A small black chokeberry tree will decorate any garden plot. She is not only beautiful, but also useful. Aronia has fragrant flowers and bright saturated leaves. Especially recommended for people suffering from high blood pressure. It should be planted in a well-lit area (with a lack of light, it will produce less fruit), water it plentifully in dry hot weather without allowing the soil to dry out. The collected fruits can be stored up to one and a half months fresh. Aronia is propagated by cuttings and a small tree or a lush bush is formed from it by pruning.
Rowan Chokeberry Cultivation
Aronia rowan is introduced into the standard assortment of garden plantings in many regions of the Russian Federation, as well as in Bashkiria and Tatarstan. It is bred in Ukraine, Belarus, the Baltic States ... And in these areas, it gives a higher yield than in North America - in its homeland.
On a garden plot, rowan bushes grow more than 3 m in height; they produce abundant crops every year (up to 12 -16 kg from a bush). Long-term observations have shown that black chokeberry is very cold-resistant. When thaws are replaced by frosts or perfect snowlessness, damage to the plant is not observed. As for its unpretentiousness to the soil, as some authors write, one can disagree with that.
So, on a garden plot with moderately saline, heavy soil, the black chokeberry is very poorly taken root. Exit the situation can only be a thorough preparation of the soil and preplant pits.
Rowan Seed Stratification
Seed stratification gives a very good result. To do this, take 4 pieces of coarse sand for one part of the seeds, mix well, moisten, wrap in a nylon rag and place in a wooden box with holes in the bottom for water flow, fill the box with sand and put it in a cellar for 80-85 days at a temperature 5-6 ° heat. Periodically mix the seeds with sand and water if necessary. Note: to moisten the ray with snow water, which to some extent is a growth stimulator.
After 80 days of stratification, the box with seeds must be transferred to the refrigerator, and kept there for 60 days at a temperature of 0 + 2 °. Then, sow the seeds along with the sand and deliver to the window of the southern orientation, where the temperature is 18-20 at night, 10-15 at night ° above zero. Shoots will appear amicably already on the 7th day. So that the seedlings do not stretch out, create additional lighting for them. Pick up of seedlings produced in May, directly into open ground with a distance of 8-10 cm between plants and 15 and row spacing. In the first year of their life, seedlings grow almost imperceptibly, very slowly. Before planting plants in shkolu soil is well fertilized with humus and mineral tukam. Stratified seeds can be sown in the spring directly on the garden, but for this, the stratification must be started later so that its end coincides with the period of onset of sowing.
Planting rowan seeds
The ridges are sown in an ordinary way with the same distance as above, the seeds are buried in the soil to a depth of 1.5 cm.
The first five years, the bushes have not closed yet, they are loosening between the rows and tree trunks up to 4 times over the summer, they mulch with humus. Mulching retains moisture and contributes to less development of weeds. Good results are obtained by feeding plants with urea, ammonium nitrate (the dose is indicated on the package).
With seed reproduction, mountain ash begins to bear fruit in the 5th year, and during reproduction by dividing or layering bushes - in the 3rd year. Over time, the harvest from year to year increases significantly.
Secrets of planting and care for chokeberry (chokeberry)Aronia Aronia refers to the fruit shrub family Pink. Previously, this plant was grown exclusively for decorative purposes, but over time it was found that the fruits of this plant have many medicinal properties.
Also chokeberry is unpretentious in care, which makes it an excellent garden plant, and today it can be found in many gardens.
The homeland of this shrub is North America. Although this type of chokeberry is called chokeberry, they have almost no similarities. The only thing that unites them is belonging to the same family. Also, this plant is often referred to as the blackfly.
How to choose chokeberry chokeberry seedlings when buyingMuch depends on planting material: if you purchased a low-quality seedling, then you will not see a beautiful plant, no matter how you look after it. It is best to take planting material from reputable manufacturers and avoid buying seedlings from hands.
Contact your local nursery or use the services of trusted companies that send chokeberry saplings by mail.
The purchase should not be postponed for the spring, it is better to do this in the fall. At this time, the choice is much wider, and the quality of seed will be much better.
The roots should be soft to the touch, not dry. After buying the root system, it is best to dip it into a talker or at least pour water on it, and then pack them in a plastic bag. In this form, until the landing they can stay for several days.
Where to plantThis culture is not demanding on the composition of the soil, it does not fit only saline. But if you want to give Aroni maximum ideal conditions, then it’s better to choose places with neutral, moist loamy soil, and it is desirable that this site was well lit.
Preparatory procedures and landing aronia
For chokeberry, it will be enough to prepare a hole with a diameter and depth of 50-60 cm. When digging up, put a fertile layer of soil in one direction, and lower layers - in another. Nothing needs to be added to the lower part of the land, the root system will be almost impossible to get there.
But in the top layer you need to add:
- 1 humus bucket,
- 100 g of superphosphate,
- 60 grams of potassium sulphide.
Then the seedling is watered with one bucket of water. After this, it is desirable to mulch the earth with sawdust, humus and dry earth.
