Cattle disease is an important topic of modern veterinary medicine. Conventionally, all pathologies are divided into infectious and not having such a nature. The most dangerous are the diseases belonging to the first class, especially those that can spread to a person. Infection of at least one animal carries the risk of losing an impressive percentage of the entire population. If the disease is not contagious, it is relatively safe for others, but it can be fatal. Suspecting a disease in an individual, it is necessary to urgently contact a veterinarian and take measures for treatment.
This kind of pathology can appear against the background of penetration of a virulent virus, a pathological bacterium, fungus into the body. Infectious diseases of cattle are dangerous contagious, can easily spread inside the herd. Infection of only one animal can cause the disease of the entire livestock that a farmer has - and this entails serious financial losses. Most often, infection leads to FMD and smallpox. Also, cows can get tuberculosis, brucellosis. Infectious diseases include rabies, actinomycosis, and leukemia.
The name of infectious cattle disease received by the pathogen - Brucella. This bacterium is dangerous to animals, can be transmitted to humans. The reproductive organs are the first to suffer, and infection occurs when healthy and sick cattle come into contact, graze in the same area, and drink from the same source. The pathogen is able to enter the body through microscopic injuries of the skin, reproductive and respiratory organs, through the digestive tract.
The disease manifests itself not immediately, the latent period reaches three weeks. Spontaneous interruption of the carrying of the calf, retention of the afterbirth, inflammation of the udder, endometritis may indicate brucellosis. In bulls, the testicles and prepuce are inflamed. Regardless of the sex of the animal, brucellosis can cause abscesses and joint diseases.
A therapeutic course involves the appointment of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. As a rule, levofloxacin medications are chosen, which quickly suppress the vital activity of the pathogen. A veterinarian usually prescribes a lexoflon course of five days or more. Until the program is completed, and the recovery is not confirmed, neither milk nor the meat of a sick animal can be consumed. After the termination of the course, the specimen is tested twice for infection. Permission to use products is given if both analyzes give a negative result.
This is the name of acute viral cattle disease, which violates the functionality of the nervous system. The predominant outcome is death. Wild and human animals can get sick. All types are subject to this ailment. More often young individuals become infected. The disease can be transmitted to humans. A distinctive feature of the pathogen is thermolability. When the medium is heated to 60 degrees, destruction occurs in 5-10 minutes. At the same time, the pathogen is resistant to low temperatures. Under the influence of acidic media, alkali is inactivated, shows resistance to iodine, phenol.
When rabies is considered among other diseases of cattle in veterinary medicine, be sure to pay attention to the high level of infectiousness. Infection usually occurs from an infected individual: the virus can spread with saliva. Often the transfer occurs when a bite. In the microflora substance can exist up to 10 days. From the point of penetration into the body, the pathogen enters the brain through the trunks of the nerves, infects the cells of the NA. The latent period lasts a day or more, occasionally a month or more. More often, the first symptoms can be noticed approximately 3-6 weeks after infection.
Features of the disease
Animal rabies is usually a cattle disease that occurs in a quiet form. A sick individual hoarsely moos, it actively secretes saliva. The animal shakily walks, paralyzes the limbs, the appetite changes. If the pathology develops violently, the cows become aggressive, which becomes especially noticeable when dogs approach them. A sick animal is trying to break off a leash, it can throw itself on the walls, hoarsely roar. Some have the urge to dig the ground with their hooves.
To diagnose a disease, it is necessary to evaluate the clinical manifestations, epizootological signs. For this disease of cattle treatment is not provided. The infected individual is isolated, the doctor is called. After death, the autopsy confirms infection with a pathogen of rabies. Prevention of cases involves the timely formulation of vaccines. It should protect livestock from stray dogs. An animal that has bitten a person must be isolated and observe its behavior for at least 30 days.
