Sunflower meal is a rather valuable feed product that is widely used in agriculture. Thanks to the use of sunflower meal, it is possible to significantly increase the productivity of birds and animals.
In this article we will tell about sunflower meal, what it is and how it should be used.
Sunflower meal - what is it?
Few know what sunflower meal is. Sunflower meal is one of the results of processing in the manufacture of sunflower oil, which is obtained in the process of pressing and subsequent extraction of sunflower seeds. Pressing is the process by which oil is squeezed out of sunflower seeds. And extraction is the release of residual oil after pressing the seeds with organic solvents. As a result, in the sunflower meal after pressing the residual oil is at the level of 1.5-2%. Sunflower meal density - 600 kg / m3.
Useful properties and composition of sunflower meal
The composition of sunflower meal contains up to 2% oil, as well as 30-42% protein and fiber.
Did you know?Carbohydrates, which are part of the meal, are presented in the form of sucrose. Also, sunflower meal contains in its composition phosphorus, vitamins B and E and other minerals, which is why it is so indispensable as an additive in compound feed for pigs, cattle and birds. Due to the high content of methionine in the meal, it has a good effect on the development and growth of young animals. Unlike sunflower meal, the meal contains much more crude protein. The husk is also contained in the meal, but not more than 16%, but today they also produce sunflower meal without the husk.
The composition has a deficiency in lysine, but sunflower meal almost does not contain anti-nutritional substances, unlike other types of meal. Compared with soybean meal, in a sunflower arabinoxylan index is 117, this provides high digestibility of protein. Also, sunflower meal contains much more vitamin B than soy.
Who can give sunflower meal
If you use sunflower meal as food, it increases the productivity of animals, and also improves the quality of livestock products. For example, cows increase the fat content in milk and daily milk yield. The main consumers of sunflower meal are poultry, namely broiler chickens. Begin to use it already from the age of 7 days of chickens.
Unlike other types of meal, the advantage of sunflower is that it has a high resistance to mycotoxins, which, in turn, virtually eliminates the possibility of damage from its use.
For poultry it is best to choose the meal with a minimum amount of husk.
Did you know?If you feed laying hens with sunflower-based meal with a high level of fiber, the daily weight gain and feed consumption is significantly reduced.
Norms of adding meal to the "menu" of animals
We found out what meals are, but it is also important to understand in what quantities to add them to the diet. The quality of sunflower meal is very dependent on the proportion of shells that are in it. Crude fiber in it is about 18%, so when preparing feed formulations for pigs, this is a limiting factor, and it is necessary to enrich the sunflower meal with other additives. Sunflower meal is very rich in methionine.
Young cattle are given up to 1-1.5 kg of sunflower meal, for cows - 2.5-3 kg each, and for pigs - up to 0.5-1.5 kg. In the summer, laying hens can be given up to 35 g of sunflower meal per individual, and in winter up to 10 g. The proportion of sunflower meal is 0.6 g / m3, it must be given dry, after grinding, or wetted, previously distribution to animals.
Harmful properties of sunflower meal: what can harm the excessive use of the product
How to get and how to use sunflower meal, we figured out. It is an excellent dietary supplement for both birds and livestock. With all its beneficial properties, a small amount of useless or harmful components may be contained in sunflower meal, for example, mercury, lead, nitrates, T-2 toxins.
Important!The permissible percentage of these components is determined by GOST Impurities such as earth, pebbles or glass should not be contained in sunflower meal. Therefore, if you decide to purchase sunflower meal, then choose a trusted manufacturer so that it will be produced according to GOST.
Sunflower Meal Storage Conditions
Sunflower meal can be stored in bulk in covered rooms or in piles in bags. Direct sunlight should not fall on the product. The room in which the sunflower meal is stored must be equipped with a ventilation system. If the meal is stored in bulk, it must be periodically mixed. And if in bags, then they should lie on pallets or racks. Also, the meal should not be heated by more than 5 ° C compared to the ambient temperature.