How to conduct watering
Watering should be carried out at the beginning of the growing season, especially in the absence of rain and in the heat. Also watering chokeberry especially needed at the stage of formation of the fruit. Grooves are made around the bushes (at a distance of 30 cm from the crown's projection), and 2-3 buckets of water are poured in there.Loosening the soil is best done after irrigation, when the soil is wet. At this time, it is also necessary to remove all weed grass. the first loosening is carried out in early spring, then during the summer this procedure must be repeated 4-5 times. Loosening depth - 6-8 cm.
What to spend feeding
Growing chokeberry also involves timely feeding. During the season it must be fed three times.
Each time the composition of the feeding will be different, so consider them all separately:
- First feeding held in spring when the leaves bloom. “Effecton” is used as a fertilizer, 2 tablespoons per 10 liters of water. Young plants will be enough 5 liters of solution, and fruiting plants need to make 2 buckets per bush.
- Second feeding strengthens flowering, and is held at the very beginning. For 10 liters of water, dilute 2 tablespoons of Ross fertilizer and 1 tablespoon of potassium sulfate. 2 buckets of water can be spent on a fruiting shrub, and 6-8 liters will be enough for a young plant.
- Third dressing held after picking berries in the fall. To do this, take 2 tablespoons of potassium sulfate and superphosphate and dilute them in 10 liters of water. Young plants make 1 bucket of solution, and fruiting - 2.
When to collect the fruits of chokeberryFruits of chokeberry begin to fill with color as early as August, but they will have a very astringent and tart taste, therefore they cannot be called mature. The berries continue to ripen until the end of September, and although there is still a little tartness in them, the fruit tastes much juicier and sweeter, so it is best to pick the fruit at this time.
Sanitary and formative pruning
Pruning of mountain ash is mainly done in spring, but there is also a pruning scheme in autumn. If you ignore this procedure, the plant will quickly lose its decorative appearance, and flowering will be sluggish and poor. Therefore, the adjustment of the number of branches and the height of the bush for chokeberry is obligatory.
If you didn’t know how to cut the chokeberry, then do not worry - there is nothing complicated about it. In the first spring, the saplings are pruned at a height of 15-20 cm. Next year there will be young growth, from which it is necessary to leave a few strong branches and level them in height, and cut off the rest of the growth at the base.
A year later, again add several branches to the bush and level them in height. Repeat this procedure until the number of branches reaches 10-12, then we can assume that the black chokeberry has been formed.
In addition, a thinning pruning is performed, which in combination is also sanitary. The main objective of this procedure is to remove unnecessary shoots, so that the light penetrates well into the bush. To do this, you must remove the competing shoots that grow deep into the crown, as well as dried, broken and diseased shoots.
Branches of chokeberry are younger than 8 years old, therefore the shoots that have reached this age must be cut out, and in its place an advanced shoots from root shoots should be left.
It is necessary to remove old branches as close as possible to the ground in order to minimize the risk of pests or pathogens appearing on the stumps. If, in your opinion, the entire shrub has already lost its appearance, then radical rejuvenating pruning takes place - cut down all the branches, despite the age, and when new growth begins to form in their place, begin to form a new shrub.
Autumn pruningPruning of mountain ash, if necessary, is done in the fall, if, after harvesting, broken branches are found or some shoots are affected by pests. Slices of thick branches must be treated with a garden solution.
But, with the exception of these situations, pruning of chokeberry chokeberry is carried out in the spring.
How to prepare young bushes of chokeberry for winter
Adult black chokeberry bushes are resistant to frost, but young bushes need to bend down. To do this, stakes are driven into the ground, and branches tied with twine are tied to them by several branches. In winter, snow accumulates on them and prevents the root system from freezing..
It is worth starting a shelter with the onset of the first frost, when the soil begins to freeze, but the temperature does not exceed 10-15 ° C of frost. For this black chokeberry will thank you for a rich harvest and become a good decoration in your garden.
Culture requirements for growing conditions
Chokeberry - the result of the crossing of chokeberry Aronia and rowan ordinary.
The natural habitat of chokeberry is the swamps, sandy plains and mountain slopes of North America. This is an unsightly and undersized shrub, which is fundamentally different from the well-known chokeberry.
Shrubs owe their cultivation and popularity in Russia to the Russian breeder I. V. Michurin. As a result of numerous experiments and practical tests a completely new culture was obtained - chokeberry.
Due to its high winter hardiness, resistance to diseases, unpretentiousness to climatic and soil conditions, the shrub quickly spread over large areas.
Good lowlandswhere the occurrence of groundwater is not more than 2 m. It is isolated by a relatively shallow bedding of the roots of the plant, the bulk of which is located up to 60 cm, and the tap roots rarely reach a depth of 2 meters.
With a lack of moisture in the root zone, winter resistance and shrub productivity is reduced.
Chokeberry grows well on different soil types: chernozem, gray-forest, drained peatlands, sod-podzolic. Stony, marshy and saline soils are absolutely unsuitable for its cultivation.
Chokeberry can be planted in a combined hedge or as a solitary plant to decorate a spacious plot.