This term refers to a pathological condition caused by a virus containing RNA. Foot and mouth disease occurs when an aftovirus from the Pikornaviride family is infected. After penetration into organic tissue, the pathogen accumulates in the epithelium cells, which leads to the formation of aphthous foci. In the diagnosis of cattle disease, it is necessary to pay attention to the presence of bubbles filled with a specific fluid. By the time the maximum possible concentration is reached, the pathogen gets a chance to enter the circulatory system, which provokes a sharp deterioration in the condition of the individual.
Suspected foot and mouth disease can be on the rise in temperature (up to 41.5 degrees), loss of appetite, abundant foamy saliva and smacking. Aphthae appear on the mucous membrane of the mouth. They can be seen in the udder area, hoof cracks, near the scrotum in a male animal.
Allocate benign and malignant forms of cattle disease. The first option involves the absence of secondary infection, and a complete cure is possible in two weeks. If the pathology is complicated, avoid fatal outcome will not work. The greatest risks are for small calves aged three months and younger. Symptoms in young animals are more like gastroenteritis than foot and mouth disease, and pathology does not lead to the formation of aft.
How to get rid
With the appearance of cattle diseases, their symptoms and signs must necessarily cause alarm to the owner of the animal. You must call the veterinarian to determine the exact diagnosis. When confirming FMD, you should use a special serum, which increases the body's ability to resist a malicious virus. Afty regularly treated with furatsilinom, potassium permanganate, sintomitsinovoy ointment. To prevent re-infection, it is wise to prescribe an antimicrobial course. Preparations are given in liquid form along with food. If a sick individual refuses to eat, a flour mash should be injected directly into the digestive tract through a probe.
This cattle disease also belongs to the class of viral, belongs to the group of contagious. The first suffers from the respiratory system, it is here that the main violations associated with the introduction of the pathogen. Most often, the disease is observed in young stock - not less than ten days old, but not older than half a year. The disease provokes paramyxovirus, characterized by poor resistance to disinfectants. For inactivation, you can use alkaline, acidic solutions, ether, chloroform.
Usually the infection comes from the carrier of the virus or the sick individual. Transmission - by airborne droplets. Supposedly, a sick cow can infect a calf through milk. There is no accurate information about the impossibility of sexual separation of the virus. More often the pathology is observed in cold time, against the background of severe stresses, crowded habitats and the need for transportation.
Parainfluenza is a common disease of young cattle, therefore it has been studied quite well. It was revealed that the incubation period usually lasts 24-30 hours, after which the symptoms of the disease are immediately noticeable: the nasal mucous membranes turn red, tears are emitted, it flows from the nose, breathing is disturbed. The sick animal is depressed, the body temperature is increased, there is inflammation of the eye cornea, cough.
To clarify the diagnosis it is necessary to take for laboratory analysis smear, washes. Samples receive in the period from the second to the fifth day of the disease. It is necessary to examine the blood plasma in the first three days. The symptoms of parainfluenza are similar to other respiratory diseases caused by viruses, and therefore special attention is required.
Having identified the disease in young cattle, it is necessary to immediately isolate the individual. This animal is supposed to be treated, by the way - vaccination. The therapeutic course involves the introduction of a special serum, globulin, convalescents. Apply antimicrobial agents, agents from the group of nitrofurans, sulfonamides.
Prevention of parainfluenza is possible if you carefully observe sanitary, veterinary, technological measures, care for cattle and keep it in good conditions, as well as regularly vaccinate young livestock. The ill animal cannot be re-infected in the future. Newborn animals with colostrum receive antibodies when fed if the cow has been vaccinated. It is recommended to vaccinate animals for 5-7 days of birth, when they stop the effect of antibodies received from the mother.
This is a disease of cattle, provoked by several pathogens. Possible cow, pork pox and vaccinia. A distinctive feature is the formation of clearly delineated papules on the external integuments, the central part of which is somewhat depressed. Diseases are characterized by acute course, fever, general poisoning of the body. Smallpox can be suspected, if the animal does not eat, weak, on its lips, udder, pinkish papules erupt close to the nose, gradually changing the shade to a darker one. Formations gradually burst, exudate leaks, crusts appear. The animal often lies, and if it rises, it spreads its legs wide while walking. Measurement of body temperature shows elevated rates. Often, pathology is complicated by mastitis. To avoid this, milk is decanted regularly. If you can not do it with your hands, you need to use a catheter.
