Apples - the fruit known all over the world which possesses not only pleasant taste, but also the mass of useful substances, vitamins and minerals. Therefore, apple trees can often be found in homestead plots, near houses and in country houses. Among the large number of species and varieties especially distinguished winter options. For example, the apple tree Red Chief.
An apple tree is a deciduous fruit tree or shrub that belongs to the Rosaceae family. It is found in all regions of Europe and Asia, as well as in America and China. Apple Red Red belongs to the selection varieties of the Delishes family. It was withdrawn many years ago, but is still popular. Variety refers to the winter.
The apple tree of this species is short. The height of the branches reaches only 5-7 meters. At the same time, it is distinguished by its precocity. The great advantage of this variety is that it is winter and the harvest comes in October. Fruits reach full maturity in December, so in the cold season you can enjoy fresh juicy fruit.
Red Chif is an apple tree whose description of fruits is similar to the Red Delicious variety, the variety has also become popular in the regions of Russia. This fruit has a bright red skin. In addition, these apples are very juicy, fragrant and tasty. Have a slightly elongated shape and greenish color of the pulp. The weight of one apple can reach 280 grams.
One of the most beautiful and fertile trees is the Red Chif apple tree. Planting and care are quite simple. If you follow several rules, you can get a beautiful and healthy tree, which brings a bountiful harvest every year.
To water the Red Chief apple tree is demanding, especially in the spring and in the hot dry summer months. After each procedure, it is recommended to loosen the soil near the trunk, across the crown area and in parallel remove weeds. This will allow air to penetrate to the root system. Every year in the spring, fertilizer is applied under the tree. It is necessary to begin this process from 3-4 years of a plant life. And if the landing was made in the "empty" soil, then start feeding in a year. Also fertilizers are applied before wintering and, if necessary, during the season.
Apple Red Chif is resistant to many diseases: powdery mildew, scab, and bacterial burn. But experts recommend it every spring before flowering to handle drugs that protect the tree not only from diseases, but also from pests. Every year in the autumn and spring pruning is carried out. This removes the diseased and dead branches. The excess formations that make the crown thick are also cut off. Sections are processed with a special garden pitch.
In the nurseries there is a large selection of saplings of fruit trees, including Red Chif - an apple tree for sale. The breeding description will allow the grower to independently grow such a tree on his plot. There are several ways: graft cutting and cultivation of cuttings. In this case, both in the first and in the second case, the resulting tree will retain all the mother characteristics.
Vaccination is a rather complicated process for a beginner. But reproduction using otvodka will master any. For this, an annual tree is planted in such a way that it is strongly inclined to the ground. In the spring months, the young branches are dripping, and shoots grown from buds spud and keep in constant moisture, not overflowing and not swamping the soil.
By the fall of the young branches should grow roots. So that in the winter cold they do not freeze, they are warmed. And in the spring, when warm weather sets in and the ground warms up, the shoots are separated from the mother tree with a sharp shear and transferred to a permanent growing place.
In order for the Red Chif apple seedlings to develop well and bear fruit already at 3-4 years of age, it is necessary to choose the right plot for a permanent tree growing place. Preferably well-lit, warm and sunny areas. At the same time, the growing place should be protected from northern winds and drafts. The plot can be selected on a slope or on a hillock. Deepening and hollows are excluded, since stagnation of water leads to diseases and rotting of the roots.
Having picked up a good place, it is necessary to prepare a hole in advance. Its size should be such that the root system of the seedling freely lay around the bottom perimeter. Drainage and substrate made of earth, river sand and peat are laid in the excavated pit. Next, set the seedling, straightened the roots. All powdered the same fertile mixture. Apple Red Red with a properly selected location and timely planting will begin to bear fruit for 3-4 years of life. Minimal care and compliance with all the rules will be pleased with abundant annual flowering and autumn harvest.
The country is the manufacturer of apple Red Chif is the United States. Bred in Clay County, which is located in West Virginia.
The variety is a hybrid of Red Delicious (resulting from the interbreeding of Golden Reinet and Grimes Golden varieties). It was first presented on the market back in 1914.
Now it can be called one of the most popular. He is known, both in America and abroad. In Russia, he incredibly quickly gained popularity.
The crown of trees is a rounded shape and grows compactly, so they are planted in a row close to each other.
Red Chief is a frost-resistant apple tree, not afraid of drought. It is moderately resistant to bacterial and fungal diseases.
The variety is famous for its high yield of large fruits.
The apples themselves are medium juicy, with dense pulp, taste is sweet. From them the incredible aroma reaches.