This is a good option. to strengthen the ravines or the perimeter of the plotlocated along a cliff or river mouth.For the cultivation of chokeberry you need to choose well-lit areas with a sufficient amount of moisture in the soil
The choice of seedlings and varieties of chokeberry
Scientists-breeders introduced a lot of varieties and hybrids of chokeberry. Popular varieties:
Their signs are almost similar, there are insignificant differences in taste and fruiting periods.
therefore the main criterion when choosing a sapling should be purchase of planting material adapted to the conditions of the region.
For planting you need to purchase a one or two year old sapling, it is important to pay attention to the quality indicators.
These are: height up to 1.3 m, healthy bark without traces of damage, developed tap roots not less than 25 cm with a mass of overgrowing roots.For planting you need to purchase in the nursery one or two year old sapling
Productive period of chokeberry in the middle zone 25-30 years. All this time it has been characterized by stable and high yield.
Therefore, to provide one family with fruits, it is enough to plant 1-2 shrubs, which will bear fruit in 2-3 years.
When to plant: fall or spring?
Chokeberry can be planted in spring or autumn. The most preferred for the development of seedlings and gardeners - autumn planting. At this time, you can buy planting material with fresh roots at a bargain price.
In the middle lane of chokeberry planted from mid-September to the third decade of October. During this period, the shrub gradually enters a state of relative rest, but its roots will develop until the soil temperature drops to -4 ° C.
Therefore, in the spring the plant will immediately begin to grow the vegetative mass. This gives a great advantage to saplings of autumn planting, which are ahead in the development of plants, planted in the spring for more than 20 days.
Benefit from autumn planting for the gardener - saving time, the plant does not need additional care, except for shelter for the winter.
When spring planting it will be necessary to control the likelihood of recurrent frosts, exposure to desiccant winds and temperature changes.
Regardless of the general recommendations when planting a sapling, you need to focus on the average temperature indicators of the region. Plant can be at least 20 days before the first frost.. If deadlines are missed, the seedling should be prikopat in the ridge until spring.
In the spring the plant is planted before bud breakwhen the air temperature warms up to + 15 ° С.Plant can be at least 20 days before the first frost. If deadlines are missed, the seedling should be prikopat in the ridge until spring.
How to plant: stages of work
Planting pit and substrate for seedlings prepared in advance, preferably in 1-2 months. During this time, the soil mixture is structured, and the nutritional elements will take the forms that are easily absorbed by the roots of the plant. The optimal size of the pit is 60x60x50 (cm), the landing pattern is 2.5x4 (m).
For the preparation of the substrate will need topsoil, removed during the digging of the pit. Its complement components:
- with humus or compost 2 buckets,
- superphosphate 120 g,
- potassium sulfate 60 g.
At the bottom of the pit lay a drainage layer of broken brick or rubble no more than 15-20% of the total.
Before planting, the seedling needs to be examined again.. When damaged roots are found, the problem areas are cut to healthy skin, and dried ones are placed in water for 10 hours.
For better survival, the roots are dipped in a mash made of greasy clay, mullein and water.
In light soils the seedling is buried by 6 cm, in heavy soils by 2-3 cm. Thus, the root neck of the shrub after shrinking the soil should remain 1-3 cm below the ground level.
I am guided by the recommended criteria, at the bottom of the pit they form a mound of the prepared substrate. On its surface evenly spread the roots of the seedling. It is important to ensure that there are no unnatural bends.In light soils, the seedling is buried by 6 cm, in heavy soils by 2-3 cm, the root collar should remain 1-3 cm below the ground level
Roots fall asleep with soil mixture, periodically shaking the stem to avoid the formation of voids. After compaction of the stem and watering of the seedling, need to form a layer of mulch. For this well suited: peat, sawdust, mowed grass or wood chips.
After planting, the above-ground part of the seedling is cut, leaving only 20 cm of length.. When planting in autumn, the procedure is postponed until spring and carried out until bud break.
Shelter for the winter
The sapling planted in autumn must be prepared for the first winter season. For this they bend down to the ground and press down. This is important to do until the air temperature drops to -1 ° C — 2 ° C.
В противном случае стебель кустарника потеряет эластичность и может сломаться. Во время пригибания куста важно следить, чтобы высота дуги не превышала 20 -30 см.
Дополнительно саженец укрывают лапником, а слой мульчи делают более высоким. В малоснежные зимы кустарник окучивают снегом.
In the spring, with the establishment of a stable temperature, the plant needs to be straightened. If it is kept in a low state for a long time, the apical shoots can support it.Black chokeberry sapling is bent to the ground and pressed, covered with spruce branches
Do I need to prune shoots?
For the right balance of yield and yield. adult shrub should be 30-50 strong trunks.
Sanitary pruning is in the removal of old, rotten and bare branches. Shrub lays fruit buds on annual shoots, so they should not be shortened.
To increase the productivity and longevity of the shrub, every 3-4 years you need to spend rejuvenating pruning. During the procedure, shoots of chokeberry are shortened to half the height.
Chokeberry responds well to fertilizing, which should be carried out twice a year. To do this, in the near-trunk circle, based on 1 m2, it is necessary to close up:
- ammonium nitrate 20 g (spring),
- potassium salt 20 g, superphosphate 30 g (autumn).
