add 40 kg of good manure, 500 g of nitrogenous fertilizer and 500 g of wood ash. After that, a 10-centimeter layer of fertile soil is filled up again, and everything mixes well.
Tips for planting grapes in spring
When you plant grapes in spring with saplings, be sure to determine the type of soil, the method of planting depends on it. For example, it is recommended to plant in sandy soils in trenches. In clay and loamy soils that do not heat well, land on ridges. In the old days they were also called "created."
For the convenience of watering and feeding the grapes, you can install plastic bottles with a cut off bottom between seedlings. Between the table varieties over time, the bottles need to be replaced with asbestos-cement pipes. In the case of table varieties, after three years, nothing can be established. An adult wine-growing plant must adapt to the independent extraction of water from the soil. The length of the deep roots will directly affect the quality of the harvest, and accordingly, the wine.Always plan a plantation for planting vines, do not plant them spontaneously. Combine different varieties in the appropriate groups. This is necessary because the landing interval is different. For the juice-wine varieties, the distance between the seedlings should be 80 cm, canteens - from 1.5 meters, and between rows from 2 to 2.5 m. Grouping is also necessary for ripening and frost resistance. So you make it easier for yourself to take care of plants, eliminating unnecessary hiding and spraying. Grafted seedlings should not be planted vertically. Ideally, it is better to place them, tilting at the maximum angle. Otherwise, the aging of the vine will be problematic. Over time, transfer them to your roots.
Do not forget that grapes have a vertical polarity. When opening fruitful arrows, tie it on the trellis or stakes only in a horizontal position. With this care, all annual shoots will grow the same. If you tie them vertically, then the shoots will give intensive growth only from the upper eyes, at a time when the lower ones may not grow at all.
Substantially limit watering. Be sure to conduct hydration only young vines for two years. General watering, moisture-loading, make the fall. A week before the expected flowering should stop watering. Excessive hydration will cause blooming and delay the ripening of the grapes.
Sprinkling can cause a number of diseases. And also grapes badly transfers wet leaves and the damp earth. It is advisable to arrange a rain hood over the vines.
Pruning of grapes is obligatory. Otherwise, the curtains will grow strongly, and the berries are crushed. But in the year of planting pruning is not required, it is necessary to remove only undigested green parts of the shoots in the autumn. In the third year, start cutting shoots. Act according to a combination of external factors - relief, soil and the sum of active temperatures. Take notes, from which buds grow fruiting shoots.
How to plant vegetative seedlings?
This planting material is used to good greenhouse conditions, so before planting on the open area it is necessary to carry out hardening of plants. Thanks to this procedure, seedlings must acclimatize. To do this, green seedlings must be taken out of the greenhouse on the street in shaded places throughout the week. In no case do not put the planting material in direct sunlight, as ultraviolet harm young stems and leaves. With the onset of the evening, young plants are cleaned in the room.
Before planting, the container with the seedling must be carefully cut from both sides and removed. At the bottom of the pit to fill the soil layer with fertilizer. Seedling set at the bottom. It is best not to completely shake off the soil from the root system so that the roots do not break. After that, the pit is buried to the middle, and then soaked and watered with cold water. After the soil dries, the pit buries completely. Upper escape must be carefully tied up.
Hothouse green seedlings need to be planted in open ground only when the warm weather is fully established outside. For example, in the Kuban this can be done in April or in May.
How to plant cuttings?
Planting grapes cuttings is a rather risky business, as not every variety gives a rooted stock. Planting cuttings can be done in the following ways: obliquely, vertically, arc up or down. Arcs need to plant the stock of those varieties that are characterized by poor rooting.
In order to develop a more powerful root system, it is necessary to plant cuttings, the length of which is up to one and a half meters. At the same time, the lower part of the flexible shoot must be carefully twisted at the bottom of the pit. After that, the pit wakes up the ground. From above it is necessary to leave one kidney, which in this case is covered with soil for protection. Thus, the roots will begin to develop from each complex node, so that the cutting will be better fixed in the soil.
As a rule, cuttings develop poorly in frozen, infected rot or tired soil after uprooting other garden crops or old grapes.