They are red, covered with a waxy bloom, large (1 apple weighs more than 200 g). The shape is slightly elongated, resembles a truncated cone.
Low calorie: 100 g only 47 kcal.
- The taste of the apple is saturated, with a high score from the experts (4.8).
- Fruits are stored until the end of winter.
- Appearance attractive.
- Fruits can be transported, they are resistant to damage.
- With bacterial dew, the tree resists well.
- High resistance to powdery mildew disease.
- under cultivation, the variety is poorly adapted,
- weak resistance to scab disease,
- bitter blotch and rot often occur,
- fruit pulp sometimes becomes vitreous.
If time to carry out the prevention of these diseases, then all these shortcomings will disappear.
In order for these fruit trees to have high productivity, it is necessary that suitable pollinating varieties be planted nearby: Gloucester, El Star, Golden Delicious.
Suitable region and climate
The variety cannot be exactly called winter-hardy. It grows better in temperate regions. Suitable southern and central regions of the country.
If in the region there are frequent frosts in spring, which are also replaced by a thaw, or a very low temperature in winter, then an apple tree may experience freezing.
In order to prevent this, it is necessary to prepare trees in the autumn in a qualitative manner, i.e. trim them and create additional cover.
Delicious and juicy apples
Disease and Pest Resistance
The mealy dew of the Red Chif variety apple tree is practically not terrible, which cannot be said of scab and spotting. To them she has a weak immunity.
Periodically need to spray special solutions that will help protect the fruit tree. In order for immunity to be high, it is necessary to comply with the technology of cultivation and care.
In order for the apple tree to take root in the plot and bring a good harvest, you must follow some rules.
- The place on which the seedling will be planted must be carefully chosen. It should not be close to the location of underwater waters. During the raising of water, the roots will be a long time in moisture. This will lead to the death of the root system and the tree.
- You need to choose a suitable place for landing so that the sun's rays illuminate it well. From the north there should be protection from cold winds.
- The soil at the site should be loamy. It will help the tree to increase its winter hardiness.
This procedure is carried out in the fall. Do it in order to prevent freezing of the root system.
To carry out mulching, ideal humus. You can use other materials that will improve the structure of the soil and nourish it.
It is important that these materials are protected from leaching, drying out and freezing.
When choosing mulch should pay attention to the ability of the material to pass air into the soil. In addition to humus, it is recommended to use sawdust, hay, or fallen leaves.
If the winter is very cold, then the tree should be covered additionally for this period.
Periodically, the tree must be fed. It is recommended to carry out the procedure in April, when all the snow melts and the ground becomes soft.
A furrow 15-20 cm deep should be made around the root system. Special fertilizer should be poured into it, as a rule, it takes a complex action in the form of granules.
When choosing feeding, pay attention to the fact that the effect of fertilizer was long.
After the procedure, the groove should be sealed. Top-dressing of this type is done every 2-3 years.
According to the description, it is desirable to feed the tree with organic fertilizers in the form of humus. Especially when the soil is sandy, it requires about 4-5 buckets for a good harvest.
As soon as you plant a sapling, you immediately need to do pruning.
Characteristic of the process: the central trunk should be shortened by 15 cm. It should be with a maximum of 5 buds.
In the second year, the branches of the tree should be opposite each other, so you need to do another pruning.
In the future, the procedure should be carried out as needed. As soon as you notice damaged branches or very weak, you need to pruning, and then treat the wound with garden pitch.
Proper vaccination will give a positive result.
This is one breeding method. For beginners, it is quite complicated.
The inoculation increases the yield of the tree, rejuvenates it, displays new varieties. It can be done at any time of the year, but spring is considered the most favorable period. As soon as the frosts subside, and the sap goes through the tree, you can get to work.
Use for spring vaccinations need cuttings without swollen buds. If you missed time, it is better to postpone the procedure for the summer.
Previously, the tree should be plentifully watered and loosen the soil next to it. A sharp knife and a handsaw should be on hand. Tools should be sharpened and antiseptic.
It is imperative that at the end it is necessary to treat the site of vaccination with garden pitch, and tie and fix the cutting with tape or polyethylene.
For grafting usually use trees that are similar in appearance. The best option - on the wild, because It is cold and durable. Also suitable pear, plum, cherry, hawthorn, mountain ash.
There are still breeding methods: cuttings and layering. If the tree is grafted in any way, it will retain all its original varietal characteristics.
This procedure is carried out in the spring, until such time as the buds are not dismissed. Treating trees with special solutions. Install glue belts directly on the tree trunk. It protects it from crawling insects.