Good results gives foliar top dressing of a bush after floweringwhen they begin to tie fruit. To do this, it is sprayed with an aqueous solution of urea (20g / 10l).Chokeberry responds well to top dressing, which should be done twice a year.
With the accumulation of excessive amounts of nitrogen, the increments and duration of the formation of basal shoots increases. In young shoots, the bark does not have time to woody, and the apical bud to form.
This leads to a strong freezing even with the most favorable winter. therefore in the second half of the growing season, nitrogen fertilizing should not be done.
Watering and loosening the soil
Chokeberry - moisture-loving culture. Watering is especially important for her at the beginning of the growing season and during fruit formation.
With steady hot weather, shrubs are watered every week. The rate of water for adult shrub 30 liters.
To do this, you can make watering furrows at a distance of 30-40 cm from the shrub trunks. With this method, water will penetrate to all the roots of the plant.
Excessive soil compaction promotes strong soil freezing. in the root layers, which significantly reduces the hardiness of shrubs.
Disease and pest prevention
After harvesting and in the spring before bud break, the shrub needs to be treated with fungicides. For this it is sprayed with 1% bordeaux liquid.
Shrub resistant to pests. The reason for the spread of insects on the aronia can be a massive destruction of the site pests.
In these cases, you need to apply a cardinal measure - spraying chemicals.Chokeberry is resistant to pests, sprayed with 1% Bordeaux liquid to prevent it.
Fruits of chokeberry are good for culinary preparations and especially valuable for its healing properties. Attractive shrub and its decorative.
Plant hedge will transform the backyard background three times a year, ranging from white during flowering and ending with the purple color of leaves in late autumn.
Planting and care for chokeberry aronia:
Planting and care for aronia (in brief)
- Landing: from late September to early October or from mid to late April.
- Bloom: from the second half of May or from the beginning of June.
- Lighting: bright sunshine.
- The soil: wet, loamy, neutral. Sour, saline and dry sands of chokeberry are not suitable.
- Watering: most important is sufficient moisture at the beginning of the growing season and during the formation of fruits. Water consumption for watering - 2-3 buckets for each bush.
- Top dressing: when grown on rich soils, it is enough to dig up the soil in the near-ground circle in the spring with 50 g of ammonium nitrate and thrash the basal area with organic matter - compost or humus. On poor soils, after spring feeding in early summer, a mullein solution (1: 5) or bird droppings (1: 10) is poured over a bucket in a bucket, and in the autumn 100 g of superphosphate and half a liter of ash are added.
- Pruning: in the spring.
- Breeding: layering, green and lignified cuttings, dividing the bush, inoculation and root suckers. Sometimes chokeberry is propagated by seed.
- Pests: brown fruit and red apple mites, green apple aphid, haws, rowan moths, cherry slimy sawflies.
- Diseases: peripheral wood rot, moniliosis (fruit rot), combing animal, septorium spotting.
Chokeberry (aronia) - description
Aronia plant is a winter-hardy deciduous heavily branching shrub about 3 m high with a root system located close to the surface. At a young age, the plant crown is compact, but over the years it can reach 2 m in diameter. Young shoots have a reddish-brown tint, but gradually become dark gray. The leaves of Aronia are simple, whole, elliptical, from 4 to 8 cm long, from 3 to 5 cm wide, alternate, with crenulate-toothed edges. Aronia leaf from the upper side of the plate is leathery, shiny, dark green in color, and its lower side is whitish due to pubescence. In the second half of September, rowan leaves begin to acquire purple-red tones. White or pinkish fragrant chokeberry flowers with purple anthers, collected in dense corymbose inflorescences, are revealed in the second half of May or early June. The brilliant spherical fruits of the mountain ash of black-fruited black or purple-black with a bluish bloom ripen in August or September. The fruit weight of wild chokeberry does not exceed one and a half grams, the chokeberry fruit of cultivated varieties is larger. Black-fruited berries ripen in August or September.
Aronia is grown as a fruit, medicinal and ornamental plant. She is a relative of garden crops such as apple, pear, plum, bird cherry, cherry plum, quince, apricot, peach, nectarine, almond, wild rose, hawthorn, cherry and sweet cherry, with which she belongs to the same family. We will tell you how to plant and care for chokeberry in the garden, how it is propagated, what varieties of chokeberry can be grown in southern areas, and which are more suitable for the middle band, what is the use of chokeberry and what can be harmful to chokeberry .
When plant aronia.
Like almost all fruit and berry plants, chokeberry is better to plant in the fall - at the end of September or the beginning of November, although it takes root well after the spring planting, carried out until the end of April. This culture is undemanding to the composition of the soil - grows well even on acidic or dry sandy soils. It does not suit her only saline soil. If we talk about preferences, then it is best flowering and fruiting in well-lit areas with a neutral, moist loamy soil. Since the root system of chokeberry is located at a depth of only 50-60 cm from the surface of the site, the close occurrence of groundwater will not harm it. Most often, chokeberry is planted as a hedge.
Planting chokeberry in the spring.
