Pear Nortyanka belongs to the group of early summer varieties. Obtained by crossing two varieties Koparechka number 12 and Carp Favorite in the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Genetics and Breeding of Fruit Plants. I.V. Michurin. The author of the variety is academician P. N. Yakovlev. The variety is specially bred for harsh climatic conditions.The tree quickly grows and has a wide pyramidal crown, due to the increased ability to form shoots, it is prone to thickening. The branches grow at an acute angle from the trunk of the tree. The bark of the trunk and branches smooth, has a brown color. The leaves are narrow with a glossy surface, oval in shape, have a dark green color with jagged edges. White colored flowers are placed in inflorescences of 4-6 pieces.
Trees bear fruit in the third year after planting seedlings. Pears are sown at the beginning of August and give fruits that are characterized by medium-sized, smooth, conical shape. When ripe, the fruit has a greenish-yellow color, then turns yellow and acquires a dull blush. On average, the weight of one pear is 80-100 grams. The skin is strong and not rough, tender to the touch. The flesh is crispy, juicy, not astringent, tender cream color, average in density, characterized by a pleasant sweetish taste with a sourness with a faint aroma.
The description of a grape variety also includes its advantages and disadvantages. The main advantages of pears are:
- early maturity, fresh fruit can be enjoyed in August,
- stable and annual yield, usually evenly distributed over the years,
- perfect taste,
- fruits of universal purpose, suitable both fresh and in home-made,
- compact size of trees that make pruning and harvesting easier,
- maximum winter hardiness and ability to recover after harsh winters,
- good indicators of resistance to diseases inherent in this variety,
- low demands on growing conditions.
In addition to the weighty advantages of wood, there are also disadvantages, which include:
- rapid fall of fruits after ripening, therefore it is recommended to collect fruits in a timely manner,
- fruits are rather small in size and do not differ in outstanding taste characteristics.
Fruits are a source of nutrients, a storehouse of minerals and a bank of vitamins.
Uniqueness lies in the fact that even processed and dried fruits retain their properties.
Pear is characterized by nutritional value, which in combination with low calorie content makes it one of the most valuable and useful products, because:
- provides the body with cobalt, which contributes to the full operation of the thyroid gland,
- takes part in the formation of hemoglobin and the absorption of iron,
- contains folic acid, which is vital for children, pregnant women and people with blood formation problems,
- boosts immunity and resistance to infections
- It has diuretic and anti-inflammatory effects,
- strengthens the circulatory system and normalizes the work of the heart muscle,
- Due to the low calorie content of pears, many nutritionists prefer this fruit when developing diets.
Origin and characteristics of the variety
What is the history of the origin of pear varieties Severyanka Red-cheeked? The pear variety Northerner was bred in 1959 by the famous Soviet academician, doctor of agricultural sciences Pavel Yakovlev on the basis of the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Genetics and Breeding of Fruit Plants. Michurin.
"Parents" of Northerners are pear varieties Koparechka number 12 and Favorite Clapp. The agricultural industry changed its name three times: at first, this variety was called Yakovlev Seedling No. 103, then the name Severyanka Yakovlev was attached, later on the pear tree was renamed Severyanka.
From the name of the variety it becomes clear that the plant was originally intended for cultivation in the harsh climatic conditions of the northern region. In spite of the fact that this agriculture has gained widespread distribution over the territory of the post-Soviet states over time, the Ural, Volgo-Vyatsky, Far Eastern, East Siberian, Middle Volga and West Siberian regions are considered the main areas of its cultivation in Russia.
Northerner Red-cheeked has a low self-pollination (no more than 30–35% of fruits). In order to increase fruiting needs pollinating trees. The best pollinator, according to experienced gardeners, is the variety Memory Yakovlev.
Let's take a closer look at the taste qualities of Northerners, because this question interests not only farmers, but also ordinary consumers. Gentle-pink color of the fruit pulp has a pleasant mild aroma. The taste of pear is juicy and sweet, there is no sense of astringency.
Acquaintance with any fruit plant must begin with a description of the variety. Variety Severyanka refers to medium-sized pear trees. It has a wide pyramidal crown. If the plant is not formed, the diameter of the crown can reach 6 meters. At right angles from the trunk depart long and thick branches. Due to the tendency to increased branching pear can overgrow strongly.
The bark is colored dark gray. Young shoots of a greenish shade are covered with a small pile, which disappears as the plant becomes lignified. The leaves are dark green, complex structure, slightly pointed and elongated at the tips.
Pear Severyanka, according to the description of the variety, blooms with snow-white flowers saucer-shaped. At the same time, the edges of the petals hardly touch each other. During the period of active flowering, the tree is densely covered with inflorescences of 4-6 flowers.
The main characteristic of the fruit of Severyanka is small size. The average weight of one fruit is 80-100 g. Externally, the fruit has a slightly elongated conical shape. The surface of the pear is glossy. At the initial stage of ripening, the peel is distinguished by a yellowish-green color, and gradually the fruit turns completely yellow and acquires a light blush. To the touch the skin is soft and not rough.
Harvesting and storage
Northerner belongs to the category of fast-growing plants: the first pear crop is removed from trees of 3-4 years old.
The period of active maturation begins in mid-August and lasts until the beginning of September. The peculiarity of this variety is the high risk of the drop of ripe fruits. Literally in 2–3 days, all fruits are showered from the tree. For this reason, gardeners with many years of experience recommend not to wait until the fruit is fully ripe and to harvest a little earlier.