The therapeutic course involves treatment of all rashes with formalin or brilliant green. Stimulation of regeneration is possible when using boric or zinc ointment. Enhancing the immune status is provided by vitamin supplements to the main diet. To prevent secondary bacterial infection, antibiotics are prescribed on streptomycin, bicillin.
To prevent smallpox, it is necessary to vaccinate livestock on time. It is especially important to do this if there have already been cases of illness in the area.
Tendon diseases and bruises
Not infrequent in bovine diseases of the joints and tendons, as well as a variety of injuries associated with lifestyle. Many tendinitis, tendovaginitis. These are especially frequent when an individual is injured, wounded, as well as during infection. The affected area becomes thicker, swollen, sore. The animal limps, when touched, fever is noticeable. Therapeutic course involves ensuring complete rest, the imposition of a pressure bandage, cooling the site. If excess effusion accumulates, it is necessary to make punctures, treating the area with antiseptic solutions. In this case, you should use wet compresses with ichthyol alcohol, camphor. When the pain subsides, camphor oil is used for local massage.
Among the diseases of the extremities of cattle bruises are very common. Of course, an animal can get such an injury in any part of the body, but it is the legs that are more likely to suffer. Bruise is a mechanical damage in which the skin remains intact. Bruising is possible by contact with the hoof, mechanism, blunt object. An animal may receive such damage during transportation. If the injury is severe, the tissues nearby may become inflamed. In addition, there is a risk of fracture. The affected area is hot to the touch, it responds with pain, after a few days there is a noticeable change in the color of the skin. First they turn bluish black and then yellowish green. If the wound is deep, the animal may have a feverish state that is not accompanied by infection.
The affected individual needs rest. The skin is treated with iodine, potassium permanganate. In case of severe damage, it is reasonable to use cold, apply a compress or a pressure bandage. The treatment is chosen by the veterinarian, focusing on the condition of the animal. It is possible to prevent bruises, if you keep cattle in adequate conditions, by sex and age, following the basic rules of transportation.
Livestock pathologies: different parts of the body suffer
Hoof disease is quite common in bovine cattle. They all bring many problems and anxieties to animals, since walking becomes a source of painful sensation, just like standing upright. Quite often, the so-called strawberry disease develops, in which small reddish tubercles form at the base of the slit and on the diadem. When they infiltrate, they diagnose laminitis. Perhaps the appearance of corolla phlegmon, in which the tissue is inflamed, purulent exudate is released.
The diseases of hoofs in cattle include lameness. The term refers to the state, accompanied by the active growth of the stratum corneum. This is more typical of the period of a long stay in the stall. In inflammatory processes at the base of the hoof, aseptic Pododermatitis is diagnosed.
To identify the problem, it is enough to carefully observe the behavior of the animal. A sick individual is prone to lie, limping when walking. Visual inspection shows swelling and enlargement of the joints, deformation of individual sections. Possible formation of foci of ulceration, boils, purulent substance released from the cracks of the hoof. With such symptoms, you should not look in the directories and other sources for information with photos about diseases of cattle. A veterinarian should be invited so that the specialist can make an accurate diagnosis and select an adequate treatment.
Among the invasive diseases of cattle is tuberculosis. Koch's stick provokes the disease. When it penetrates into organic tissues, a starting focus is first formed, from which further propagation gradually takes place with the generation of multiple lesions. Gradually, organic tissues in the area of introduction are destroyed. Forms vary from case to case, depending on the localization of the pathogen. It is customary to talk about the pathology of the skeletal system, respiratory, intestinal tract and uterus. There is a possibility of a generalized variant in which the wand penetrates the bloodstream and simultaneously infects several organs.