How to choose healthy chokeberry saplings? When buying chokeberry seedlings, first of all pay attention to the condition of their roots - they must be powerful, healthy and have 2-3 branches of at least 25-30 cm in length. If the roots look dry and weathered, they may not settle down or the seedling will be sick for a long time . Roots of such a seedling need to be kept in water for 2-3 days before planting so that they are saturated with moisture and restore elasticity. If the inside of the seedling bark is green, then the seedling is alive, but if it is brown, do not buy it - it most likely will not take root.
Before planting, cut sick, cracked and dry roots and shoots on the seedling, and then lower the root system into the clay mash.
Planting chokeberry Aronia is carried out on an overcast day or in the evening. If you plant aronia as a separate plant, place it from other shrubs and trees at a distance of at least 3 m - so the mountain ash will receive uniform illumination, and it will be convenient for you to care for the bush. The depth and diameter of the planting pit should be about 50 cm. A barren layer taken out when digging a soil pit is mixed with a humus bucket, 300 g of wood ash, 150 g of superphosphate and filled the pit with this mixture to a third of the depth, after which the half of the hole is filled with soil from the top , fertile layer and poured into it a bucket of water. When water is absorbed, the seedling with the roots treated with clay talker is placed in the center of the pit so that the root neck is 1.5-2 cm underground. Carefully flatten the roots of the seedling, fill the pit with fertile soil, lightly tamp the surface and pour the same seedling again with water, and when it is absorbed, grumble the trunk circle with a layer of straw, peat or humus 5–10 cm thick. After planting, shorten the seedlings to 15–20 cm, leaving four to five buds on them.
Chokeberry in the spring.
Planting and care for aroniya do not contain any subtleties that should be written. Spring work with shrubs begins at the end of March or early April: at this time they carry out sanitary and formative pruning and treat them with lime. In April, aronia is sprayed from pests and pathogens that successfully overwinter in bark cracks or in the soil under bushes. In May, when weeds begin to appear from the ground, be alert and do not let them enter into force - remove immediately.
In spring Aronia is fed with nitrogen fertilizers.
Care for chokeberry in the summer.
Caring for chokeberry in summer, when insect pests appear massively, requires attention: it is very important to monitor the health of the garden, regularly inspecting the plants, so as not to miss the onset of the disease or the appearance of harmful insects. At the first symptoms of a pest or disease injury, treat the chokeberry with the appropriate compositions - folk remedies or chemical preparations.
Despite the fact that aronia is drought-resistant, it needs watering in dry, hot summer, after which it is convenient to loosen and weed the plot.
How to take care of chokeberry in the fall.
The fruits of chokeberry Aronia ripen by the end of August, but they need to be collected only after the first frost. Autumn is the planting of chokeberry and the care of its seedlings, which need to be prepared for winter. With the onset of the dormant period, black chokeberry is exposed to sanitary pruning and treatment of pests and pathogens that have settled in the bark of the tree and the soil under bushes for the winter. Young bushes spud high, and pristvolny circle cover with dry leaves or spruce branches. Adult plants overwinter without shelter.
The cultivation of chokeberry and care for it involves the carrying out of preventive treatments from pests and diseases. They are carried out in early spring, before bud break: the shrub is sprayed with one-percent Bordeaux mixture. In the autumn, after the leaf fall, they carry out autumn preventive treatment of chokeberry, using the same drug or the like for it. Instead of a Bordeaux mixture, you can treat with a 7% urea solution - so you will take preventive measures and feed the shrub with nitrogen fertilizer.
Watering black chokeberry.
For chokeberry very important watering at the beginning of the growing season, especially in the heat in the absence of rain. The next important from this point of view period for chokeberry is the beginning of the formation of fruits. Calculation of water - 2-3 buckets under each bush, depending on the age of the plant. Watering is carried out in the furrows made around the bushes at a distance of 30-40 cm from the crown projection.
After moistening the soil, it is convenient to loosen the soil in the wheel circle and remove weeds. For the first time, the soil around the bushes is loosened in early spring, then during the summer they spend another 4-5 loosening to a depth of 6-8 cm. It is very important to loosen the soil around the bushes of chokeberry after harvesting, and then mutilate the area with peat, manure or compost.
Top dressing chokeberry Aronia.
In order to get a good harvest, chokeberry must be regularly fed. On rich, fertile soils, it is enough to add 50 grams of ammonium nitrate under each bush in the spring and mix the tree trunk with organic fertilizer - manure, compost or humus. If the soil is poor, then after spring top dressing, in early summer, under each bush, you should pour a bucket of mullein diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 5, or a bucket of bird droppings at the rate of 1 part of fertilizer per 10 parts of water. In the autumn, after harvesting, under each bush of chokeberry you need to make a half-liter of wood ash and 100 g of superphosphate.
When prune chokeberry Aronia.
If the chokeberry is not cut, it will grow in breadth and stretch upward, the fruiting will move to the periphery, illuminated by the sun, and fruitless jungle will form in the middle of the bush. To avoid this, you need to adjust the number of branches and the height of the bush. All work on pruning Aroni need to be in the spring.
Pruning chokeberry in spring.