For planting cuttings it is recommended to select dense, flexible and succulent planting materials. Planting material is recommended to take in the fall. After planting, cuttings must be watered on a daily basis.
Pros and cons of spring planting
Grapes can be planted in the fall, but the spring period has its advantages. However, as well as flaws. Consider in detail the one and the other.
A bush planted in the spring over the summer manages to settle down well in a new place, fully settle in, get comfortable. This gives the plant the opportunity to get stronger before the first wintering. Thus, the grapes endure cold with dignity.
If you plant grapes in spring, most varieties begin to bear fruit in the next season. And during the autumn planting you have to wait until the first harvest for two years, on average.
In the spring it is easier to choose the optimal time for planting. In autumn, the weather is more unpredictable, and the first frost may well hit the young, fragile seedling. In the spring of this problem is almost completely excluded.
Planted in the spring, the grapevine may experience a lack of moisture. Therefore, be sure to require regular and very abundant watering, which adds hassle gardener.
The best quality seedlings are purchased in the fall, while in spring a serious shortage of quality planting material is felt. Because of this, the risk of planting a frozen, diseased or weak vine is great.
Tip: if you want to buy a quality seedling, it is better to make a purchase in the fall - but you have to keep the plant all winter until spring planting. The safety of the seedling can be ensured by placing its roots in wet sand and placing it in a cool, dark place. It is clear that freezing should not be allowed.
When to plant in the spring?
The exact timing of planting a vine is difficult to define. After all, different regions differ in climatic characteristics, and varieties are more / less frost-resistant.
It is certain that it is necessary to do the landing only when the weather is stable and stable. The air temperature at the time of planting should be at least +15 degrees, on average, and the soil should warm up to at least +10 degrees. It is these conditions will ensure a good survival of the vine.
Thus, it is possible to plant grapes in the warm southern region at the end of March. If we talk about the Moscow region and the middle lane, landing in this climate zone is better to postpone to April-mid-May. In Siberia and in the Urals, the best option is considered to be landing in late May - early June.
Planting time depends on the quality of the seedling. The latter are sold either in vegetative or woody state. The first ones are young green saplings, they are planted later, when it is already warm outside. Lignified trees are seedlings that have already been planted, but dug for the winter. The roots of these plants are developed, and the buds are already formed. Therefore, they can be planted early.
In order for the grapes planted in spring to be pleased with their fast, active development and good harvests, it is necessary to correctly select the variety.
First of all, it is necessary to decide on the maturity dates - based on this parameter, the grape varieties are:
Latest varieties - the sweetest, give the largest berries. However, they are more suitable for the southern warm regions - in a cool climate, late-harvest crops will not have time to mature. Northerner gardeners better navigate when choosing early varieties and medium.
In addition to the ripening period, it is necessary to take into account the taste characteristics. Based on this parameter grapes can be:
Harvest technical varieties usually goes to the production of wine, as the berries are too sour for direct consumption. The brushes of technical varieties are multiple, but small, large berries are not.
In addition, the variety must be resistant to diseases and pests. Of the technical varieties, the following are the most resistant:
The grape harvest of table varieties is good in any form - fresh and canned; it can also be used for wine production. Clusters and berries grow large, beautiful, have high commodity properties. The taste of berries - sweet, pleasant, rich.
Experienced winegrowers recommend the following table varieties for growing in our difficult climate:
An important point when choosing a variety - and the size of the shrub. There are vigorous varieties, and there are sredneroslye. The first require more space, more food, but are able to produce a more abundant harvest.
These varieties include:
Sredneroslye varieties can be planted in small areas of the area, which is convenient for modest suburban plots. These varieties include:
But whichever variety you choose, the main thing is to properly prepare the plants and their planting. Pr well executed first step further rich harvests will not keep you waiting.
How to cook seedlings?
When buying a seedling of grapes, you must carefully examine it. It is important to make sure that the plant is healthy, has no damage, is not infected with dangerous infections. The best option - high-quality, strong seedlings-one-year-old. The plant must have at least three healthy white roots (not dry). The length of the spine - up to 12 cm, thickness - 3-4 mm.