The disease is transmitted not only between livestock within the herd, but can infect a person. Symptomatology is not always expressed, in adult animals it can proceed covertly. Most often, the localization area is light. A sick individual loses its appetite, is exhausted, suffers from shortness of breath. A fever may be possible, but a slight enough, as well as a cough. Lymph nodes become larger in size, lose mobility, and listening to the lungs allows you to identify wheezing.
Other forms of tuberculosis
A different area of localization of the Koch sticks gives other manifestations. Thus, during infection of the udder, the back and lymph node grows over the organ. With intestinal fluid stools are noticeable with inclusions of pus, blood. The generalized form may indicate an overgrowth of lymph nodes in different parts of the body that respond with pain.
To confirm the diagnosis it is necessary to put a tuberculin test. Normally, it is made throughout the herd. Veterinary recommendations contain an indication of the timing of the injection. In determining a positive response, the individual is subject to slaughter. If an infected animal is detected, the farm goes into the category of disadvantaged. It is necessary to completely replace the herd, sanitize all objects related to the maintenance of animals.
Pathologies provoke telasias that infect the tear glands, other parts of the eye. The intermediate owner of the nematode is a cowshed. Typically, infection of this disease of the eye of cattle occurs during walking on pastures. The fly feeds on animal secretions, while the larvae are swallowed, which then accumulate in the head and move through the proboscis into the eye of the mammal. The duration of this stage of the life cycle reaches 11 months. Symptomatology is most pronounced in the period from July to September. The animal actively separates the tears, the cornea becomes cloudy. A sick individual is afraid of light, suffers from conjunctivitis, keratitis. Perhaps the formation of ulcers on the cornea. The duration of the active period of the disease reaches two months. In this case, the sick animal can not see.
Для уточнения диагноза необходимо взять на исследование смыв вещества, полученного из конъюнктивального мешка. Телязиоз диагностируют при выявлении личинок, взрослых паразитов. Заметив симптомы болезни у КРС, показано сделать дегельминтизацию. With a complication of secondary infection, sulfonamides, penicillin antibiotics are shown. De-worming involves the use of a half-percent iodine solution, an ichthyol emulsion, Lysol made on fish fat, a solution of boric acid. The drug is administered under the third eyelid in an amount of not more than three milliliters, and then the eyes of the individual are massaged. It is necessary to do three such procedures, keeping between them a period of not more than three days.
To minimize the risks of disease, regular preventive deworming and flies should be carried out. Preventing contamination involves taking precautionary measures before the start of grazing, while cattle are kept in stalls.
Among non-communicable diseases of cattle, hepatitis is among the most common. The term refers to diffuse inflammatory processes occurring in the liver. Pathology leads to hepatic hyperemia, tissue infiltration. Dystrophic processes, necrotic changes are initiated. Liver cells and other structural elements associated with them are affected. The disease manifests itself as signs of liver failure. Typically, hepatitis occurs when an individual eats spoiled food, lupine, potato sprouts. Similar symptoms are possible with the ingestion of almond poisons. Some invasive pathologies can lead to hepatitis.
Hepatitis is a non-contagious cattle disease, which manifests itself as a decrease in appetite and general inhibition of a sick individual. The animal is thirsty, it vomits, fever arises, breathing becomes frequent, secretions with blood inclusions are abundantly secreted, mucous membranes become yellowish, skin itches, the animal combs the area to blood, urine becomes dark. The duration of the acute period reaches a month, after which the livestock recovers or dies. With the transition to the chronic form, liver cirrhosis begins, the organ becomes denser, the functions weaken. A blood test shows a high concentration of bilirubin.
When identifying this internal non-communicable disease, cattle must be transferred to a diet. Showing coarse feed crops, carbohydrates. In the vein, you must enter the glucose solution, oral - magnesium sulfate. The therapeutic course involves the use of "urotropin", Karlovy Vary salt.
The long-known acute viral disease afflicting livestock, the plague, which has been frightening many farmers. Infection occurs systemically, provokes a severe fever, catarrhal and hemorrhagic manifestations. On the mucous membranes, you can see areas of inflammation. The probability of death varies in the range of 90-100%.