Important!The moisture content of sunflower meal should not exceed 6%, otherwise the product will begin to rot and mold. If the meal was made according to the requirements of GOST, then its shelf life is 3 years. The hazard class of sunflower meal is 5th, that is, the degree of environmental impact is minimal.
Application of meal is demanded as a forage for growth of animals, birds. The product is good for normal growth. It has a lot of useful substances needed by living organisms. On farms, animals give exactly sunflower meal. The protein contained in the product serves to gain muscle mass and improve growth.
The protein product contains up to 60%. Moreover, proteins are complete amino acid content. For them, the meal is even more useful than cereals. Protein is enriched with amino acids such as cystine, lysine, traptophan and methionine. The product includes another valuable component - fiber. It is necessary for good digestibility of food.
Sunflower meal includes mineral trace elements. This feed is enriched with phosphorus and potassium. It has zinc, manganese, iron, copper, cobalt. From vitamins, meal includes B, E and A. There is also oil residue in the meal. Quality is better than feed.
Sunflower meal as a product has the following advantages:
- Improves the metabolism of animals.
- Increases the digestibility of other foods.
- Reduces the risk of death.
- Restores daily average gain.
- Strengthens the immune system.
- Improves condition.
- Improves the quality of meat and milk.
Adult animals feed is better absorbed in the crushed form, and the young product is given in ground form (dry and moist). Meal is a part of mash.
Animals should be given high-quality sunflower meal. GOST 11246-96 determines its compliance with these norms. The product is presented in the form of a gray or brown mass, which consists of oil, fiber and trace elements. The composition of sunflower meal is enriched with the elements necessary for birds and animals:
- Protein - from 39%.
- Cellulose - up to 23%.
- The energy value is 0.968.
- Raw fat - 1.48.
- Ash - up to 1%.
If the product is such a composition, then it is suitable for the requirements of GOST. The meal sold in our country is of high quality. Its composition is governed by GOST 13496.
Sunflower granulated meal is considered a very useful product. Because of its unique composition, it is used in animal husbandry, as well as in poultry farming. But, like any product, the meal may include some harmful substances. Their allowable amount is set by the state standard.
The product may contain:
- Residual solvent - 0.1%.
- Lead - 0.5%.
- Mercury - 0.02%.
- Nitrates - 450 mg / kg.
- T-2 toxin - 0.1%.
- Volatile matter and moisture - 7-10%.
The composition of the feed should not be impurities in the form of glass, earth or stones. Humidity can not be more than 6%, otherwise the meal becomes moldy and rotting.
Meal is produced in different countries of the world. And Russia is on the leading positions. Also, the product is produced in Ukraine. Argentina, South Africa. In Russia, the meal is produced by oil extraction plants and fat plants. Popular manufacturers include:
- MEZ "South of Russia".
- "Atkarsky MEZ".
Major suppliers of meal are such companies as "August Agro", TC "Agroresurs", "Vesta". The Russian Institute of National Problems carried out research on the domestic feed for GMO content.
A blacklist appeared, which included companies for the production of sunflower meal. GMO products were found in the products manufactured by Prioskolye, Cherkizov, BEZRK-Belgrankorm. Although the content of such components is not prohibited, but the listed companies did not notify the buyer.
The rules established by standards, enterprises must comply not only with the composition of products. GOST regulates quality:
- Raw materials used for making meal. Seeds must be according to GOST 22391.
- Packages: packaged meal in paper bags, suitable for the standards of GOST 2226. The mass of products can not be more than 30 kg. Meal can be sold in bulk.
- Marking is applied according to GOST 14192. Bags must contain the inscription "Keep out of moisture." If products are sold in bulk, then the specifications should be indicated in the documentation.
In bags there can be granulated and bulk meal. The cost of production is different, depending on the manufacturer, which produces sunflower meal. The price is in the range of 10 - 15 thousand rubles per ton.