If you have purchased a green (young) seedling that has not yet grown in open ground, it must be hardened before planting. The procedure begins a week before planting: the seedling is taken out of the room on the street. Every day, the time spent in the fresh air should be increased: in recent days, bring the plant under the roof only at night.
Before planting in the ground, it is necessary to disinfect the seedling. This measure will protect the fragile young plant from diseases and pests.
Disinfection involves treatment with the following solution:
- water - 10 l,
- clay - 400 grams
- hexachlorane - 200 gr.
In the event that the seedling is dry, its roots should be soaked before planting for a couple of days in the water. Damaged rhizomes must be removed, as well as healthy, located on top of the bottom two main nodes. The remaining roots are slightly trimmed to enhance growth.
On the seedling you need to leave only 4-5 eyes (buds), the rest to remove.
Immediately before planting, the roots of the plant are dipped into the following mixture:
- land - 2 parts
- manure (compost) - 1 part,
- water - 1 part,
- growth stimulator - in proportion.
Dip the roots for half an hour to let them feed and stimulate their growth and development.
Place for planting grapes must choose open - well-lit and heated. This culture is thermophilic, southern, therefore it is unlikely to grow and bear fruit well in the shade.
Ideally, the sun can illuminate and heat the shrub all day long. The south side of the plot, as well as the southeast and southwest, fit optimally. It is necessary to try and find such a place, otherwise there is no good harvest of sweet berries. If the grapes from the sun obscure the tall trees and places on the site no longer exist, you will have to sacrifice the trees.
The relief of the site is also important. In the lowlands to plant grapes is unacceptable. The fact is that in the depressions stagnation in the soil is frequent - and the roots of the grapes are sensitive to the excess moisture react. If there are no elevations on the site, make it yourself artificially.
The soil should be nutritious, saturated with fertilizers, humus. In addition, the soil under the vine should be well drained, light and permeable. Acidity is neutral.
Soil and pit preparation
To properly prepare the planting pit for a grape seedling, you will have to try - this procedure is long and laborious.
Spring planting of grapes requires the preparation of the pit in the autumn. If you do not have time to prepare the pit in the fall, it is permissible to dig it in the spring - no less than two weeks before planting.
The first thing they do is dig a ditch - its dimensions should be 80x80x80 cm: this is enough to accommodate all the nutrients and the root system of the shrub in the straightened form. Keep in mind that fertilizers applied when planting in a pit, laid with the expectation of the next 3-4 years.
If the soil is clay, dense, it is necessary to ensure good drainage. To do this, use broken bricks or gravel mixed with coarse river sand. Drainage must be laid on the bottom of the pit with a layer of 10-12 cm. Also take care of enhanced phosphorus nutrition, if the soil is clay. It is necessary to add more humus or compost to the soil in order to make it more fertile.
Having dug a hole, divide the resulting soil into two parts: the part that was first dug out should be used for bookmarking. Lower soil is less valuable because it contains more clay and less nutrients. To make it easier to determine where the fertile part of the soil and where the usual, immediately when digging a hole, recline the ground, dug from above on one side of the hole, dug from below - on the other.
Add the following components to the specified part of the soil:
- manure - 40 kg
- nitrogenous fertilizers - 500 gr,
- wood ash - 500 gr.
Mix everything and fill the pit with this nutrient mixture. If there is still room, fill it with soil so that there is 20-30 cm of empty space to the edges of the pit.
Thus, the pit "wintering" until spring. Fertilizers under the snow will dissolve, settle and penetrate into the soil - the seedling will be provided with valuable nutrients for a long time. Immediately before planting, pour a few buckets of water into the hole for the final shrinkage of the soil.
If the soil is sandy, it is recommended to plant grapes not in a hole, but in a trench. The same method is suitable for large-scale landings. For clay soils, the formation of special beds is more suitable - lighter and loose than the main soil.
How to plant?
If you are planting different grape varieties, combine the bushes on this basis. The division into similar varietal groups will help to achieve abundant harvests. And it will be easier to care for the vine.