This cattle disease has a rather long history. The term "plague" was first used in 1710. It is derived from the Greek word for general infection. Then it was decided to call the plague any disease that caused significant damage. Back in the period of the Roman Empire, cattle outbreaks were recorded. In Asia, officially the first time this happened only in the fourth century. In European countries, a particularly widespread disease was in the eighteenth century, as a consequence of hostilities and active trade between countries. First, German and Dutch, English and Italian lands suffered, then the pathology spread to the Scandinavian powers. There was a place of this cattle disease in the history of almost all countries in Eurasia.
Quite strong flashes were observed until the third decade of the last century. The damage from them cannot be estimated, it is so great. During the 60s-80s of the nineteenth century, about 200 million individuals died in Europe alone. Outbreaks of the disease were regularly observed in Asia and the Far East.
Spread and frequency
In our century, most often the plague appears in African and Asian countries. Such cases are noted in the powers, where the maintenance of the virus is provided by a population of wild fauna. According to information collected by the OIE, in 1976-1980, about 15 powers in Africa remained extremely unfavorable on the issue of the plague, where outbreaks of disease were observed every year. Most often this happened in Sudan.
Among Asian countries, plague is common in 12 countries, of which eight occur in the territory of the Middle East. The most pressing problem for India and Kuwait.
To study the characteristics of the course of the disease, healthy individuals were infected with the plague pathogen. Tests have shown: the duration of the hidden period reaches a week. With natural infection, the interval varies from three days to two and a half weeks. The flow is usually acute, somewhat less often - subacute, hyperacute. As a rule, fever is observed first, fever persists for several days, some relief is possible in the morning. Sick individual publishes tooth gnash, ruffles wool. The mirror of the nose is dry, on the mucous eyes, nose, mouth are visible foci of inflammation. You can see separate areas of redness, often near the gums, nodules of gray and yellowish tint are gradually formed. The epithelium dies off, forming a yellow cyst with a specific smell, the ulcers appearing at the same time are characterized by uneven edges. Saliva is abundantly separated from the animal, eyes, nasal mucous membranes are inflamed, vaginitis is observed. First, the nature of serous, gradually appear purulent discharge.
With consistently unfavorable conditions, benign forms are more often observed due to residual immunity. At the same time, the symptoms are rather weak, on the mucous membranes there are usually no foci of necrosis, there is a probability of complete recovery. Fatal cases mainly occur in young animals, their frequency does not exceed 40%.
Infectious diseases - symptoms and treatment
Infectious diseases are dangerous due to the rapid spread and high probability of infection of the entire herd.
The most common infectious diseases of cattle include (picture 1):
- Leukemia - A chronic disease that is provoked by a virus that affects the hematopoietic system. The danger of leukemia is that it is almost impossible to determine at the initial stage. At the end of the development of the disease, the lymph nodes and spleen are enlarged, the animal is gradually depleted and may die. There is no effective treatment of leukemia, so you need to adhere to the rules of keeping and regularly carry out a blood test for culling young animals and adult animals.
- Leptospirosis - an infectious disease affecting adults and calves. Infected animals for a short time the temperature rises, jaundice and digestive disorders may occur. For the treatment, a special serum and antibiotics are administered, and for prevention, a grazing site and a watering place are checked.
- Actinomycosis provoked by a fungus that enters the body of the animal through wounds. The disease is accompanied by the appearance of a neoplasm, which gradually turns into a fistula that makes breathing and feeding difficult. Surgical removal of the fistula is considered the best treatment, but antibiotics can be used in the initial stages.