Meal and cake
Sunflower seeds are used to prepare other healthy food - cake. Compared to the meal, it has a different production option. Cake is created by squeezing seeds. Extraction with it is not performed. Therefore, the products differ in composition. In the cake there is more valuable components. It is added to the feed.
What is sunflower cake?
Sunflower cake is obtained by squeezing seed oil. In fact, these are residues of seeds that were pressed during the extraction of oil from them. Cake is made in one of three forms: granules, pressed plates, scattering. The quality of the cake as feed is determined by the type of sunflower seeds and the process of obtaining oil from them.
Sunflower cake has a rich composition.
- 30-40% protein,
- up to 11% water
- 7-15% crude fat,
- 6-7% of mineral substances
- 5-18% fiber,
- There are vitamins A, B, E. 1 kg of the product contains: up to 14 mg of pantothenic acid, 0.3 mg of carotene, up to 48 mg of nicotinic acid, 6-9 mg of riboflavin, 13 mg of thiamine.
There is a lot of protein and fat in oil cake, which makes it beneficial for agricultural animals. It has a high energy value and a low degree of oxidation, so this additive allows animals and birds to fill up more quickly, and it is beneficial for the breeder. A small amount of fiber can be explained by the fact that when grinding the seeds of sunflower, husk leaves by itself, and in fact it contains the most fiber.
Why used in agriculture?
Sunflower cake is one of the most affordable and very useful components of the diet of animals and birds, so it is very popular in agriculture. What is its benefit?
- It has many nutrients needed for both cattle and poultry, pigs, rabbits,
- A positive effect on the egg production of birds (ducks, chickens, geese, turkeys),
- Increases the reproductive function of animals and birds
- Normalizes the body's metabolic processes,
- Sunflower cake is one of the factors of rapid growth of young animals,
- Reduces the risk of disease, even during epidemics.
Norms of sunflower meal in the diet
Depending on the type of living creatures, sunflower cake is given in a specific dosage. However, cake is a mandatory additive of almost any feed. So before including it in the diet of a bird or animal, you need to check the composition of the feed, if any. Below is the concentration of meal in the daily diet for certain animals and birds.
- Chickens give up to 15%, and adult chickens - up to 20%. In the composition of feed for adult chickens cake until 8%,
- In the diet of geese of adolescence include up to 17% of sunflower cake from the daily amount of food,
- Ducks for laying hens need up to 8% in the diet. The amount of supplement for young stock is 3-7%,
- For a fattening turkey, 8-15% of the supplement will be enough in the diet, and for young stock, the amount will be reduced to 5-7%,
- For young calves per day, up to 1.5 kg of sunflower cake is mixed into the diet (20% of the total feed). An adult cow or bull needs up to 25% of the meal every day. Dairy cows are given approximately 4 kg of cake per day. Such a large number is due to the fact that the cow is weakened during lactation. The abundance of oil cake improves the quality of milk, has a positive effect on the health of the cow (increases the body's defenses).
- The daily dose for a growing pig is 200-300 g. For a pregnant and nursing female, 400-600 g of oilcake per head. For fattening pigs give from 0.5 to 1 kg of cake daily,
- In the feed of horses, cake is 20%. On a day, a working stallion needs up to 3 kg of supplement,
- Rabbits from 35 to 160 days give 10-13% of the additive from the total daily allowance of feed,
- The daily rate of meal for an adult goat is 0.3-0.5 kg, and for the young - 0.2-0.3 kg,
- A sheep should consume per day an average of 10% sunflower cake, for the normal functioning of its body and the rapid growth of wool.
Sunflower cake storage
The cake, despite its advantage, has one major drawback - it can be very difficult to store it if there is no suitable room and the ability to adjust humidity and temperature. In winter, the cake quickly deteriorates, and spoiled, it is no good for anything.
To sunflower cake does not spoil, it is necessary to provide him with appropriate storage conditions.