Соблюдайте расстояние между саженцами в 80 см — если сорт технический, и полтора метра, если сорт столовый. Между рядами же необходимо оставлять дистанцию в 2-2,5 метра. Это обеспечит и проветривание кустарника, незагущенность посадок, удобство при опрыскиваниях, уходе.
Познакомьтесь с качественной пошаговой инструкцией по весенней посадке виноградного саженца:
- По центру ямы делается углубление примерно в 35-40 см.
- Place a plastic hollow tube with a diameter of 5 cm in the hole - it will subsequently be convenient to water the young seedling through it: the water will go straight to the roots.
- At the bottom of the pit a slide is made, on which a heel is placed vertically and a seedling is installed. The roots are straightening the slope of this improvised slide.
- Sprinkle the seedling with earth, compacting the soil during the process so that there are no air pockets left.
- Immediately after planting, the bush must be watered well using at least two buckets of water.
- If the seedling is green, after planting it is necessary to provide shading for the next 7-10 days. Protection in the form of boxes, plywood is installed on the sunny side: it will protect the delicate plant from burns. Shelter is removed only after the seedling has taken root and noticeably grows.
How to care?
We learn how to properly care for the vine.
The plant needs abundant moisture. Under the bush is usually poured a bucket of water in one irrigation procedure. The frequency of procedures - once a week during the growing season.
The procedure is performed after irrigation to make the soil more permeable and light. Simultaneously with loosening, we recommend that we remove the weeds that have appeared.
To feed the grapes start only from the third or fourth year after rooting. Of course, if during planting all necessary substances were added in the right quantity. Then, superphosphate and nitrogenous mineral complexes should be applied, which will help to form a high-quality green part and high-grade ovaries.
Treatment about pests and diseases
Begin to process the shrub from pests and diseases should be in the spring, immediately after the release of the winter shelter.
The most dangerous and common disease of grapes is considered mildew - it is from this contagious fungal disease and the main treatment is carried out. Use the following drugs:
- Bordeaux liquid 3%,
- Ridomil 1%,
- iron sulfate 3%,
- Zineb 0.5%.
Spraying is important to carry out before the beginning of the active growing season of grapes, during flowering and the formation of ovaries - it is undesirable. Means will help against pests too. You can also use safe herbal remedies that will help against both the fungus and bacterial pathologies.
This procedure is obligatory for a vine: both shaping and sanitary pruning are important. It is necessary to begin to form a bush from the first year of the seedling’s life and continue the procedure over the next few years.
The formative spring pruning provides the plant with a strong, strong skeleton, on which secondary shoots can then quietly grow, yielding a harvest. Sanitary pruning is carried out in the autumn after harvest: most of the shoots that have grown over the summer are removed, as well as the fruitful shoots of the current year, old, diseased and damaged branches.
This procedure should be carried out in the spring after trimming. If the vine is not tied up, it becomes more vulnerable to pests and diseases, less quality ovaries form on it.
Garter fabric must be used soft, non-traumatic. Well, or buy a special device for garter in the garden shop. Kapron or fishing line, although durable materials, are not suitable for this purpose. The procedure is carried out before the beginning of the growing season, in order to have time until the vine is damaged.
The method of sheltering grapes for the winter depends on the variety and climate of the region. So in the middle lane, if the variety withstands temperatures down to -32 degrees, you can not cover it (except for young seedlings). In the southern regions require shelter varieties that can withstand temperatures down to -25 degrees.
You need to start covering the bushes from the end of October and beginning of November - look at the weather. Tightening with this procedure should not be, because the frozen wood is not elastic and it will be difficult to assemble.
It is important to cover not only the vine itself, but also the roots of the plant - for this, dry soil is poured at the base of the bush. Shoots are laid on the ground and covered with some material: agrofibre, cardboard boxes, spruce branches, roofing felt, tarpaulin. Snow, which then falls, will provide additional protection for the vine.
So, we learned how the spring planting of grape saplings occurs. The procedure is not easy, however, correctly executed, it will provide 80-90% of the plant's health and future abundant crops. Therefore, it is necessary to foresee all the nuances and follow all the recommendations in order to enjoy the tasty and healthy berries for many years.