Unfortunately, this variety is poorly stored.
If you collect ripe fruit, the shelf life will be no more than 10 days. Slightly undiluted fruits will lie for 2 months. Keep the harvest should be in a cool dark place. The ideal option is a cool cellar.
Planting and care are two important points in gardening, on which it depends, whether the seedling will be taken, whether it will grow and develop further, how well it will bear fruit.
The first step is to choose a place for planting pear seedlings. Choose that part of the garden where there is a lot of sunshine, there are no drafts and the groundwater is at a depth of two meters. The ideal soil is called loamy or sandy soil with a large amount of organic fertilizers.
When to plant a pear tree sapling? A question that novice gardeners often ask. Both spring and autumn planting is possible. However, if you plant a tree in the fall, then there is a high probability that the plant will not take root before the first frost.
Starting the selection of a sapling, take a closer look at the biennial plants, as they are characterized by good endurance and high adaptability to different weather and climatic conditions.
Northerner pear belongs to the undemanding species of fruit trees. In order for the tree to grow well and bear fruit abundantly, you should follow some rules of plant care:
- need frequent and abundant watering, especially during the drought,
- Do not forget to constantly loosen the earth in pristvolnom circle
- remove weeds that clog the soil and do not allow oxygen,
- annually feed trees with mineral and organic fertilizers,
- despite the high level of frost resistance, the plant needs to be wrapped up for the winter,
- so that pears do not grow, they need sanitary and formative crown trimming,
- spend preventive treatment of the garden, which significantly reduces the risks of various diseases, as well as reduces the likelihood of pests.
Pros and cons of Northerners
Like any fruit plant, Northenka pear has its own advantages and disadvantages. After reading, you can see if this crop is suitable for growing in your garden.
- high level of frost resistance
- early fruiting
- excellent taste characteristics
- fruit universality (can be used both raw and used for making jams and preserves),
- excellent yield (with proper care and good pollination, one adult tree can produce about 45–60 kg of fruit),
- compactness and small size of the tree (suitable for small household plots),
- good resistance to scab.
- small fruits,
- high shedding of fruit when ripe,
- does not tolerate transportation,
- short storage period
- low drought tolerance.
Description and characteristics of the variety with a photo
Northerner Pear - srednerosloy tree, forming a fairly large (up to 6 m in diameter), a pyramidal crown. An adult tree reaches a maximum height of 5-6 meters.
Pear branches are not very thick, but rather strong, have a smooth bark of gray. The leaves of the pear are of a deep dark green color with a jagged edge and a beautiful glossy shine. Pear flowers are white, collected in clusters of five or more pieces.
At the beginning of ripening, the pear fruit is green with a pink tinge, but when it ripens, it becomes yellow. The skin of pears is thick, but not coarse. The fruit is small, shaped like a light bulb. Inside the fruit is a small seed chamber with a small amount of seeds. The weight of the fruit of Northerners is not very big - 80-120 grams.
Pulp of pears of light cream color, average density, rather juicy. The taste of pear is sweet and sour with a pronounced aroma.
Fruit ripening time is from the first decade of August to mid-September. Plucked pears are stored for no more than two weeks, but if they are harvested a week earlier, you can extend the shelf life to two months.
Variety pears Northerner refers to the early and skoroplodnymi varieties, the first fruiting begins already in 3-4 years after planting. At the age of six, up to 100 kg of fruit can be harvested from one pear.
This variety gives a stable yield every year. Fruits can be used for homemade preparations, and used fresh.
Severyanka, frost-resistant variety, withstands the most severe weather conditions and, thanks to this, is quite widespread in the northern regions of Russia. In the case of a strong decrease in temperature and freezing, due to new shoots, it is restored and continues to bear fruit. Severyanka is resistant to various diseases that affect pear trees, in particular scab. This variety is not afraid of pests.
Advantages and disadvantages
Pears Severyanka deserved a good reputation among gardeners, as it has a large number of positive qualities:
- Variety resistant to frost. Mature trees can withstand temperatures as low as -50 degrees and have excellent reducing ability after cold winters. Even if the tree froze, it starts up new shoots and continues to grow.
- The tree grows small and compact, which makes it possible to grow this variety, even in small garden areas.
- The variety is unpretentious to the conditions of cultivation, it is easy to care for him.
- Pears have a wonderful taste, suitable for canning.
- Since the variety is early ripe, pears can be picked already in August.
- The variety is resistant to diseases and pests.
- Northerner has a high yield. With good care from one tree can collect up to one hundred kilograms of pears.
But, despite all the advantages of the variety, pear Nortyanka has drawbacks:
- Most pears are showered before ripening, so it is important not to miss the harvest period.
- Pears are not very big in size.
- During dry weather and with insufficient watering, fruit ripening is delayed. Pears themselves grow small and not tasty.
- Short shelf life.
- Unsuitability for transportation.
- Frozen leaves may be affected by disease.
Pear variety Northerner refers to trees with low self-pollination - no more than 35%. In order to increase the fruiting of pears, other pollinating trees are needed. As pollinators for Northerners, other frost-resistant varieties of pears can be used, in which the flowering period coincides with this variety. The best pollinator for the Severyanka variety is considered to be the Memory of Yakovlev variety. If there are no other pollinators near the Northerner, and the tree is self-pollinated, the yield will be very low and the pears will be small.
Severyanka is often used as a pollinator for these varieties of pears:
In order to increase the fruiting of these varieties, it is necessary to plant at least one pear of Severyanka.