The second treatment with insecticides is carried out when flowering is over. The main thing is not to be late, because most of the apples will be damaged by codling moth.
Important! It is impossible to process an apple tree during flowering. This will damage most of what has already been tied up on a tree, will destroy pollinating insects.
The final stage of processing falls on the period of fruit filling. It should be carried out no later than a month before harvest.
Features of ripening and fruiting
Considered variety can be called a fast-growing culture, because in a few years the tree will bring the first harvest.
Do not allow the soil to dry out or the apple to freeze, otherwise the yield will drop significantly.
The first few years, the volume of one tree will be about 30 kg, and in subsequent with the right care will bring about 150 kg from one tree.
Fruit ripening occurs in late September - early October. Sometimes the crop is harvested until the frost.
According to the description, Red Chief is stored for a long time, retaining all its consumer qualities.
Harvest is best in dry weather, damaged apples or mashed ones should be discarded immediately - they should not be with good fruits. It is better to eat them right away.
Storage space should be dark with a temperature of 5-7 ° C. It is best to stack the apples in a wooden box, wrapping each with paper, or pour it between the rows of wood chips.
History and description of the variety
Apple Red Red belongs to the autumn varieties, and was obtained in America as a result of the cloning of the much more popular variety Red Delicious. The cloning process itself was carried out in Clay County in West Virginia. Some insist that the receipt of the Red Chif variety was unintentional - it was the result of an accidental seeding after crossing Golden Reinet and Grimes Golden. The described apple tree was introduced to the market in 1914.
This variety is distinguished by a rather high precocity - the first harvests can be obtained already after two years after planting a tree. The type of fruiting in this plant - kolchasty. It is also worth saying that fruits have a very attractive presentation, therefore this variety is widely used for commercial purposes.
In addition, since the crown of this tree is quite compact - you can plant the plants at a short distance from each other, without fear that they will compete for nutrients or shade each other.
This plant is not very resistant to low temperatures and drought, so you need to take additional protective measures in the winter and summer periods (in severe frosts and dry summer). If you take care of a tree properly, it will bring rather abundant harvests. Red Chif ripens closer to the end of September, and Elstar, Gloucester and Golden Dilishes can be used as pollinators for this variety.
The trees of this apple tree are not of considerable size - their height is relatively weak. Crohn has a rounded shape and is compact, which makes possible close proximity to other plants of this variety.
The fruits of this tree can be called quite large - on average, they weigh from 180 to 200 grams. In shape, they are slightly conical and somewhat elongated, on top of these fruits five small “knolls” are formed.
The color of the skin has a greenish-yellow hue, however, due to the fact that the surface color of the fruit is bright red and extends to the entire surface of the fruit, it is not easy to notice. On top of the apple is covered with a rather thick and dense wax coating, which is easily visible on the surface of the fruit.
The flesh of apples has a pleasant cream color, medium density and not too juicy. It has a very pleasant aroma, and the taste of apples - sweet, almost devoid of sour notes. The tasting score is quite high - as many as 4, 8 points. In addition, many consumers note the high taste of the fruit and call them extremely tasty. Apples contain a large amount of sugars and a not too large percentage of acids, also contain vitamin C in sufficient quantities.
Apple variety "Red Chief" was obtained in the United States (Iowa), as a result of selective selection from another popular type - Red Delicious. However, some breeders, by contrast, argue that a new variety of apple trees did not arise intentionally, but as a result of accidental sowing after crossing Grims Golden and Golden Reinet varieties. This species came to world markets in 1914, where it quickly gained high popularity for its qualities.
In order to appreciate the red chif varietal apple trees, it is necessary to refer to their detailed botanical description.
This variety is characterized by fairly undersized skoroplodnymi trees with rounded miniature crowns, which gives gardeners an excellent opportunity to plant them in dense rows.
The fruits are considered the main advantage of the presented variety - large (more than 200 g), truncated-conical, slightly elongated, with a wax rich red skin, pleasant aroma and sweet taste. The flesh of apples compacted, medium juiciness. The dry matter content of at least 15%.
Planting rules seedlings
In order to saplings of the variegated "Snow White Apple Trees" have taken root well on the site, and later developed and fruited, it is necessary to first take into account several important landing rules:
- the place should be without significant groundwater occurrence, the root system of trees will quickly begin to die from their abundant uplift and prolonged stay in the soil. In order to calculate the unfavorable places in advance, one should pay attention to the following sign: a dry peak at the root of the seedling,
- The landing area must be open and in good sunshine,
- on the north side of the landing should be protected from strong, cold winds,
- the soil should be selected loamy, since on the sandy soils of this type, the winter hardiness will significantly decrease,
- planting is desirable to place on the south side of the buildings, it will provide plants with additional shelter during return frost,
- Selected plants should be planted only on low growth or medium height rootstocks. The landing scheme, in this case, should look like this: 4x1.5 m,
- The best pollinators of this species will be the varieties: Golden Delicious, Gloucester and Elstar.