Aronia saplings, as we have already written, are pruned at a height of 15-20 cm in the first spring. After a year, leave a few strong branches from the emerged seedlings and level all the shoots in height, and cut the remaining growth at the base. A year later, add to the bush a few more branches of the shoots and spend equalizing pruning. Add annually several branches from overgrown until they are about ten, and then we can assume that the black chokeberry has been formed.
Now you need to ensure that the shoots do not grow too thick - the light must penetrate into the very thick of the bush, otherwise there will not be laid flower buds, and therefore the fruit will not be tied. To do this, a thinning of chokeberry is carried out, combined on the target with the sanitary one - competing, low-value crown growing inside the plant, as well as diseased, broken and dry shoots are removed from the plant.
In chokeberry Aronia fruitful branches are considered to be younger than 8 years, and as soon as some branch reaches this age, it should be cut, and instead leave a developed shoot from the root growth. Try to carry out 2-3 replacements annually, without increasing the diameter of the base of the bush. It is necessary to cut or cut old branches as close as possible to the ground so that the remaining stumps do not settle pests or pathogens.
When the whole shrub seems old and tired, spend a radical rejuvenating pruning - cut down all the branches, regardless of their age, and when a young growth appears in place of the old shrub, start to form a new shrub from it. How to do this, you already know.
Pruning chokeberry in the fall.
If absolutely necessary, you can carry out the sanitary pruning of chokeberry in the fall, if it turns out that after harvesting, broken branches have appeared, or you will find shoots affected by pests. In this state, of course, the bush for the winter can not be left. Thickening shoots can be removed in the summer, so that the plant does not spend power on feeding unwanted branches. But rejuvenating and formative pruning is carried out only in spring. Do not forget to process sections of thick branches with garden pitch.
Aroniya reproduction cuttings.
For breeding chokeberry with woody cuttings, annual, well-matured shoots from two to four-year branches are needed. They are cut in the fall, in the second half of September, so that they have time to take root before the frost and have a good winter. The cuttings should be with 5-6 eyes, 15-20 cm long. Do not use the upper, underexposed part of the shoot for reproduction. The upper cut on the handle make oblique to the kidney, and the lower - straight, right under the eye. The cuttings are planted at an angle of 45 º at a distance of 10-12 cm from each other, leaving only two buds above the surface, the lower of which should be at the level of the surface. The soil around the cuttings is compressed, watered and mulched with peat.
The reproduction of chokeberry chokeberry with green cuttings is possible only if there is a cold greenhouse, which is quite easy to build. In a greenhouse, a layer of large, washed river sand of a thickness of 7–10 cm is placed on a freshly dug clean soil.
Cut cuttings from healthy bushes - you can cut off the tops of any branches of the bush. The length of the cutting is 10–15 cm. The lower leaves are removed from the cuttings, and 2-3 upper leaves are shortened, leaving only one third of each. A longitudinal incision is made above each kidney; in the lower part of the cutting, several such incisions are made on the bark. Then the cuttings for 6-12 hours are immersed with their lower ends in the solution of the root formation stimulator, then washed with clean water and planted in a greenhouse - obliquely, at a distance of 3-4 cm from each other. After compaction of the soil around the cuttings, they are watered through a fine sieve and covered with a transparent dome. Between the dome and cuttings there should be a space of at least 20 cm. Cuttings take root at a temperature of about 20 ºC, and if it rises to 25 ºC, it is necessary to arrange ventilation by cuttings. With regular soil moistening and maintaining the required temperature and air humidity, the cuttings will root for 3-4 weeks, after which tempering procedures can be started, and after a week and a half, the cuttings are planted in open ground for growing. Survival rate of green cuttings - 70-100%. Как только черенки примутся в открытом грунте, подкормите их раствором 30 г аммиачной селитры в ведре воды или слабым раствором навозной жижи. Уход за черенками на грядке состоит в регулярных поливах, рыхлении почвы и удалении сорняков. Посадка саженцев аронии на постоянное место производится через год, следующей осенью.
Семенное размножение аронии.
To get chokeberry seeds, you need to rub ripe fruits through a sieve, then lower the seeds into water to pulp float, rinse and, mixing the seeds with calcined river sand in a ratio of 1: 3, in a wet state put for 90 days in the vegetable box of the refrigerator for stratification. Remember to keep the sand wet all the time. If seeds begin to peck before they can be sown in open ground, the temperature of the content should be lowered to 0 ºC. When the ground in the garden is ready for sowing seeds, make grooves 6-8 cm deep in it, sow the nested seeds in them, seal and grind the bed with sawdust or humus. When two real leaves are formed in the seedlings, they are thinned out, leaving a distance of 3 cm between seedlings. The next thinning is a 6 cm step at the development stage of 4-5 leaves in the seedlings. The last time you need to thin out the seedlings at a distance of 10 cm next spring. All this time, the bed is watered, the soil on it is loosened, weeds are removed and once in spring they are fertilized with slurry. Ready seedlings to transplant to a permanent place will be the fall of the second year.
Breeding chokeberry root offspring.