- Before storage, it is heated in winter to +35 degrees Celsius, and in summer - 5 degrees above ambient temperature,
- Store the cake in bags stacked in piles or in bulk. In the latter case, it is necessary to mix (pour) from time to time,
- Humidity should not exceed 12%. If the humidity is higher, it will rot, mold, the taste will become bitter,
- In the room where the cake is stored, there should be an established ventilation system,
- Raw materials should not be near heat or lie in direct sunlight.
Dangerous properties of the cake
Using sunflower cake as an additive in the diet of agricultural poultry, it is worth remembering that, like any other product, it can be harmful, if not comply with the rules.
If you give plenty of cake, a product obtained from an animal or bird (meat, lard, eggs, milk) may have a bad taste or smell. In addition, overdose will adversely affect the health of the animal.
If the breeder feeds poor (sour, sour, moldy) sunflower cake, it can also have a bad effect on the health of the animal. So the benefits of this product can not be overestimated, but you need to use it, like any other product, correctly.
Sunflower meal is presented as a by-product of the manufacture of sunflower oil. Raw materials are ordinary seeds. According to the properties of the finished product is like a cake. Meal happens:
Though the products look alike, their composition is different. Protein is found in large quantities in sunflower and soybean meal. They also have vitamins B and E, phosphorus and potassium. Each of these products is wholesome. If animals receive different types of meal, they will develop fully.
So, in the meal includes seeds. Apply products for feeding animals began long ago. Sunflower was first grown in North America. There is evidence that it has been cultivated there for more than 5 thousand years. In Europe, the plant appeared around 1500, thanks to the importation of seeds by the Spaniards. In Russia, the sunflower was used as an oilseed crop.
In 1900, our breeders began to introduce new varieties. Their seeds contained up to 60% oil, and earlier they contained about 28%. In addition to sunflower, other types of meal are now being produced. For example, soy. This is a very useful feed. But many GMO soybeans are produced. But with the sunflower geneticists breeders almost do not work. Farmers produce common varieties and hybrids. Sunflower is better than soy because of its unpretentiousness to the soil and climate.
Sunflower meal transportation is carried out by different types of transport. It is only important that it be disinfected and clean. Meal is stored in bulk in covered rooms. Products must not be exposed to sunlight.
Warehouse for feed storage should be equipped with ventilation. Bulk meal should be mixed regularly. Bags should be placed on racks or pallets. Do not allow the heating of the meal more than 5 degrees, compared with the environment. Store products must according to GOST 3 years.
Choice of feed
Feed for farm animals help them develop properly. Only then can we expect good results from animal husbandry. When raising animals, feeding is important, as it affects growth and development. Therefore, the choice of food in which the necessary vitamins and minerals are essential is so important.
Many different types of feed are being produced now. There are also various feeding methods. Их подбор является важной процедурой. Выбирать корма для сельскохозяйственных животных надо на основе:
- Поло-возрастных признаков.
- Направления скотоводства.
It is important to choose foods that are enriched with vitamins and minerals. It is also important to choose a feeding schedule and ensure the supply of drinking water. Its consumption is determined by the time of year, sex and age characteristics. Approximately 4-20 liters of fluid is required. Whatever feed is used, it is periodically necessary to make adjustments to the diet.
Types of feed
There are many types of pet food. Feed rye is considered the main cereal. The product is rich in protein. Grain is used as a concentrated feed in livestock.
Fodder corn is also used as animal feed. It is concentrated and coarse. Products are used as the main feed. Corn is considered a universal cereal that enriches animals with essential vitamins.
In pig and poultry farming, fodder barley is used. It has proteins, carbohydrates, fiber. It also contains amino acids. The animals are fed with beet molasses, which is obtained from beets using starch hydrolysis. Usually it is added to the combined animal feed. Molasses is enriched with mineral and nutritional components.