Non-contagious diseases are also dangerous, although they are not capable of leading to a massive loss of livestock. Non-communicable diseases include:
This disorder happens if the cow was fed with small potatoes or unground chopped roots. It is quite simple to notice the obstruction of the esophagus: saliva is abundantly flowing in an animal, the gum stops, the cow becomes restless, and the left flank may swell due to the accumulation of gas in the rumen.Figure 2. Eliminating esophageal blockage
To eliminate the blockage, you need to pour a little vegetable oil into the animal’s mouth (opening its mouth and stretching its tongue). When the belching begins, the stuck food can come out on its own, but it is better to press the esophagus a little outside.
If the blockage has occurred in the lower part of the esophagus, it can be eliminated only by pushing the feed into the stomach with a special tool. This manipulation can only be done by a veterinarian (Figure 2).
Calves to prevent blockage of the esophagus should not be given on an empty stomach, small potatoes, cabbage stalks or root vegetables. All such feed before grinding should be finely chopped.
Occurs when a foreign body gets into the net if the cow has eaten hay or grass containing nails, wire or other objects. In this case, the animal stands with its legs wide apart and its back arched, very carefully moving and groaning when lifting. The gum may be weak or completely absent.
Often, in this case, the individual has to be sent for slaughter, so for prevention, you need to carefully check the feed before issuing, and feed the feed through a sieve.
Afterbirth delay is a common complication of calving, which occurs in weak and emaciated females. Normally, the afterbirth should be separated almost immediately after calving, but if this did not happen within 6-8 hours, you should contact your veterinarian (Figure 3).
Maternity paresis most often affects well-fed and productive individuals from five to nine years. Often, the first signs of maternity paresis appear within a few days (Figure 4).
Symptoms of the disease include:
- Decreased appetite and complete cessation of gum,
- The cow becomes restless and constantly shifts from foot to foot,
- The ass becomes shaky, the muscles tremble,
- As the disease progresses, the animal begins to fall on its side and lies, stretching its legs and throwing back its head,
- Breathing slow, with wheezing,
- Reduced skin sensitivity and body temperature
- Skin, ears and horns are getting cold.
The danger of the disease is that it develops very rapidly, and the death of a cow can already occur within two days. Therefore, when detecting the first signs of indisposition, you should immediately contact a veterinarian.
Endometritis also belongs to gynecological diseases. This is a disease of the mucous membrane of the uterus, which occurs with injuries and inflammation of the organ. Endometritis usually develops in a complicated hotel, after undergoing an abortion or an infectious disease.
Symptoms of endometritis in cows include:
- Slight increase in body temperature
- Reduced appetite and milk yields,
- Bloody discharge from the uterus, sometimes with an admixture of pus.
For treatment use ichthyol, antibiotics and iodine preparations. In order to prevent the development of the disease, you need to carefully monitor the state of the pregnant female and call the veterinarian for the correct implementation of complicated calving.
Hoof diseases in cows
Diseases of the hoofs of cows do not lead to death, but they can significantly reduce the productivity of animals. Common hoof diseases include (Figure 5):
- Corolla cellulitis - This is an inflammation of the hoof tissue that occurs when bruises and microbes get into the wound. The cow begins to limp, the tissues of the hoof swell, the animal becomes depressed and the milk yield decreases. Alcohol compresses and regular washing of the affected hoof are used for treatment. In addition, the animal must be transferred to a separate room and kept on a clean litter.
- Laminitis accompanied by the accumulation of fluid and blood in the tissues of the hoof. Without treatment, this disease can lead to deformity of the hoof. Provocative factors are improper nutrition and failure to comply with hygienic standards of content. At the initial stages, the cow begins to limp, refuses to step on the bad leg, and later an open wound appears at the site of the lesion. To get rid of laminitis, the hoof is trimmed, washed and improves hygienic conditions.
- Strawberry disease got its name because of the characteristic tumors on the skin of the foot near the hoof. It is covered with small red bumps. It is usually sufficient to improve the conditions of maintenance and feeding, and the disease will pass on its own.
In addition to the hoof diseases described above, cows can receive various injuries and injuries that also require treatment. In most cases, hoof diseases require a review of the diet and improved housing conditions.
The video shows how to eliminate one of the common diseases of cows - purulent arthritis.