Every year, a root growth sprouts around the chokeberry bush. The number of offspring formed depends on the variety of chokeberry, the presence of nutrients in the soil and moisture. For a year, offspring form the root system, and they can be cut off from the mother plant with a shovel and transplanted to a new place. Before transplanting, the scion of the offspring is shortened to 2-3 buds.
Reproduction of black chokeberry by layering.
Aronia can be propagated by arcuate or horizontal layering. For this, in spring, the soil under the bush is dug up, well-developed annual or biennial shoots with strong growths are chosen as layers, the grooves are dug under them, shoots are placed in them, they are fixed in the furrows, and the tops remaining on the surface are lightly pinched. They take care of the choke of chokeberry, like any other: they water it, carefully loosen the ground around it, remove the weeds. When the shoots that have developed from the buds of the cuttings reach 10-12 cm in height, they are half sprinkled with moist soil or humus, after 2-3 weeks, when the shoots once again grow to such a height, the procedure is repeated. In the fall, and even better next spring, the layers are separated from the bush and transplanted to a permanent place.
Breeding rowan black chokeberry.
This method is justified in the event that you have to transplant aronia bush to another place. In the spring, before the start of sap flow, a rowan bush is dug out, all old branches are removed from it, they clean the root system of the soil and divide with a pruner or an ax into the required number of parts, each of which should have developed young roots and 2-3 healthy, strong sprouts. Cuts on the roots sprinkled with crushed charcoal, after which the delenki are seated in the designated places.
Reproduction chokeberry inoculations.
As a stock, it is best to use a rowan sapling. The stock is wiped from dust and cut at a height of 12 cm from the surface level, after which a deep cleave through the center is made in a cut. The graft cutting is cut from two sides in such a way that a wedge is formed, which must completely enter the split of the stock. After the scion enters the cleft, treat the scion and rootstock cuts with a garden pitch and wrap the vaccination site with a scouter film. Put a durable plastic bag on the sapling and fix it tightly below the grafting site - this way you will create the greenhouse effect necessary for growing the scion and rootstock. You can remove the package in a month.
Vaccination is best in the spring, when sap flow begins.
Diseases of Aronia
Among the diseases affecting chokeberry, gardeners often have to deal with such:
Peripheral wood rot, caused by mushrooms again. The disease is controlled by one percent Bordeaux liquid or another fungicide. Strongly affected bushes are to be destroyed, for which they are dug up with roots and burned.
Fruit rot, or monilioz, from which the berries become soft, turn pale and mummified, and light brown sporiferous pads appear on their surface. Affected berries, if not removed from the bush, may hang on the branches all winter and spring to infect young flowers and ovaries of aronia with moniliosis. As soon as you find a disease, treat the shrub with copper oxychloride or the Bordeaux mixture.
Septorhia blotch, manifested on the leaves of chokeberry in the middle of summer with light brown oval spots with a darker border. With the development of the disease, the tissue inside the spots dries out, cracks and falls out. As a preventive measure, in addition to spring and autumn treatment of chokeberry Boron fluid, it is necessary to collect and burn fallen leaves. When a disease is detected, the bush and soil under it are treated with Abig-peak or copper oxychloride.
Comb - A fungal disease that occurs on a weakened root rot plant. The fungus looks like thin leathery brownish-gray or whitish plates. Fungi-affected branches must be cut and burned. As a preventive measure, the bush is treated in the spring and autumn with Bordeaux mixture, Abig-peak or copper oxychloride.
In addition to the diseases described, aronia is affected by such diseases as bacterial necrosis, or bark cancer, brown spot, verticillis, rust, and viral ring spot.
Pests of chokeberry Aronia
Pests affecting black chokeberry bushes include:
Brown fruit and red apple pincers - small insects that can cause serious harm not only aronii, but also such fruit crops as pear, plum, cherry and apple. Their larvae, which appear after aronia bloom in large numbers, feed on the sap of the leaves, puncturing them. After three weeks, the larvae become adults, ready to lay the larvae back on the plant — several generations of ticks develop in one season. To cope with the invasion of ticks, you will be helped by drugs Malbofos, colloidal sulfur, Tedion, Cydial, Kleschevit, and others that need to be alternated, since the tick's body is able to produce immunity against them.
Green Apple Aphid - the small sucking insect from which young saplings more often suffer. Besides the fact that it feeds on the sap of the plant, weakening it, the aphid, like ticks, is a carrier of incurable viral diseases. The preventive measure against aphids is the treatment of chokeberry before budding Bordeaux liquid, Nitrafen, Karbofos, and if insects are found on the plant, spraying of chokeberry with the drugs Decis, Metaphos, Biotlin, Ambush, Cyanox or similar will be required.
Hawthorn - the caterpillars of this butterfly eat out the buds during their blooming, then they damage the flowers and leaves of chokeberry, leaving only their veins. To protect the chokeberry from the onslaught of these pests - and the hawthorn at one time is able to lay up to 500 eggs - in early spring, before the buds open, the mountain ash is treated with Bordeaux mixture, Olecukritom or Nitrafen. Before flowering, chokeberry is sprayed with Zolon, Karbofos or Chlorophos.
Rowan moth - caterpillars of this insect eat the fruits of rowan, which is why they become covered with dark spots and bitter. This pest affects not only aroniya, but mountain ash, and in some years even apple fruit. The methods of fighting the rowan moth are the same as with the Hawthorn.