How to care for a grade
It is not difficult to care for varietal plantings of “Red Chief”, because by themselves the trees of this species are not capricious and unpretentious. But not to do without some of the most necessary agrotechnical activities:
- in the summer, especially on hot and dry days, apple trees need to provide abundant watering,
- After wetting, the soil should always be loosened near the trunk and across the crown area, while not forgetting to remove weeds (weeding). Such procedures will allow the root system of the apple to get enough oxygen,
- every year, starting with 3-4 years of life of a sapling, in the spring period of time, fertilizer, previously purchased in a specialized store, is laid under the trunk,
- if the soil for seedlings was chosen not entirely successfully and is considered “empty”, then it is necessary to start feeding in one year after planting,
- Do not forget about the spring chemical treatments of plants for the prevention of various pests and diseases. Manipulations should be carried out before flowering,
- in the fall and spring, pruning is carried out, during which sick, frozen shoots, as well as excess branches, which excessively thicken the crown, are necessarily removed. After completing the procedure, it is advisable to treat the cut points with a garden pitch.
If you follow all the rules for planting and caring for the Red Chef variety, your apple trees will long delight you with wonderful fragrant blooms and an abundant high yield.
Pros and cons varieties
Advantages of the American hybrid Red Chif:
- The term entry into fruiting.
- Sizes of apples.
- Duration of storage after harvest.
- Powdery Mildew Immunity.
The disadvantages of the hybrid include low resistance to scab and spotting, as well as difficulties in growing in the northern regions.
Resistance to frosts and diseases
Relatively high resistance to powdery mildew and bacterial burn, but low to scab.
Depending on the strength of the immune system, the plant may be affected by codling moth.
Frost resistance is average. In northern latitudes, Red Chief will be problematic to grow, the tree can not withstand the harsh winters. Apple tree is experiencing cold to -25 degrees.
Everything about the harvest
Yield is considered to be another important characteristic that concerns all gardeners when choosing an apple variety. Any summer resident wants to find a variety that requires a minimum of care, but which at the same time gives a good harvest.
Periodicity and amount of harvest
Red Chief belongs to large-fruited high-yielding hybrids. In the first few years, up to 30 kg of fruits are harvested from the tree. Subsequently, the yield may increase to 130 kg. Fruiting annual.
Collection and use of fruits
The plant belongs to winter hybrids. The first ripe apples to pluck from the tree will turn out no earlier than September. Mass harvesting falls on the last days of September-October. On average, the weight of fruit is about 190-370 g. Apples are versatile to use. Of them prepare the jam, jam, used for baking and consumed fresh. Harvest can be stored up to 7 months.
Before planting for 2 weeks, dig a hole, the top layer of soil is mixed with manure, mineral fertilizers and ash. Then they fall asleep to the bottom of the pit. Immediately before planting, the root system of the apple tree is dipped into the clay mud.
Apple tree does not belong to moisture-loving cultures and it is often not necessary to water it. Enough 4 irrigations per fruiting season:
- The first watering is done during the period of swelling of the kidneys.
- The second - with the onset of flowering.
- The third time the soil is moistened during the formation of ovaries.
- The last time - before the onset of frost in October.
It is not recommended to water the plants with cold water. This increases the risk of fungal diseases.
In the first half of summer, nitrogen is introduced into the ground. Nitrogen-containing compounds include ammonium nitrate, urea, or ammonium sulfate. Organic fertilizers are also applied to the soil.
During the fruiting period, the soil is fed with superphosphate and potash supplements.
Apple Red Chif - the most popular variety in Russia. Homeland fruit culture of America. It was there in West Virginia from the random sowing of a hybrid, which was bred from the crossing of Golden Reinet and Grimes Golden varieties, the breeders received Red Chief.
The apple tree is very similar to the brand Red Delicious, in shape and color of the fruit. In 1914, the fruit crop passed all checks and was zoned to different countries.
Fruit weighing 180 gr. - 380 gr., have a conical, rising to the top shape. The skin is bright red in color, with a predominance of wax. Cream-colored pulp, fragrant, very juicy and sweet. The tasting assessment of the fruit is 4.8 points.
Apple fruit Red Chif.