Beet pulp is obtained by extracting sugar from sugar beet. The main value of the product is a large amount of carbohydrates. Animal nutrition should be of high quality and diverse, therefore, in the diet include a variety of food, like meal. This allows you to grow healthy and strong livestock.
Types of meal [edit | edit code]| edit code]
- Soybean meal. The most popular type of meal is high-protein soybean meal. Its annual production exceeds 130 million tons. The largest producer of soybean meal is the United States. The country produces almost a third of the total world volume. And the USA, Brazil, China and Argentina account for 3/4 of the annual world production. However, if the USA and China mainly consume the produced meal, then Brazil and Argentina are its largest exporters, providing 2/3 of the world export volume, while Argentina’s share is 40%. The main buyers of soybean meal are the countries of Europe and Southeast Asia.
According to GOST R 53799-2010 Soybean meal is divided into non-enriched and enriched. There are 6 brands of soybean meal Basic, Standard Protein, High Protein, Enriched with Lipids, Standard Protein Enriched with Lipids and High Protein Enriched with Lipids. The protein content in different brands of soybean meal should be in the range from 42% to 54%. Humidity not more than 12%
- Rapeseed meal. Rapeseed meal in the greatest amount is produced by China for its own needs. The annual world production of rapeseed meal is almost 20 million tons, of which almost 6.5 million are produced in China. But of these, only 200 thousand tons are exported. The largest exporters are Germany and Canada. Germany ranks second in its production and provides 35% of world exports. Canada is among the five largest producers and its share in the global export of rapeseed meal is 20%. The main consumers of this type of meal are China, Germany, India (the country also has the ability to cover its needs with its own production), as well as the USA and EU countries.
- Sunflower meal. The top three in production is as follows - Argentina, Russian Federation, Ukraine. The global annual production of sunflower meal is more than 9 million tons, of which more than 40% falls to the share of the above-mentioned countries. Argentina has an undoubted leadership in sales of sunflower meal, exporting almost 90% of the production. This represents almost 50% of global exports. The regulatory document regulating the quality of sunflower meal of different types - GOST 11246-96.
In the Russian Federation, more than 1 million tons of sunflower and rapeseed meal is produced annually. A part of the produced sunflower meal is exported to the countries of Asia and Europe. To ensure a solid feed base for livestock and poultry, large volumes of soybean meal are constantly imported into Russia. It pays attention to the production of sunflower meal and one of the largest producers of soybean and rapeseed meals - China. More than 400 thousand tons of sunflower meal is produced annually in the country, which is almost completely consumed in the domestic market.
Application and benefits of meals
Meal is mainly used as feed for farm animals, as a valuable high-protein product. It is included in the diet of animals, birds, fish, both in pure form and in the form of additives in the feed. Application of meal in feeding, cattle increases the productivity of animals (daily cows' milk yield), improves the quality of livestock products (increases the fat content of milk). When feeding with an agricultural bird the most valuable meal with a smaller amount of husk. Since the waste of oilseeds may contain substances that are harmful or have no feed value, benefit meal bring only in strict compliance with the rules of adding to the feed.
The benefits of sunflower meal
Sunflower fodder meal claims a dominant role as an ingredient in birdseed. They can replace soybean meal from 50% to 100% in the composition of feed for laying hens and broiler chickens. Amino acids of sunflower meal are similar in their availability to soybean analogues and are ahead of cotton and rapeseed. Its lysine content is low, but this is usually blocked by artificial introduction of lysine into the product. For a better assimilation of nutrients, it is necessary to achieve maximum screening of seed husks at the stage of extraction of sunflower oil. A high level of fiber content in the meal (more than 12%) is a hypertrophied volume of forage, and the rate of its inclusion in the diet of an animal or bird is quite large, and nutrients in such a case may not be fully absorbed by the body. This problem is especially acute in broiler chickens. If the level of fiber in it still exceeds acceptable performance, the situation will save the granulation of food.