Cherry slimy sawfly - black insect with a shiny belly and transparent wings. He appears on chokeberry in early July and before the beginning of autumn has time to greatly damage the leaves of the plant. The female sawfly lives no more than a week, but it has time to lay up to 75 eggs under the lower skin of the leaves. The emerged larvae eat the leaves, leaving only the vein net. Sawflies are destroyed by treating chokeberry with 20-30 g of Chlorophos dissolved in a bucket of water. Coping a rowan with a solution of soda ash or lime can cope with the sawfly.
Types and varieties of chokeberry
There are many varieties of chokeberry. Among them there are excellent domestic and well-established foreign varieties of chokeberry in our culture, many of which, apart from excellent fruiting, are also distinguished by high decorative qualities. The best of them include:
- – Nero - frost-resistant and shade-tolerant variety of German selection with shiny dark green leaves that become yellow-red in autumn. The varieties of berries collected in bunches of this variety are very large, sometimes twice as large as those of other aronies. They are also distinguished by a high content of vitamins, minerals and antioxidants.
- – Viking - a high-yielding and frost-resistant variety of chokeberry Finnish selection with shiny green leaves and the same shiny fruits, larger than the berries of black currant,
- – Chernookaya - unpretentious and very resistant to diseases and pests frost-resistant variety, which is also an excellent honey plant. Its berries, reaching a diameter of 1 cm, are distinguished by lower tartness of berries compared to other varieties,
- – Hugin - winter-hardy and highly decorative variety of Swedish breeding, which should be cut with great care. Shrub Hugina reaches a height of 2 m, its leaves in spring and summer are dark green and shiny, in the fall they become bright red. The berries are large, black and shiny.
In addition to those described, Finnish varieties of chokeberry Hakki, Belder and Karhumäki, Danish variety Aron, Polish Egerta, Dabrovitsa, Galitsyanka, Kutno, Nova ves, Belarusian varieties Nadzeya and Venisa and Russian varieties Siberian and Michurina are popular.
The healing properties of chokeberry.
What is the use of chokeberry for the human body? Aronia is a real treasure trove of beneficial substances. It consists of beta-carotene, vitamins P, K, C, E, B1, B2, B6, macro- and microelements manganese, boron, fluorine, iron, iodine, molybdenum and copper, sugars, pectins and tannins. Vitamin P in chokeberry fruit contains twenty times more than in oranges, and two times more than in black currants. The balanced combination of biological substances in chokeberry berries enhances their healing properties.
Fresh chokeberry berries and juice are used not only for treatment, but also for the prevention of atherosclerosis and hypertension, since they have vasodilator, spasmolytic, hemostatic, hematopoietic and capillary strengthening properties. They are also prescribed to patients with certain vascular diseases that are accompanied by tissue fragility — capillary toxicosis, scarlet fever, measles, eczema, allergic vasculitis, since the healing properties of chokeberry strengthen the blood vessel walls and restore their elasticity.
The berries of chokeberry increase immunity, have a positive effect on the endocrine system, lower cholesterol in the blood, normalize blood pressure.
Aronia is recommended to be eaten with diabetes mellitus, diseases of the thyroid gland, as a diuretic it is prescribed for allergies, kidney diseases and typhus. It helps to improve digestion, increases the appetite and acidity of gastric juice, promotes the formation and outflow of bile, activates the liver.
Pectins, which are part of aronia berries, remove radioactive substances from the body, heavy metals and pathogenic microorganisms, normalize the work of the intestines, relieve spasms.
The use of chokeberry berries reduces emotional instability by regulating the processes of arousal and inhibition.
Fresh juice of chokeberry treat burns.
We offer you a few recipes from chokeberry:
- - tincture of chokeberry with cloves: 1 kg of berries gently knead a wooden pestle in a jar, add a pound of sugar, three buds of cloves, mix, cover with gauze and leave at room temperature for two days, then pour 1 liter of vodka into the jar, cover it with a nylon lid and put in a dark place for two months, then strain and bottle. Store the finished liqueur in a cool place
- - fortifying drink: pour 20 g of dry arion berries with a glass of boiling water and warm for 5-10 minutes in a water bath, then let the broth cool and strain, not forgetting to squeeze the berries. Take 100 g 3-4 times a day,
- - Vitamin tea: 2 tablespoons of dry black chokeberry berries, pour two cups of boiling water, warm for 10 minutes at a low boil, remove from heat and allow to infuse for a few hours. Use this tea three times a day with honey or sugar.
Chokeberry - contraindications.
Due to the fact that aronia contains a large amount of vitamin C, its abuse in patients with hypertension and angina can increase blood clotting and lead to the formation of blood clots. That is why it is contraindicated in thrombophlebitis.
People diagnosed with hyperacid gastritis (gastritis with high acidity), duodenal ulcer or stomach ulcer should also refrain from eating berries and black chokeberry juice.
Uncontrolled and excessive use of this product can cause trouble even to healthy people. If you have any doubts whether you can eat Aronia berries, consult your doctor.