Variety Red Chief moderate to freeze and drought. For good tree development it is necessary to water the apple tree in time, at least twice a month.
Red Chif should be watered at least twice a month.
After each watering, the near-stem circle must be loosened and weeds removed, which will contribute to a better saturation of the root system with oxygen.
In order to avoid frosting of an apple during the winter period, in the autumn, the tree trunk is mulched with humus and the tree is wrapped with covering material.
Watch a video on how to prepare apples for winter:
Red Chif Apple Tree self-infertile culture. For fruit ovaries it is advisable on the same plot with apple tree plant varieties pollinators, such as:
In an apple tree, the fruits are not only tasty and healthy, but also have properties for a long time to retain consumer qualities. With the right temperature and humidity, apples do not lose their presentation and taste for 7 months.
Red Chief apples are stored for up to 7 months.
Apple Red Chif on semi-dwarf rootstock has a lot of advantages compared to standard grade. To the main advantages stock, gardeners include the following indicators:
- Early fruiting and rapid increase in yield,
- Convenience in the care and collection of fruits,
- Fruits are larger and have high commercial quality,
- The tree has a decorative crown, which will allow to embellish a personal plot.
Disadvantages apple trees on semi-dwarf rootstock believe that the root system is close to the surface of the soil.
Red Chief on semi-dwarf stock.
In outskirts of Moscow
For better development of the apple tree Red Chief in the Moscow region, need to make the right fit.
Planted seedling in this region in early spring. Autumn planting is not desirable if the tree is purchased in the fall, it is dropped in a hole and left in this position until the spring planting.
So that water does not stagnate in the root system of a tree, before landing in the pit doing the drainage of stones. Then add a small amount of chernozem, establish a sapling and cover it with earth.
In order to avoid frosting of a tree in this region, its it is necessary to warm during the autumn period.
It is also worth paying attention to rodents. In the fight against them establish different baits which will distract pests from seedlings
In order for the apple tree Red Chief to produce a consistently high yield, without periodicity in fruiting, in the territory of Ukraine, it is necessary to make proper care of the plant:
- In this region, as a rule, there is a low occurrence of groundwater. In order to avoid rotting of the root system of a tree, in rainy weather, it is worth regularly loosening the soil near the tree trunk,
- spring and autumn whitewashing of the stem with lime will help to avoid burns from the ultraviolet rays of the sun,
- Basic fertilizers, such as potassium, phosphorus and manure, are applied immediately before planting.
For growing in Ukraine requires proper care.
In the middle lane
If we consider a few nuances, the apple tree Red Chief can well grow and bear fruit in central Russia.
If the seedlings are planted on clay soils, Compost, sand, humus and organic fertilizers should be added to the recess for planting.
In order to avoid the development of various diseases,Care must be taken to keep the garden clean., for this weed weed and remove fallen leaves.
Timely dressing with nitrogen and mineral fertilizers, will contribute to better yields and annual fruiting.
Having considered all the characteristics of the apple Red Red, you can conclude thatit is not a whimsical culture in gardening. By planting this variety on your plot, you are not only enjoy the most delicious apples, but also due to the high transportability of fruits, will be able to significantly increase the family budget.
Characteristics of the tree and fruit
An apple tree with a compact round crown, which is usually given a spindle shape, looks very attractive, especially in mid-May, when white-pink flowers bloom amid fresh fresh green foliage, or in summer-autumn, when yellow-green apples grow, they acquire a bright red blush. . This coating blush will completely hide the main color of the fruit at the time of technical maturity, which occurs in the first half of October. The leaves, almost unchanged for the season, quickly fall off after the first frost.
The tree is not afraid of mechanical damage, but from rodents it is desirable to wrap, especially the first few years. It shows the average resistance to scab and various spots, it may suffer from the invasion of the moth. Experienced gardeners recommend treating Red Chif trees with special preparations for preventive purposes in the spring before leafing, and then monitor the whole season of the tree trunks for the entire season: loosen and weed it, not to leave any fallen leaves under the apple trees in the fall.
Fruiting begins in 2–3 years after planting at a permanent place of growth, that is, at 4–5 years of life, the fruits are formed on the wheel well. Apples grow large, weighing from 200 to 350 g, have a characteristic shape of a truncated cone with five bulges on top. Harvest in October, and the consumer maturity of red with a waxy bloom apples acquire by mid-December. They have creamy, sometimes greenish flesh with a high content of ascorbic acid and P-active substances.
Sweet flavored apples are perfectly transported and stored: at home they can lie for up to 3 months without loss of qualities, and if you create suitable conditions for them, you can use them for up to 8 months.