The ph changes in the blood, the activity of biological catalysts is blocked, toxins accumulate, the cow loses up to 3 kg of weight per day. From the mouth it smells like acetone. To facilitate the course of the disease, the cow is fed good hay, vegetable oils, full-fat soybeans. Corn concentrates are preferable to wheat and barley.
Ketosis provokes the following non-communicable diseases:
- Milk fever.
- Detention of an afterbirth.
- Acidosis of the scar.
Detention of an afterbirth
The reason lies in the wrong diet. The poor quality of bulky food, carotene deficiency causes a violation of scar digestion, leading to inflammatory processes of the reproductive organs and difficult labor. As a result, there is no timely separation of the placenta from the uterine wall. Removing the delayed afterbirth mechanically almost always ends with endometritis.
Occurs when labor is complicated - large-fruited, unconventional presentation, delayed separation of the placenta. At the same time, moderate hyperthermia, a drop in milk yield and an appetite loss are observed. From the vulva stands bloody contents with an unpleasant smell.
The treatment consists in providing nutrition, injecting antimicrobial anti-blogging agents into the uterine cavity.
Udder inflammation develops due to stagnation of the contents of the milk tank. Lactobacillus gland is associated with the genitals. Therefore, any inflammatory processes in them, as well as injuries or infections provoke the occurrence of mastitis. Milk becomes unsuitable for food purposes.
Cow veterinary medicine is the ability to manage the processes of cicatricial digestion. The oxidation of the foregut arises from an attempt to balance the diet consisting of low-volume bulky food. Calorie increase by making concentrates. Rapid fermentation develops with the formation of large amounts of lactic acid. The ph of the rumen falls, the microflora perishes, the gum stops, saliva is released in insufficient quantities. There are diarrheas, endotoxins are synthesized, which get into the tissues of the hoofs and cause their inflammation - laminitis.
Prevention consists in the modification of starch of cereal feeds by means of heat treatment - granulation or extrusion.
The cause of laminitis becomes scar acidosis. Dirt, maceration, avitaminosis exacerbate the process. Secondary microflora causes hoof rot and dying of their tissues. The process develops gradually, months pass until clinical symptoms appear. The treatment is carried out with the help of antimicrobial drugs, surgical wound cleaning, antiseptic stimulants.
Among the diseases of the digestive tract of cows note the following:
- Tympania of the scar. Occurs when shepherding legumes with dew or frost, eating wet grass. Rapid fermentation develops with the formation of sphincter blocking foam. Gum disappears and left side swells. The pathology is eliminated, forcing the cow to move actively, Timpanol is introduced, which is able to stop gas formation. You can also make a puncture and carefully bleed gases. To prevent timpani, the cow before the pasture is fed with grass hay. Wait until pasture dries.
- Poisoning. It is characterized by lack of appetite and chewing gum, impaired coordination of movements. Occurs when fed to cattle that are clogged with seed grain or eating poisonous plants in a pasture. Concentrates should be checked for suitability for feeding, and before shepherding, give hay to the cow. Try not to use marshy and wooded land.
Diseases of cattle occur mainly due to violation of the rules of feeding and housing. Infectious pathologies occur primarily in animals with immunity, weakened unbalanced diet and poor zoohygienic conditions.
This disease is characteristic of calves who have been transferred from milk to vegetable feed or when fed with poor feed. Most often, animals get sick with gastroenteritis in spring and autumn.
In spring, cows and calves can graze along with grass on the ground and in the fall, when the temperature drops, the chemical composition of the grass changes.
The main signals of the presence of this disease are diarrhea, lack of activity and chewing gum in an animal. Often the animal does not even rise to its feet.
If the calf is sick with gastroenteritis, then it can not be fed 1 - 1.5 days after the detection of the disease. Cattle should be given either a laxative or castor oil in the amount of 50 - 80 ml twice a day.
В период болезни животных нужно поить отваром льняного семени или овсяным отваром. Кормить же можно хорошим сеном или овсяным толокном.